A Study of the increasing role of government in the United States

Chapter 9: Origin's of Progressivism


November, 1874

Was organized by women who were concerned about the destructive power of alcohol and the problems it was causing their families and society. These activities are often referred to as the "Women's Crusades" and their success was both the forerunner and impetus for the founding of the WCTU. WCTU members chose total abstinence from all alcohol as their life style and they adopted this definition of temperance: Temperance may be defined as: moderation in all things healthful; total abstinence from all things harmful.

Scientific Management

1880 - 1890

Was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries. Its peak of influence came in the 1910s; by the 1920s, it was still influential but had begun an era of competition and syncretism with opposing or complementary ideas.

Hazen Pingree

1890 - 1920

Was a four-term Republican mayor of Detroit (1889–1897) and the 24th Governor of the US state of Michigan (1897–1901). A Yankee who migrated from New England, he was a social reformer who battled corporations and was an early leader of the Progressive Movement.

Susan B. Anthony


A prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President. She also co-founded the women's rights journal, The Revolution. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year. She was one of the important advocates in leading the way for women's rights to be acknowledged and instituted in the American government.

Rise of Progressive Movement

1890 - 1920

A general political philosophy favoring gradual social, political, and economic reform. Modern Progressivism emerged as part of a more general response to the vast social changes brought by industrialization. Social reform movement in the early 20th century.

Florence Kelley

1890 - 1932

A Social Reformer, work against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour workdays, and children's rights is widely regarded today. From its founding in 1899, Kelley served as the first general secretary of the National Consumers League. In 1909 Kelley helped create the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

John Muir


A Scottish - American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States.

Robert M. LaFollette

1895 - 1925

Progressive Wisconsin governor and Senator. He is best remembered as a proponent of progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations.

President Roosevelt

1901 - 1909

He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity. He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the first incarnation of the short-lived Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party of 1912. Before becoming President, he held offices at the city, state, and federal levels.

Northern Securties Company


An important United States railroad trust formed in 1901 by E. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan, J. D. Rockefeller, and their associates. The company controlled the Northern Pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and other associated lines. The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt, one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor.

1902 Coal Strike


A strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities (homes and apartments were heated with anthracite or "hard" coal because it had higher heat value and less smoke than "soft" or bituminous coal).

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1902

July 2, 1902

A landmark federal statute on United States competition law passed by Congress in 1902. It prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anti-competitive, and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of being in violation. It was the first federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies, and today still forms the basis for most antitrust litigation by the United States federal government.

Elkins Act


United States federal law that amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The Elkins Act authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates. The railroad companies were not permitted to offer rebates. Railroad corporations, their officers, and their employees, were all made liable for discriminatory practices.

HIstory of the Standard Oil Company


A book written by journalist Ida Tarbell in 1904. It was an expose of the Standard Oil Company, run at that time by oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, the richest figure in America's history. Originally serialized in 19 parts in McClure's magazine, the book was a seminal example of muckraking, and inspired many other journalists to write about trusts, large businesses that attempted to gain monopolies in various industries.

Eugene Debs


Was an American Union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.

T.R's "Square Deal"


President Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.

The Jungle


Novel written by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair describing meatpacking. Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the lives of immigrants in the United States.

Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA)


United States Congress Act that works to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also apply to imported meat products, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards. USDA inspection of poultry was added by the Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957.

Pure Food and Drug Act


A key piece of Progressive Era legislation, signed by President Theodore Roosevelt on the same day as the Federal Meat Inspection Act. Enforcement of the Pure Food and Drug Act was assigned to the Bureau of Chemistry in the U.S. Department of Agriculture which was renamed the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1930.

Upton Sinclair


An American author and one-time candidate for governor of California who wrote close to one hundred books in many genres. He achieved popularity in the first half of the twentieth century, acquiring particular fame for his classic muckraking novel, The Jungle (1906). It exposed conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry, causing a public uproar that contributed in part to the passage a few months later of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.

Hepburn Act 1906


United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and extend its jurisdiction. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records, a task simplified by standardized bookkeeping systems. For any railroad that resisted, the ICC's conditions would remain in effect until the outcome of legislation said otherwise. By the Hepburn Act, the ICC's authority was extended to cover bridges, terminals, ferries, railroad sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines.

Muller vs. Oregen


A landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it justifies both sex discrimination and usage of labor laws during the time period. The case upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health. The ruling had important implications for protective labor legislation.

