The Handbook of the Christian Knight -Erasmus


Erasmus was one of the most influential of all the christian humanists. The Handbook of the Christian Knight reflected his preoccupation with religion. He believed that christianity should be a direction for life rather than a set of practices and dogmatic beliefs.

Utopia -Thomas More


Utopia is a literary account of the ardent life and foundations of the community of Utopia. Utopia is an imaginary island in the area of the recently discovered New World.

Spanish Armada


The Spanish Armada was the Spanish fleet that sailed against England, who was sent by the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588. It intended to overthrow Elizabeth I of England and put an end to her connection with the Spanish Netherlands.

Luther's Reform

Ninety-Five Theses


During this time the use of indulgences was controversial. Pope Leo X used indulgences to finance the construction of Saint Peter’s Basilica. Johann Tetzel was responsible for promoting indulgences within Germany. Martin Luther disagreed with the sale of indulgences, which provided the common people with a piece of paper assuring them salvation. As a response Luther issued the Ninety-Five Theses in 1517.

Leipzig Debate


The debate was between Johann Eck and Andreas Karlstadt. When invited in 1519, Luther arrived in Leipzig to be condemned as a heretic by Eck. Eck related Luther’s ideas with those of John Hus. Despite the attacks on Luther, he proceeded with, what he believed was God’s work, despite of the consequences.

Diet and Edict of Worms


The Diet of Worms 1521 an assembly, of the Holy Roman Empire held in Worms, Germany. It's known for the Edict of Worms, which focused on Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.

Peasant's War

1524 - 1525

The Peasant’s War was a revolt by German peasants, who sought for economic improvement and freedom from their abusive landowners. The peasants thought that Luther would side with them but he instead sided with the German princes, telling them to “smite, slay, and stab” the peasantry. Luther believed that God had given the state and its rulers the authority to maintain peace and order.

Politics and the German Reformation

First Habsburg-Valois War

1521 - 1525

Battle of Mohacs


Second Habsburg-Valois War

1527 - 1529

Defeat of the Turks at Vienna


Diet of Augsburg


Formation of Scmalkaldic League


Third Habsburg-Valois War

1535 - 1538

Fourth Habsburg-Valois War

1542 - 1544

Schmalkadic Wars

1546 - 1555

Peace of Augsburg


The Peace of Augsburg, was a treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League. It was an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, in Augsburg.

New Reform Movements

Zwingli made cathedral priest at Zurich


Once Zwingli was made priest, he preached in Switzerland, starting the Reformation.

Anabaptists expelled from Zurich


Reform adopted in Zurich


Zwingli's preaching caused the city council to hold a public debate in the town hall.

Marburg Colloquy


The Marburg Colloquy was a meeting in Marburg, Germany; which tried to solve an argument between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli over the Presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper. The leading Protestant reformers of the time attended the meeting. Philipp's reason for the meeting was primary for political reasons; he wished to bring together the Protestant states in a political alliance.

Death of Zwingli on the battlefield


Henry VII- Act of Supremacy


The Act of Supremacy stated that the king was "taken, accepted, and reputed the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England". this gave the monarch the control over all matters of doctrine, clerical appointments, and discipline.

New Jerusalem in Munster

1534 - 1535

Anabaptist took over the city, driving out everyone that they considered unbelievers. They also burned all the book except the Bible and proclaimed communal ownership over all property.

Henry VIII- Execution of Thomas More


Institutes of the Christian Religion -John Calvin


Written by John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, was a synthesis of Protestant ideas, which made him one of the new leaders of protestantism.

Calvin begins ministry in Geneva


In Geneva, Calvin started a ministry in which he created a new church constitution, called the Ecclesiastical Ordinances. It created a church government that had both clergy and laymen in the service.

Ecclesiastical Ordinances


*See "Calvin begins ministry in Geneva"

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

Edward VI was Henry VIII"s third son, who succeeded him. During his reign the Church of England was able to move in a more protestant direction. some reforms included the clergy having the right to marry, the elimination of images, and the creation of the Book of Commons.


1553 - 1558

A Catholic ruler who wanted to restore England to Catholicism. There was opposition due to the restoration of catholicism by joint action of the monarch and parliament. Because she burned more than three hundred Protestant heretics she was called "bloody mary".

The Catholic Reformation

Pope Paul III

1534 - 1549

Papal recognition of Society of Jesus (Jesuits)


It's grounded on the principles of obedience to the papacy, giving a strict hierarchical order for the society. It used education to achieve goals and the line "conflict for God"

Establishment of Roman Intuition (Holy Office)


Pope Paul III established the Holy Office as a permanent assembly with cardinals and other officials. It had the tasks of maintaining and defending the faith of the church and to examine and prohibit errors and false doctrines.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Pope Paul III established a council of cardinals and officials, in hope to resolve religious difference caused by the protestant revolt.

Pope Paul IV

1555 - 1559

The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)

Henry II

1547 - 1559

Henry II ruled as King of France as a monarch of the House of Valois. Henry policies in matter of arts, wars and religion. He continued to go against the House of Habsburg and tried to destroy the Protestant Reformation even as the Huguenots became an increasingly large minority in France during his reign.

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

Charles IX also was the ruler of france, and a monarch of the House of Valois. War broke out between Protestants and Catholics in 1562, so in 1572, Charles ordered the marriage of his sister Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre, a major Protestant leader and the future King Henry IV of France, in a last desperate bid to unite the people. Charles allowed the massacre of all Huguenot leaders who gathered in Paris, known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. This crippled the Huguenot movement.

Duke of Guise Massacre Huguenot congregation at Vassy


The powerful Duke of Guise massacred a Huguenot congregation at Vassy. Although their armies were too small to conquer all of France, they were good at defensive campaigns.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


*See "Charles IX"

Henry III

1574 - 1589

Henry III was another ruler of France, and a monarch of the House of Valois, also elected as the monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Formation of the Holy League


The Holy League combated the allowances granted to the Protestants by Henry III. Although the League’s formation was to defend of the Catholic religion, political reasons, and to limit the king’s power, this didn’t happen.

Edict of Nantes


The Edict of Nantes was issued in 1598, by Henry IV. It granted the Calvinist Protestants (the Huguenots) rights in France, which was still considered Catholic. Henry promoted civil unity in the edict.