increase role of government in the US

chapter 9

red: key events
blue: key terms
green: key people

Hazen Pingree

August 30, 1840 - June 18, 1901

Upon being elected Mayor of Detroit, "attacked" utility monopolies and to challenge them he opened providers and made competitiors to lower their rates.

Tom L. Johnson

July 18, 1854 - April 10, 1911

Now a days Johnson is seen as one of the greatest influence in the progressive movement. He proposed many reforms to make the government more efficient, from milk and meat inspections, lower streetcar fares and an expand park system.

Robert La Follette

June 14, 1855 - June 18, 1925

Remembered for being the opponent of railroad trusts, WW1, bossism and League of nations.

Eugene Debs

November 5, 1855 - October 20, 1926

Union leader that founded the Industrial Workers of the World plus a several times candidate for the Socialist party of America for the US President.

Louis Brandeis

November 13, 1856 - October 5, 1941

Leader of the progressive movement, used the law as the instrument social change. Between 1897 to 1916 he was in multiple reforms crusades. He fought in Boston to secure honest traction franchises and in 1907 launched a six-year fight to prevent banker J. P. Morgan from monopolizing New England’s railroads. After an expose of insurance fraud in 1906, he devised the Massachusetts plan to protect small wage-earners through savings bank life insurance.

Florence Kelly

1859 - 1932

A social reformer that in 1899 became general secretary of the National Consumers League, in which she pushed onward for better factory conditions.

Woman'sChristian Temperance Union


A small midwestern religious group fought for a prohibition. Wasn't until 1911, when Frances Willard joined, that their group became the largest women's group in the US.

Scientific management

1880 - 2013

Studies to increase productivity within a company. The studies helped and it did what it was meant to do but also caused fatigue within the workers leading to accidents.

Progressive movement

1880 - 1920

A set of reforms aimed to restore economic opportunities and bring justices.

Northern Securities Company


an important United States railroad trust formed in 1901.The Northern Securities case was one of the earliest antitrust cases and provided important legal precedents for many later cases,

Coal Strike


a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities

Square Deal


President Theodore Roosevelt’s domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.1 These three demands are often referred to as the “three C’s” of Roosevelt’s Square Deal. It aimed middle class citizens.

The Jungle


the Jungle is a 1906 novel written by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair. Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the lives of immigrants in the United States. Many readers were most concerned with his exposure of practices in the American meatpacking industry during the early 20th century, based on an investigation he did for a socialist newspaper.

Muller VS. Oregon

January 15, 1908 - February 24, 1908

Caused by the Oregon state restricting woman of working hours and protecting woman's health. Both sex discrimination and labor hours were affected in this decision.

Keating Owens Act


The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 also known as Wick’s Bill, was a statute enacted by the U.S. Congress which sought to address child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods produced by factories that employed children under fourteen, mines that employed children younger than sixteen, and any facility where children under sixteen worked at night or more than eight hours daily.

chapter 12

RED-key events BLUE-key terms GREEN-key people

John L. Lewis


Became the new leader of the United Mine Workers of America. Led the workers in a strike in 1919 and got them a 27% raise.

Communism and "the red scare"

1919 - 1990

A fear developted after Russia's czarist regime was overtrown and replaced with a communist state lead by Vladimir I. Lenin and when bombs were mail to government and business leaders. They feared that the communist were taking over the US.

Palmer raids

August 1919 - January 1920

They were led by Palmer, Hoover and followers that wanted to get rid of people and find evidence that communist, socialist, and anarchist were possing a threat to the US. They violeted people's rights and invaded their homes but were unsucessful in their cause.

Coal miners strike

November 1, 1919

New leader John L. Lewis led his union of coal workers to a strike, in the end the government had to get involved and it ended with the workers getting a 27% wage increase.

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer

november 1, 1919

Owner of the coal mine where the 1919 coal mine started. When it started he obtain a court order to get them back the orkers to work but they still refused.


1920 - 1929

Many americans were spending more money, since the annual income had grown and they had more money than needed. Also some bought in credit, but wasn't always a good thing. many got into debt and then couldn't get out which led to the great depression.

Sacco and Vanzetti

may 20, 1920

two italian immigrants accused and arrested for a crime. many people thought they were innocent and were only accused because they were immigrants and/or radicals.

"Return to normalcy"


After Warren G. Harding was elected president he gave a speech in which his words calmed the nation and gave it strenght to move foward. They were just words, he is considered one of the least successful presidents.

president Warren Harding


Elected in 1921, he gave speeches that sooth the nation but his actions didn't help. his own administration became corrupt and fell appart.

Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon


Appointed secretary of treasury by president Harding, he used his power to help the nations debt problem. But soon turned corrupt.

Dawes Plan


Negotiations between the US and Germany to help pay back France and Britain. France and Britain then paid the US back, basically the US arranged to be paid with its own money.

Protectionism and Tariffs Foreign Policy


Adopted in 1922, it raised taxes in US imports to 60% protecting US businesses from competition. It also made it hard for Frnace and Britian to pay back the debt.

Impact of the Automobile: Route 66


Led to the booming in economy of the automobile companies, paved roads, change in houses and other new buildings showed up (houses, shops, public garage, motels, shopping centers). Route 66 connected chicago with california so people could go cross-country.

Urban Sprawl


A growth of cities/towns away from an industrial city. It gave people the chance to move and live independently. workers could live away from the work area and families the opportunity to move around the nation in a vacation.

Henry Ford


Afford the world automobiles and equipment which made flying safer and helped the airline industry take off. He made a trimotor airplane.

Chapter 14


1929 - 1940

Small towns that sprang up during the great depression due to the lost of money and ability to pay back debt

Great depression

1929 - 1940

Marked by the stock market crash and loss of money. Americans lost their money and homes. Europe was also affected in this event.

Black tuesday

october 29, 1929

The last and lowest point the stock market reached before the great depression started.

Hawley-Smoot tariff


Passed by congress, it was designed to protect american manufacturers and farmers from foreign competitors during the great depression.

Dust bowl

May 1934

brought destruction and hardship to central americans