Women's suffrage Movement


Was achieved gradually, at state and local levels, during the late 19th century and early 20th century, culminating in 1920 with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."

Wilson's New Freedom

1913 - 1917

The New Freedom comprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign. They constituted the reforms promoted by Wilson. They called for less government, but in practice as president he added new controls such as the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act. More generally the "New Freedom" is associated with Wilson's first term as president (1913-1917). As President, Wilson focused on three types of reform: Tariff Reform, Business Reform, and Banking Reform.

Federal Reserve Act of 1913


An Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (now commonly known as the U.S. Dollar) and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.

President Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921

A leader of the Progressive Movement. Running against Republican incumbent William Howard Taft, Socialist Party of America candidate Eugene V. Debs, and former President Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912. In his first term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass major progressive reforms. This agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax. Child labor was curtailed by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918.

16th Amendment

February 3, 1913

Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results. This amendment exempted income taxes from the constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes, after income taxes on rents, dividends, and interest were ruled to be direct taxes in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895). It was ratified on February 3, 1913.

Clayton Antitrust Act 1914


Was enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime by seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. That regime started with the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered harmful to consumers (monopolies, cartels, and trusts). The Clayton Act specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures.

Federal Trade Commission


An independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anti-competitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly. The Federal Trade Commission Act was one of President Woodrow Wilson's major acts against trusts. Trusts and trust-busting were significant political concerns during the Progressive Era. Since its inception, the FTC has enforced the provisions of the Clayton Act, a key antitrust statute, as well as the provisions of the FTC Act.

Carrie Chapman Catt

1915 - 1920

President of NAWSA, who led the campaign for women suffrage during Wilson's administration. A women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920. Catt served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and was the founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women.

Louis Brandeis

1916 - 1939

Was an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.

Keating Owens Child Labor Act


A statute enacted by the U.S. Congress which sought to address child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods produced by factories that employed children under fourteen, mines that employed children younger than sixteen, and any facility where children under sixteen worked at night or more than eight hours daily. The basis for the action was the constitutional clause giving Congress the task of regulating interstate commerce.

Bunting vs. Oregen


A case in which the Supreme Court of the United States upheld a ten-hour work day. The trials of Bunting v. Oregon resulted in acceptance of a ten-hour workday for both men and women, but the state minimum-wage laws weren't changed until twenty years later. Future Supreme Court justice Felix Frankfurter along with future Oregon Supreme Court justices George M. Brown and John O. Bailey represented Oregon on the appeal while W. Lair Thompson and former Senator for Oregon Charles W. Fulton represented Bunting.

19th Amendment


Prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications for voting, and until the 1910's most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the United States, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote. It effectively overruled Minor v. Happersett, in which a unanimous Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not apply to women or give them a right to vote. Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted the amendment and first introduced it in 1878; it was forty-one years later, in 1919, when the Congress submitted the amendment to the states for ratification.

Chapter 12: Politics of the Roaring '20's

Electrical Technological Advances: Westinghouse's electric

January 8, 1886

An American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886 as Westinghouse Electric Company and later renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation by George Westinghouse. George Westinghouse had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. The company pioneered long-distance power transmission and high-voltage alternating-current transmission, unveiling the technology for lighting in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.

Protectionism and Tariffs Foreign Policy

1890 - 1914

The economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow (according to proponents) "fair competition" between imports and goods and service produced domestically.

Impact of the Automobile: Route 66


The automobile changed the American landscape. Its most visible effect was the construction of paved roads suitable for driving in all weather. One such road was the legendary Route 66, which provided a route for people trekking west from Chicago to California. Many moved along the route. In addition to the changing landscape, architectural styles also changed, as new houses typically came equipped with a garage or carport and a driveway. The automobile also launched the rapid construction of gasoline stations, repair shops, public garages, motels, tourist camps, and shopping centers.

Auto related construction


The automobile, movie, radio, and chemical industries skyrocketed during the 1920s. Of chief importance was the automobile industry. Before the war, cars were a luxury. In the 1920s, mass-produced vehicles became common throughout the U.S. and Canada. By 1927, Ford discontinued the Model T after selling 15 million of that model. Only about 300,000 vehicles were registered in 1918 in all of Canada, but by 1929, there were 1.9 million, and automobile parts were being made in parts of Ontario near Detroit, Michigan. The automobile industry's effects were widespread, contributing to such industries as highway building, motels, service stations, used car dealerships and new housing outside the range of mass transit.

