(Migration, Disease, Settlement Patterns, Technology)
All civilizations need access to water. The aqueduct made gathering water easier for a city. They lifted water into the city and then into homes. Easier access to water meant a possible increase in population was possible, this led to the development of communities.
(Religions, Belief Systems, Ideologies, Philosophies, Science and Technology, Arts and Architecture)
The Greek Culture consisted of a searrch for rationalism and logic. This was in opposition to the beliefs of faith in the civilizations around them. In this ideology, their mathematic and cultural influences were subliminal. When the Macedonian Alexander the Great constructed a Greek empire, spanning from Greece to Egypt to India, the Greek culture came with him. The Hellenistic era existed as an influx of Greek culture in these regions after Alexander's death.
(Political Structures and Forms of Government, Empires, Regional, Trans-Regional, and Global Structures and Organizations)
We can immediately com[are the Roman and Han empires. Both spannded millions of miles, had millions of people, and lasted about the same amount of time. Centralized governments existed in both, and numerous technological advances were seen in both. However, Rome's would be much more significant. The decline and fall of the Roman Empire led to a great decentralization in European society.
(Agricultural and Pastoral Production, Trade and Commerce, Labor Systems)
The Silk Road was a series of trading outposts linking Asia to the Middle East. Many merchants would barter resources, commodities, crafts, cultures, and diseases through the Silk Road's numerous trade routes. This acted as he precursor to later thoughts of globalization.
(Gender Roles and Relations, Family and Kinship, Racial and Ethnic Constructions, Social and Economic Classes)
A Chinese philosopher, Confucius created a hierarchical morality that emphasized personal and governmental relations. His teachings would be widespread throughout China and exist today as well, as his teachings have penetrated man y different forms of society around the world.
Originally, the horse was found in Paleolithic cave art some 30,000 years ago, but not until around 4000 BCE were they domesticated in the Eurasian steppes. Once domesticated, they would be used as a means of transportation, but also as a means of warfare. By 2000 BCE, their use in chariots would show them for entertainment as well. Horses have had many uses and have aided in the shaping of the global society.
The invention of the wheel, as well as an axle to hold it, allowed for the construction of the earliest vehicles. In greater explanation, it reduced the manual labor needed to accomplish a goal. By having this sort of reduction in necessary energy, more was able to be put towards the acceleration of technology.
The irrigation of crops allowed for agriculture to expand in its sphere of availability, More food meant a larger total population. More irrigation led to this increase in food production. More people meant a larger society, and as such a greater culture and civilization.
The use of stones to form architecture has been an important part of nearly every civilization. It is considered a traditional means of construction. Masonry began its existence with its use in ancient wonders, such the the Pyramids of Egypt and Stonehenge of England.
The writing of the first alphabets came from many sources, the Canaanites and the Phoenicians being amongst them. The alphabet allows one to portray and articulate their ideas. No longer would thoughts need to be handed down orally. The alphabet was a mighty boos to research efforts, as well as the advancement of writing.
The birth of Christianity as a monotheistic religion and its subsequent rise amongst Europe's poorer strata would soon lead to its acceptance as the state religion of the Roman Empire. It is now the most popular religion in the world, and its related moral code affects billions.