Qing Dynasty is declining and Europe industrializes
Europe Demands more trading rights
1760 - 1800
1770 - 1836
In late 700's, British began selling opium that was grown in India to China. By early 1800's many Chinese had become addicted. Opium drained China's supply of silver, which was used to pay for the drug.
Opium war breaks out
Chinese destroy a British shipment of opium, british defeat chinese easily
1851 - 1865
More than 20 million people were killed in the struggle, Qing crushed rebels, the fighting weakened the Dynasty
Sphere of Influence
1870 - 1900
Westerners gain economic privileges and political influence over china
Japan defeats China in Sino-Japanese war
as a result, Japan wins formosa (present day Taiwan) and extended it's influence to Korea
Guang Xi supports hundred days of reform
He issued laws to update the civil service exam, organize western style schools and promote economic changes
Ci Xi comes to power
Ci Xi seized power as empress and ended influence of moderate reformers
Boxers attack Chinese Christians & foreigners
Empress secretly encouraged the boxers, who were formed as the Fists of Righteous Harmony, but nicknamed "Boxers" by the westerners
Revolution of 1911/China becomes republic
1911, China Declares itself a republic. They had no well organized government to replace the Qing Dynasty.
Sun Yatsen serves as president (briefly)
he helped organize nationalist party (Guomindang) had struggle against the Qing dynasty, but when the Qing Dynasty collapsed he returned from the united states to china at once. 3 principles (nationalism, democracy, livelihood)
1911 - 1928
Country seems ready to break into pieces, power struggle over who rules China.
Yuan Shikai forces Sun out of power
Warloards and regional leaders with their own army battle for power in china
Mao Zedong becomes Communist party leader.
1920 - 1935
Mao believed that communists would succeed in China by winning the support of the peasants. Communists paid peasants for the food their forces required (in the army), and with their support Mao's army grew.
Chinese Communist Party Formed
& joins forces with the Nationalists to expel foreigners and fight the warlords. Hoped to win control of the Nationalist party by working from within.
Sun Yatsen dies
oppoints Chiang Kai-shek as energetic young officers to command the nationalist army, but when Yatsen dies Kai-shek takes over
Chiang expells communists from Guomindang
He killed thousands of their supporters, the surviving communists fled to the mountains of southeastern China
1931 - 1937
Japanese seize Manchuria in 1931, japanese launch all out war against china in 1937.
1934 - 1935
Chiang launches attack against communists (who were greatly outnumbered). Communists, lead by Mao, trekked 6,000 miles from southeastern China to northwestern China to the province of Shaanxi.