Henry Ford


An American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. Although Ford did not invent the automobile, he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford to buy. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. As owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers.

Communism and "The Red Scare"

1919 - 1921

Denotes the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism, used by anti-leftist proponents. In the United States, the First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare was focused on national and foreign communists influencing society, infiltrating the federal government, or both.

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer

1919 - 1921

A Communist Party was formed in the United States. Seventy-thousand radicals joined, including some from the IWW. When several dozen bombs were mailed to government and business leaders, the public grew fearful that Communists were taking over. An a Attorney General of the United States from 1919 to 1921. He directed the controversial Palmer Raids.

Coal Miner's Strike

November 1, 1919

A strike by the United Mine Workers of America, started from 1890's. In Protest of low wages and long workdays, Lewis called his union's members out on strike on November 1, 1919. Attorney General Palmer obtained a court order sending the miners back to work. Then President Wilson appointed an arbitrator, a judge, to put an end to the dispute. The coal miners received a 27 % wage increase, and John L. Lewis became a national hero.

Palmer Raids

November, 1919 - January, 1920

Were attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders. The Palmer Raids occurred in the larger context of the Red Scare, the term given to fear of and reaction against political radicals in the U.S. in the years immediately following World War I.

John L. Lewis

November 1, 1919 - 1960

An American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. He took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942 and in 1944 took the union into the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

Minimum government regulations and flourishing private enterprise


Government interference in private enterprise should be minimal, and should have as its sole purpose the protection of citizens and the natural environment from the potential excesses and corruptions of private enterprise.

Slogan - "Return to Normalcy"


America was getting out of World War l. At the time, it was the biggest war ever and considered the "war to end all wars." Before the WW l, America was dealing with problems of the industrial revolution created by wealthy robber barons. There was also a strong push for anarchy at the beginning of the century. Harding was trying to say war and problems in business and government could be over. If people voted for him things would be normal again. "Normalcy" was a word Harding invented.

Pro-Business Spirit


What historians have identified as "business progressivism", with its emphasis on efficiency and typified by Henry Ford and Herbert Hoover reached an apogee in the 1920s. Ford's "views on technology and the mechanization of rural America were generally enlightened, progressive, and often far ahead of his times."

Consumerism: Modernism Advertising, buying on credit, chain stories


Mass-produced consumer goods like automobiles and ready-to-wear clothes were not new to the 1920s, nor were advertising or mail-order catalogues. But something was new about Americans' relationship with manufactured products, and it was accelerating faster than it could be defined. Advertising, installment buying, consumer credit, the allure of ever-better mass-produced goods. Illustrated with numerous advertisements, this collection samples the ardent opinions voiced by champions and critics of "consumptionism" in the 1920s.

Sacco and Vanzetti

May, 1920 - August 23, 1927

Were suspected anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery of a shoe factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts, United States. After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the two Italian immigrants were executed on August 23, 1927.

President Warren Harding

1921 - 1923

Harding was a self-made newspaper publisher who served as a member of the Ohio Senate, 28th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio and United States Senator. While in the Senate, Harding protected alcohol interests and moderately supported women's suffrage. He was the first incumbent U.S. Senator and the first newspaper publisher to be elected president. He also originated the phrase "Founding Fathers".

Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon

March 4, 1921 - February 12, 1932

An American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector, and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 to February 12, 1932. Andrew Mellon was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by new President Warren G. Harding in 1921. He served for ten years and eleven months; the third-longest tenure of a Secretary of the Treasury. His service continued through the Coolidge and Hoover administrations.

Urban Sprawl


A multifaceted concept centered around the expansion of auto-oriented, low-density development. Topics range from the outward spreading of a city and its suburbs to its logical limits, to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, examination of impact of high segregation between residential and commercial uses, and analysis of various design features to determine which may encourage car dependency.

Dawes Plan


Proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes, was an attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem, which had bedeviled international politics following World War I.

Chapter 14: Hoover Struggles with the Depression

Buying on Margin


Buying stock by paying only a portion of the full cost up-front with promises to pay the rest later. The collateral can be in the form of cash or securities, and it is deposited in a margin account. On United States futures exchanges, margins were formerly called performance bonds.

Stock Market Speculation


The practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from short or medium term fluctuations in the market value of a tradable good such as a financial instrument, rather than attempting to profit from the underlying financial attributes embodied in the instrument such as capital gains, interest, or dividends. Many speculators pay little attention to the fundamental value of a security and instead focus purely on price movements. Speculation can in principle involve any tradable good or financial instrument. Speculators are particularly common in the markets for stocks, bonds, commodity futures, currencies, fine art, collectibles, real estate, and derivatives.

