Sugar a Global Commodity

Entrepreneurs

The New World

1493

In 1493 Christopher Columbus played a part by bringing sugar seedlings to parts of the New World

Dutch Takeover

1630 - 1639

Dutch West India Company was sent to secure areas of Brazil and they were successful in the 1630s and gained control of a large portion of Brazil and practically owned the sugar business at this point.

James Drax

1642

James Drax started the Sugar industry in Barbados. He was one of the leading pioneers of the sugar industry.

Andreas Sigismund Marggraf

1709 - 1782

German Chemist that discovered sucrose in beet root.

Franz Karl Achard

1753 - 1821

Built the first sugar beet processing mill.

Edward C. Howard

1774 - 1816

A chemical engineer that partook in the sugar industry, and brought many inventions to the table.

Vacuum Pan

1812

The Vacuum Pan was patented which was used to deal with the distillation of sugar. The Vacuum Pan was created by Edward C. Howard.

Fanjuls "Leave" Cuba

1959

Fidel Castro's rule practically forced the Fanjul family to leave and move to Florida.

Florida Crystals Corporation founded

1960 - 1998

Even though the Fanjuls left their sugar industry behind in Cuba they were still able to create a Sugar empire in America. The family rule over Florida Crystals Corporation and Flo-Sun Incorporated.

Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative of Florida Founded

1960 - 1998

Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative of Florida was founded by George Wedgworth and later merged with Florida Crystal Corp to form the ASR group.

ASR Group Formed

1998 - 2013

The Fanjul's Florida Crystals Corporation and the Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative of Florida merged in order to form the ASR Group.

Economics

Sugar Spreads to India

0500 bc

After cultivation in New Guinea the commodity of sugar reached India.

Sugar in Persia

500

Sugar cultivation begins in Persia throughout the 6th century.

Sugar in Brazil

1500

100s of plantations start to sprout in Brazil during the 16th century.

Sugar Act of 1937

1937 - 1948

The Sugar Act of 1937 is in response to the proposed Jones-Costigan Amendment that was overturned in the supreme court. The Act set Quotas for many countries outside the U.S and was a big part of protectionism that the U.S tried to enforce.

Section 202(e)

1948 - 1951

Cut out due to much controversy. This was a form of economic coercion that attempted to get Cuba to do what the U.S wanted.

Sugar Act of 1948

1948 - 1974

Describes how quotas would function with sugar and details countries such as Cuba.

Governmental Impact

Treaty of Tordesillas

1493

Led to the establishment of a string of English, French, and Portuguese forts in Western Africa. Contributed to slowly developing the sugar industry.

Turks Take Syria

1516

When the Turks took Syria in 1516, the Syrian sugar industry collapsed.

English, French and Dutch refining

1600

The English, French, and the Dutch were all in the refining business.

Molasses act

1733

As Sugar grew and the industry became big the molasses act was passed.

U.S V. Butler

1935 - 1936

Jones-Costigan Amendment ruled unconstitutional.

Marxist Cuban Revolution

1953 - 1959

Fidel Castro led a revolution and became in charge of the Cuban government. Relations between Cuba and America at this point began to sour. Led to Sugar Act amendment in 1960.

Florida's attempt to reduce runoff

1994

Florida passed a law requiring sugar planters to reduce their phosphorus runoff by 25 percent.

“the holy grail” of restoration

2008 - 2010

Charlie Crist, governor of Florida, sought to buy out land from the in order to help preserve the everglades. If he was to do this 187,000 acres would be bought. In the end 26,790 were bought due to economic and financial problems.