Federal Acts and Court Cases Involving Federal Role in Public Education

http://www.lwv.org/content/role-federal-government-public-education%C2%A0-historical-perspectives

Main

Land Ordinance & Northwest Ordinance

1785

Required a system of public education to be established in each township formed under a specified formula. Regulated monies raised via selling or renting land, or taxes.

Early philosophy – first six presidents

1790 - 1820

Discussed a national university and urged federal involvement in public education. Seen as critical to preparation for citizenship in a republican form of government.

Land Grants

1841

Congress granted 77+ million acres of land in the public domain as endowments for support of schools. Federal government also granted surplus money to states for public education.

First Morrill Act otherwise known as the Land Grant Act

1862

Donated public lands to states to be used for the endowment to support and maintain at least one college with specific purpose of teaching agriculture, mechanic arts and industrial education.

The original Department (Office) of Education established

1867

Began to collect data – information on schools and teaching that would help states establish effective school systems.

Second Morrill Act

1890

Gave the Office of Education responsibility for administering support for the original system of land-grant colleges.

Smith-Hughes Act

1917

Promoted vocational schools. Repealed 1997.

Lanham Act

1941

Eased the burden on communities affected by presence of military and federal installations through payments to school districts.

GI Bill

1944

Provided post secondary education assistance to GIs returning from WW II.

George-Barden Act

1946

Provided funding for agricultural, industrial and home economics training for high school students.

Impact Aid laws

1950

1950

Eased the burden on communities affected by presence of military and federal installations through payments to school districts.

National Defense Education Act

1958

In response to Soviet Sputnik. NDEA included support for loans to college students in science, mathematics and foreign languages.

Elementary and Secondary Education Act

1965

Established comprehensive set of programs, including Title I of federal aid to disadvantaged.

Title IX

1972

Prohibited discrimination in education based on gender.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

1973

Prohibited discrimination based on disability.

Department of Education made a cabinet level agency

1980

Recognized the important role of public education.

Educational Testing Service (ETS)

1983

Federal government transferred responsibility for administering the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to ETS.

Nation at Risk

1983

Published report indicating that the United States was falling behind in education achievement.

President G.H. Bush

1989 - 1992

“Indian Education Bill of Rights”
K-12 Drug awareness model.
Advisory committee on Hispanic education.
America 2000 education reform program.
Work began on national standards.

President W. Clinton

1993 - 1999

Academics 2000 offered grants to states and local school districts for innovative programs.

President G.W. Bush

2001 - 2008

Reauthorization of ESEA –No Child Left Behind.

President Barack Obama

2009

President Obama’s Blueprint for Reform – Reauthorization of ESEA.
Race to the Top: Grants awarded to states with innovative ideas that accepted the Common Core Standards.