Uneven distribution of income (1920's)


The unequal distributions of wealth throughout the 1920s was a factor. The excessive stock market speculation and vulnerable financial system in the late 1920s was another factor. The persistent weakness of the farm sector also played a role. Perhaps what turned an economic down turn into the Great Depression was Government mismanagment of the crisis. Harley tariff which imposed high protective tariffs. Foreign countries unable to sell to the United States enacted their own protective tariffs and international trade spiraled down, causing the economic down turn to entensify.

The Great Depression

1929 - 1941

Period of bad economic times in the United States that lasted for 12 years. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century. The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 25%, and in some countries rose as high as 33%.


1929 - 1941

A neighborhood where people live in shacks. Which were made out of scrap material.

Competition for jobs leads to discrimination and violence

1929 - 1941

Hard times were nothing new for black Americans. After all, Southern slavery had ended only a few generations earlier. Nonetheless, the Great Depression made things worse. Black workers were normally the first to lose jobs at a business or on a farm. Often they were denied public works employment supposedly available to all needy citizens. Individuals were even threatened at relief centers when applying for work. In deep frustration many blacks called President Franklin D. Roosevelt's programs a "raw deal" instead of a "new deal." Some charities refused to provide needy black persons food, particularly in the South. To make matters worse, violence rose against blacks during the 1930s, carried out by whites competing for the same jobs. As a result, black Americans suffered more than any other group during the Great Depression.

President Hoover - views of gov.

March 4, 1929 - March 4, 1933

Hoover entered office with a plan to reform the nation's regulatory system, believing that a federal bureaucracy should have limited regulation over a country's economic system. A self-described progressive and reformer, Hoover saw the presidency as a vehicle for improving the conditions of all Americans by encouraging public-private cooperation—what he termed "volunteerism". Hoover saw volunteerism as preferable to governmental coercion or intervention which he saw as opposed to the American ideals of individualism and self-reliance.

Herbert Hoover - veto of price support

March 4, 1929 - November 8, 1932

Hoover signs the Agricultural Marketing Act to revitalize the increasingly poor market for farm products. It represents a marked reversal in federal policy; Coolidge had vetoed a number of similar bills designed to aid farmers during his presidency. The act creates the Federal Farm Board, designed to promote the sale of agricultural products through cooperatives and stabilization corporations. In addition, it provides for the purchase of surplus goods by the federal government to maintain price levels, and a $500,000,000 fund to aid the cooperatives.

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929

On this day, was the day that the stock market crashed. It was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout. The crash signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until the onset of American mobilization for World War II at the end of 1941.

Dust Bowl


Area of the Great Plains made worthless for farming by drought and dust storms around the 1930's. Huge dust storms covered the plains and blew dust as far away as the East Cost. The hardest hit region included parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado.

Role of: cities, charities and local organizations


During the Depression, life was very difficult for farmers, but it wasn’t much better in the cities, where fourteen million people lived in crowded, unheated, unsanitary tenements. As the Depression deepened, cities attracted beaten people from all parts of the country. Farmers whose livelihoods had been foreclosed packed up their families and moved into the cities. Hoboes and other itinerants sought shelter in cities during harsh winters. Congress made programs like Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA, for farmers), Civilian Conservation Crops (CCC), National Industrial Recovery Act, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), and Social Security Act. They made many more for workers' rights, providing aid and jobs for young people, and jobs for everyone in general.

"Trickle Down" Philosophy

1930 - 1940

Are terms in United States politics to refer to the idea that tax breaks or other economic benefits provided by government to businesses and the wealthy will benefit poorer members of society by improving the economy as a whole. The term has been attributed to humorist Will Rogers, who said during the Great Depression that "money was all appropriated for the top in hopes that it would trickle down to the needy." The term is mostly used ironically or as pejorative.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act

June 17, 1930

Law that raised taxes on imports and worsened the Depression. The overall level of tariffs under the act were the highest in the U.S. in 100 years, exceeded by a small margin by the Tariff of 1828. The act, and the ensuing retaliatory tariffs by U.S. trading partners, reduced American exports and imports by more than half. Economists agree that Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act increased severity of the Great Depression.

