After a seven-year battle, Zhu Yuanzhang's army ends the rule of the Yuan Dynasty. Several years earlier Zhu had taken his army into Jiqing, established a military base there as part of his plan to control all of China.
Construction starts on the Great Wall of China. It is built to protect the Chinese Empire and will take over 100 years to complete. It is 13,000 miles long.
Zhu takes control of China as the first emperor of the Ming dynasty. He makes Jin Ling, now known as Nanjing, the capital.
In an attempt to cut down on piracy, maritime, or sea, trade is banned in China. The only way that foreigners are allowed into China is if they are from a country that is part of China's trade system called the imperial tributary system. The ban ends in 1405.
Construction begins in Beijing on the imperial palace, known as the Forbidden City. Over 1 million workers and 100,000 artisans work on the palace, which has 9,999 rooms. Today, it is a museum.
Ming armies invade Vietnam and the fourth period of Chinese rule over Vietnam begins. Vietnam remains under Chinese rule until forces led by Le Loi defeat the Ming army in 1428.
An enormous encyclopedia about China called the Yongle Canon is completed after five years. It has 22,877 volumes, about 370 million words, and was written entirely by hand. It is the largest encyclopedia in the world.
The 1,100 mile long Grand Canal is almost completely renovated. An important waterway for trade, the canal climbs into the mountains of Shandong and is admired throughout the world.
Tombs for the 13 emperors of the Ming Dynasty are built at Tianshou Mountain, northwest of Beijing. The placement of the tombs, which covers about 75 square miles, was carefully thought out and shows the Chinese belief in the importance of the relationship between man and nature.
After construction on the Forbidden City is complete, Beijing becomes the new capital of China. It has remained the nation's capital since then and with over 20,000,000 residents is one of the most populated cities in the world.
In the Battle of Tumu Fortress, Mongolia captures Emperor Zhengtong and holds him for ransom. Even Mongolians were surprised that they were able to capture the emperor and he was released four years later, with no ransom paid.
After 30 years, Li Shizhen finishes the Compendium of Materia Medica. It is a book detailing the use of over 18,000 different Chinese medicines and 11,000 formulas for treating disease.
Li Zheng rallies peasants with his promise to divide land equally and eliminating grain taxes. He will lead a peasant army revolt against the Ming Dynasty.
In an effort to prevent Li Zicheng from taking over, the Ming Dynasty floods Kaifeng with water from the Yellow River. Almost have of the 600,000 residents of Kaifeng are killed, making this the worst war act in history.
Li Zicheng's rebel forces march into Beijing and Emperor Chongzhen hangs himself behind the Forbidden City. With the last Ming emperor gone, the Ming Dynasty comes to an end.