Yellow Journalism: A style of writing which exaggerates news to lure and enrage readers
USS Maine Explosion: Spanish were accused of bombing the USS Maine near the Havana when President McKinley ordered the USS Maine to go to Cuba to rescue American citizens.
Spanish American War: This war took places in various locations in Cuba, Philippines, Puerto-Rico, and Guam, as a result of the American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence and lasted April 25-August 12 1898
War in the Philippines and in the Carribean: On April 30 Commodore George Dewey gave the command to open fire on the Spanish fleet in Manila, and within hours destroyed ever Spanish ship there which gave him advantage to allow US troops to land in the Philippines, the Filipinos who waned to be free of the Spanish, completely supported the U.S troop. Admiral William T. Sampson sealed up the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba . About 125,000 Americans had volunteered to fight.
William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951): William R. Hearst was one of the Yellow Journalists, Hearst created a chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major american cities and became one of the biggest newspaper and magazine business in the world
Commodore George Dewey:
William T. Sampson:
Treaty of Paris: On December 10, 1898 the US and Spain met in Paris to agree on a treaty. At peace talks, Spain freed Cuba and turned over the islands of Guam in the Pacific and Puerto-Rico and the west Indies to the United States.
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan- (1840-1914) Joined the us navy law in the late 1850's and served for nearly forty years. Throughout his life he was one of the most outspoken advocates of American military expansion. He wrote a book called "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1660-1783)
Mahan urged government officials to build up American naval power in order to complete with other powerful nations .
The construction of of modern battleships such as the Maine and the Oregon transformed the U.S into the world's largest naval power.
President WIlliam McKinley (1843-1901) McKinley led to victory in the Spanish-American War , and brought tariffs that helped protect to promote American Industries. McKinley favored annexation, and succeeded Cleveland as President
Sanford B. Dole - Helped overthrow Queen Lilioukalani with the help of marines, and helped set up a headed government led by him.
US Acquisition of Alaska : In 1867 William Seward arranged for the US to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million.
In 1959, Alaska became a state, and from Alaska the US gained timber, minerals, and oil.
US Acquisition of Hawaii: In January 1893, the planters rebelled to overthrow the Queen, and also appealed to the United States armed forces for protection. Without Presidential approval, marines invaded the islands, and the American minister to the islands raised the stars and stripes in Honolulu.
The situation continued until after Cleveland left office. When war broke out with Spain in 1898, the military significance of Hawaiian naval bases as a way station to the Spanish Philippines outweighed all other considerations. President William McKinley signed a joint resolution annexing the islands. Hawaii remained a territory until granted statehood as the fiftieth state in 1959.
US Acquisition of the Midway Islands:
Government of Puerto Rico: After being freed from Spain many Puerto Ricans had different dreams for their future, some wanted statehood, while others hoped for some measure of local self-government as an American territory. And as a result of that the US gave Puerto Rico no promises regarding independance after the Spanish American War
Philippine American War: In 1899 Emilio Aguinaldo led the Filipinos in a revolt against the U.S. White Americans saw the Filipinos as inferiors and when African-American newspapers questioned in why they were helping out spread racial prejudice many African-Americans sided with the Filipinos. It took the Americans nearly three years to put down the rebellion, about 20,000 Filipino rebels died fighting for independence.
Boxer Rebellion: Even though China kept it's freedom, Europeans dominated most of the largest cities in China, they formed a secret society Westerners called boxers because they were members that practiced martial arts. Thousands of Chinese people died along with hundreds of missionaries "foreigners" , in order to get Europeans out.
Jose Marti (1853-1895): Marti was a Cuban poet and journalist. He organized Cuban resistance against Spain, using an active guerrilla campaign and deliberately destroying property, especially American-owned sugar mills and plantations.
Secretary of State John Hay:
Legislation (John Hay's Open Door Notes/Policy): The notes were letters addressed to the leaders of imperialist nations proposing that the nations share their trading rights with the U.S
US acquisition of the Panama Canal including the US role in Panama's rebellion from Colombia: As early as 1850, the US and Britain had agreed to share the rights to such a canal. Before they could build the canal the US had to get permission from Colombia, which then ruled Panama. After Panama rebelled against Colombia nearly a dozen US warships were present as Panama declared independence on November 3, 1903. Fifteen days after, Panama and the US signed a treaty in which they would pay Panama $10 million plus an annual rent of $250,000 for an area of land across Panama, called the Canal Zone, the payments began in 1913. During the building of the canal, builders fought diseases such as yellow fever and malaria and soft volcanic soil that proved difficult to remove where it lay. By 1913, more than 43,400 workers were employed, some came from Italy and Spain, three-quarters were blacks from the British West Indies. During the construction of the canal more than 5,600 workers died from disease or accidents, the total cost to the US was approximately $380 million. The canal opened on August 15 1914, during it's first year more than 1,000 merchant ships passed through it, but US Latin American relations had been damaged by American support of the rebellion in Panama.