Bonus Army


Unemployed World War I veterans who marched to Washington to demand their was bonuses. After the bonus was voted down in Congress, Hoover told the veterans to leave. But about 2,000 stayed and Hoover ordered the army to remove them.

Chapter 15: "The New Deal"

The Debate ove "Deficit Spending"

1930 - 1950

Spending more than the government receives in revenue. The amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus. The term may be applied to the budget of a government, private company, or individual.

John M. Keynes


A British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, and informed the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern macroeconomics and the most influential economist of the 20th century. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, as well as its various offshoots. In many ways, subsequent developments in 20th century economics can be viewed as either building on Keynes' ideas or reacting against them.

Creation of the "New Deal"

1933 - 1936

A series of economic programs enacted in the United States for 3 years. They involved presidential executive orders or laws passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.

Eleanor Roosevelt

1933 - 1945

The First lady, social reformer, and political adviser. Holding the post from 1933 to 1945 during her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office. President Harry S. Truman later nicknamed her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements.

Support of government and Banking system

1933 - 1940

On March 3, 1933, Washington Governor Clarence Martin closed all Washington State banks and declared a three-day “bank holiday,” working with other state governments to pushing for the passage of a federally mandated bank holiday. The banking system was unable to keep up with the panicked withdrawals that customers were making from their bank accounts, rendering banks incapable of providing money many customers had deposited. Even more, financial mismanagement and elite corruption ruined banks and destroyed public faith in American finance.

Civilian Conservation Crops (CCC)

1933 - 1942

Was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 18–25. Robert Fechner was the head of the agency. A part of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments.

Glass-Steagall Act


Law that created insurance for bank deposits. is most often used to refer to four provisions of the Banking Act of 1933 that limited commercial bank securities activities and affiliations between commercial banks and securities firms. This article deals with that limited meaning of the Glass–Steagall Act. A separate article describes the entire Banking Act of 1933. Starting in the early 1960's federal banking regulators interpreted provisions of the Glass–Steagall Act to permit commercial banks and especially commercial bank affiliates to engage in an expanding list and volume of securities activities.

Emergancy Bank Releif Act

March 9, 1933

An act of the United States Congress spearheaded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. It was passed on March 9, 1933. This act allows only Federal Reserve-approved banks to operate in the United States of America.

Tennessee Valley Authority

May, 1933

A federal corporation established in 1933 to construct and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods. To provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)


A market watchdog. The SEC is part of the federal government and oversees brokerage firms and self-regulatory organizations like the New York Stock Exchange or the National Association of Securities Dealers, which runs NASDAQ. The act authorizes the SEC to collect information periodically from companies with publicly traded securities.

Economic Security for retired workers


Many of the federal and state programs that provide income security to U.S. families have their roots in the Social Security Act (the Act) of 1935. This Act provided for unemployment insurance, old-age insurance, and means-tested welfare programs. The Great Depression was clearly a catalyst for the Social Security Act of 1935, and some of its provisions—notably the means-tested programs—were intended to offer immediate relief to families.

Social Security Act - Old Age Insurance


Encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs. Social Security is primarily funded through dedicated payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA). Tax deposits are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund which comprise the Social Security Trust Fund.

Rights of workers


When Roosevelt took office, he sought a number of important laws that advanced labor's cause. One of these, the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (also known as the Wagner Act) gave workers the right to join unions and to bargain collectively through union representatives. The act established the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to punish unfair labor practices and to organize elections when employees wanted to form unions. The NLRB could force employers to provide back pay if they unjustly discharged employees for engaging in union activities.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

April 8, 1935

New Deal Programs.The WPA used millions of workers to build airports, roads, libraries, schools, and hospitals. Sewing groups made clothes for the needy.

"NLRB vs. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp"

April, 1937

Supreme Court upheld the Wagner Act, ensuring the right to unionize, in a 5 to 4 decision. This decision signaled a change in the Court's attitude towards support of the New Deal and lead FDR to abandon his court-packing plan.

Fair Labor Standard Act


A federal statute of the United States. The FLSA introduced a maximum 44-hour seven-day workweek, established a national minimum wage, guaranteed "time-and-a-half" for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor", a term that is defined in the statute. It applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage.

Collective Bargaining


A process of negotiations between employers and a group of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions. The interests of the employees are commonly presented by representatives of a trade union to which the employees belong. The collective agreements reached by these negotiations usually set out wage scales, working hours, training, health and safety, overtime, grievance mechanisms, and rights to participate in workplace or company affairs.