Children without parents were separated into orphanages. The disabled were viewed as an inconvenience and the mentally disabled specifically were seen as morally lacking. The mentally ill within institutions were treated inhumanely.
The founding of the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Conn., in 1817 was a crucial milestone in the way society related to people with disabilities. The time and place are significant because it was a unique conjunction of different currents which led to the school's establishment.
The experiment aroused great interest. Governor Oliver Wolcott, in an 1818 proclamation, asked the public, "to aid . . . in elevating the condition of a class of mankind, who have been heretofore considered as incapable of mental improvement, but who are now found to be susceptible of instruction in the various arts and sciences, and of extensive attainments in moral and religious truth." His words express the great change in attitude toward deaf people which had only just occurred.
In 1837 Dix discovers the treatment of those within mental institutions and begins to advocate on behalf of the population
In 1854 President Franklin Pierce vetoed proposed bill for funding to states for mental health reform due to economic feasibility and an ideology that the federal government should not be responsible for this type of funding.
Eugenics: a science that deals with the improvement (as by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed.
Supporters of this view point led to laws that forced the sterilization of of many Americans with disabilities.
It is now mandatory in all states for all children up until age 14 to attend school.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor Standards Act, which includes limits on many forms of child labor allowing more children, especially of vulnerable populations the time to attend school.
In December, 1952, the U.S. Supreme Court had on its docket cases from Kansas, Delaware, the District of Columbia, South Carolina, and Virginia, all of which challenged the constitutionality of racial segregation in public schools. The U.S. Supreme Court had consolidated these five cases under one name, Oliver Brown et al. v. the Board of Education of Topeka. It was found that state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional
The provisions of this civil rights act forbade discrimination on the basis of sex as well as race in hiring, promoting, and firing, the word "sex" was added at the last moment, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions or privileges or employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." The final bill also allowed sex to be a consideration when sex is a bona fide occupational qualification for the job.
Congress creates a Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (this bureau today is called the Office of Special Education Programs or OSEP).
As part of President Johnson's "War on Poverty" education is now officially federally funded with emphasis on "closing the gaps."
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is enacted into statute. This national law protects qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability.
Parents are allowed to have access to all personally identifiable information collected, maintained, or used by a school district regarding their child.
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act is passed by the U.S. Congress, creating the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect and other steps designed to increase children's rights and reduce child neglect and abuse. Schools and centers of education are now responsible to prevent child abuse.
Shortly after within a Juvenile law it becomes federal law for ALL PERSONS that suspect child abuse whether professional or not, to report it.
Federal law that supports special education and related service programming for children and youth with disabilities. It was originally known as the Education of Handicapped Children Act, passed in 1975. In 1990, amendments to the law were passed, effectively changing the name to IDEA. In 1997 and again in 2004, additional amendments were passed to ensure equal access to education.
ADA adopts the Section 504 regulations as part of the ADA statute. In turn, numerous “504 Plans” for individual students start to become more common place in school districts.
The EAHCA is amended and is now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). School Districts were now required to look at outcomes and assisting students with disabilities in transitioning from high school to post secondary life.
This amendment calls for students with disabilities to be included in on state and district-wide assessments. Also, Regular Education Teachers are now required to be a member of the IEP team.
This law, enacted by President George W. Bush, called for all students, including students with disabilities, to be proficient in math and reading by the year 2014. Largely unfunded mandate.
There are several changes from the 1997 reauthorization. The biggest changes call for more accountability at the state and local levels, as more data on outcomes is required. Another notable change involves school districts providing adequate instruction and intervention for students to help keep them out of special education.