US As The "Police Power" in Latin America:
US Intervention In The Mexican Revolution: The US intervened on April 1914 when one of Huerta's officers arrested a small group of American Sailors. The Mexicans quickly released them and apologized but Wilson used the incident as an excuse to intervene in Mexico in order to occupy Veracruz, which brought the US and Mexico close to war. Argentina, Brazil, and Chile proposed that Huerta step down and that the US troops withdraw without paying Mexico for damages but Mexico refused. But later on when President Venustiano was elected, Wilson withdrew the troops and formally recognized the Carranza government.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: The Monroe doctrine demanded that European countries stay out of the affairs of Latin American nations
The "Alliance System" : The Alliance System occured in 1907 which were two major defense alliances in Europe, there was The Triple Entente whom were later recognized as the Allies which consisted of France, Britain, and Russia. The triple alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Later on the Central Powers were formed which consisted of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.
Balkans and Ethnic Rivalries: Ethnic groups would look for protection in larger nations. Russia was the protector of Europe's Slavic people, among these people were the Serbs. Serbia was an independent nation located in the Balkans, but millions of ethnic Serbs lived under the rule of Austria-Hungary. Consequently, Russia and Austria-Hungary were rivals for influence over Serbia.
US Neutrality and Divided loyalties: In 1914 most Americans didn't see a reason to why join a struggle that was 3,000 miles away since it didn't threaten them or their property, but not many individual Americans thought the same way. This controversy of opinions and thoughts caused great division in America itself, many Americans stated that their children needn't see the horrors of war while others followed the war closely because they still had ties to the nations from which they had emigrated.
War and the "Booming" US Economy:
The Zimmerman Note: was a Telegram from the German foreign minister to the German Ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. The Telegram proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany and promised that if war with the US occurred, Germany would support Mexico in recovering "Lost territory in Texas, Mexico, and Arizona."
Russian Revolution of 1917: Throughout 1915, the Russians endured defeats and continued to retreat. By the end of 1915 they had suffered about 2.5 million casualties and also caused massive bread shortages. Revolutionaries ousted the Czar in March 1917 and established a provisional government which was overthrown in November by the Bolsheviks. They set up a Communist state and sought peace with the Central Powers
"A World Safe For Democracy": With the hope of neutrality finally shattered, the US troops would follow the stream of American money and munitions that had been heading to the Allies throughout the war. But Wilson's plea to make the world "safe for democracy" wasn't just political posturing. Wilson and many Americans truly believed that the US had to join the war to pave the way for a future order of peace and freedom.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand: Heir to the Austrian throne, visited the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. As the royal entourage drove through the city, Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip stepped from the crowd and shot the Archduke and his wife.
Gavrilo Princip and the Black Hand: Princip was a member of the Black hand, an organization promoting Serbian Nationalism.
President Wilson and the 'Peace effort':
*U.S. Military Industrial Production- In 1917 congress passes the Selective Service Act that recquired for men to register for the government and be randomly selected for military service.
- They needed to find a way to transport their food, men, etc.. so they campaigned to point out thre importance of shipyard workers
-They nbuilt the ship in parts and then they just put it all together at the big yard
*Convoy’s System- A systmin which big guard destroyers would escort merchant ships across the Atlamtic in groups
*Nov. 3,1918- Germany collapses they were to tired to fight anymore so they just signed the treaty and ended the war
*Selective Service Act of 1917- Recquired for men to register for the government and be randomly selected for military service
Rise of Totalitarian Governments: Stalin transforms Russia, Mussolini and Fascism in Italy: While Stalin was consolidating his power in the Soviet Union, Benito Mussolini was establishing a totalitarian regime in Italy, where unemployment and inflation produced bitter strikes, some communist-led. Mussolini took advantage of the fact that the middle and upper class demanded a stronger leadership. In 1921 Mussolini had established the Fascist Party. Fascism stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of individuals.
Hitler and Nazism in Germany: Adolf Hitler in 1919 had been a part of a group called National Socialist German Workers, he had proven to be a really good powerful public speaker and soon became leader of the group, Hitler wanted more power and started forming his Nazi Party. He wanted to enforce racial "purification" and viewed "blue-eyed, blonde hair" Aryans to be a master race and viewed the rest as inferiors
Imperialists in Japan: Nationalistic military leaders were trying to take control of the imperial government of Japan and shared a common belief with Hitler. Ignoring the protests for more moderate Japanese officials, the militarists launched a surprise attack and seized control of the Chinese province Manchuria in 1931. Within a couple of months, Japanese troops took over the entire province.
US Clings To Isolationism: In the early 1930's, a lot literature spoke out that the united states had been dragged into the World War I by greedy bankers and arms dealers. This became a big scandal which eventually was led to congress and soon afterwards American's started becoming more determined to avoid war.
Nationalism, Failure of the Treaty of Versailles: Instead of securing a "just and secure peace," the Treaty of Versailles caused anger and resentment. These problems overwhelmed the Weimar Republic, the democratic government set up in Germany after World War I
The Night of Broken Glass: or also known as Kristallnacht, took place on November 9-10, 1938, when Nazi troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany.
Ghettos: Segregated Jewish areas in certain Polish cities. Life was miserable, bodies were countless, and Nazis forced the Jews to work in German factories next to the ghettos.
Concentration Camps:Life in the camps was a cycle of hunger, humiliation, and work that almost always ended in death.
Auschwitz: Auschwitz was the worst camp of all, it was rare that Jews made it out alive throughout life in that camp.
In search of ways to improve master race: Hitler believed that it was only right for Aryans to govern and that the rest inferior races were not needed and decided to start a genocide.
Axis Powers: A mutual defense treaty signed by Germany, Italy, and Japan
Axis war strategy-US and a two ocean war: Under the treaty, each Axis nation agreed to come to the defense to the others in case of attack. This meant that if the United States were to declare war on any one of the Axis powers, it would face it's worse military nightmare- a two-ocean war, with fighting in both the Atlantic and the Pacific.
Germany attacks the Soviet Union: From the spring through the fall of 1941, individual surface attacks by individual U-boats gave way to what became known as the wolf pack attack
Great Arsenal of Defense: This was when the Lend-Lease Plan started, under this plan the president would lend or lease arms and other supplies to "any country whose defense was vital to the United States."
US Support for Stalin: Britain was not the only nation to receive lend-lease aid. In June 1941, Hitler broke the agreement he made in 1939 with Stalin not to go to war and invade the Soviet Union. Acting on the principle that "the enemy of my enemy is my friend," Roosevelt began sending lend-lease to the Soviet Union.
The US "Undeclared War":
US and Japan Peace talks: Hideki Tojo promised emperor Hirohito that the Japanese would attempt to preserve the peace with the Americans . But on November 5, 1941, Tojo ordered the Japanese navy to prepare for an attack on the US. On December 6, 1941, Roosevelt received a decoded message that instructed Japan's peace envoy to reject all American peace proposals, which meant war.
Attack on Pearl Harbor: The day after the Japanese declined all American Peace proposals, a Japanese dive bomber swooped low over Pearl Harbor- the largest US naval base in the Pacific, it was the bomber followed by 180 Japanese warplanes. In less than two hours, the Japanese had killed 2,403 Americans and wounded 1,178 more, and the losses of ships and other navy properties were great as well.
Declaration of War: On December 8, 1941, President Roosevelt addressed congress and officially declared war on Japan.
Franklin D. Roosevelt: President of that time, and responded to Japan's declaration of war.
Winston Churchill: Although Churchill hoped for a military commitment, he settled for a joint declaration of war aims, called the Atlantic Charter
Unification with Austria: Hitler's first target was Austria, The Paris Peace Conference had made a small nation out of what was left in Austria after World War I. Since there was a lot of Germans in Austria, Germany backed up Austria and made a union.
Blitzkrieg in Poland: On September 1, 1939, German air forces flew over Poland dropping bombs on military bases, airfields, railroads, and cities. This Invasion was called Blitzkrieg, or lightning war.
Fall of the Maginot Line and France: The Maginot Line was ineffective towards Germany and was of absolute no threat to it. The German offensive trapped almost 400,000 British and French soldiers. France fell when Italy sided with Germany and invaded France from the South while Germany came in on them from the North.
The Battle of Britain: Since Germany was still no match for Britain, their next goal was to gain control of the skies by destroying Britain's Royal Air Force (RAF). Hitler had 2,600 planes at his will, and on a single day nearly 2,000 German planes raided Britain, for two months straight every single night bombers pounded London. The Battle of Britain went on through the summer and fall.
Neville Chamberlain: A British Prime Minister that met up with Hitler to make an appeasement to avoid war. The conclusion was that annexation of Sudetenland would be his last "territorial demand".
Edouard Daladier: A French Premier that met up with Hitler and Chamberlain in order to come to an agreement.
Charles de Gaulle: He was the French General that fled to England after France's fall, where he set up a government-in-exile. De Gaulle proclaimed defiantly: "France has lost a battle, but France has not lost the war
Winston Churchill: Chamberlain's political rival in Great Britain
Munich Agreement: The agreement which turned Sudetenland over to Germany without a single shot being fired.
Russia & Germany's Nonaggression pact: Once bitter enemies, on August 23, 1939 fascist Germany and communist Russia now committed never to attack eachother
Selective service recruitment: Millions of Americans volunteered for military service but that wasn’t enough so the Selective service system expanded draft so that there would be more soldiers that would meet the armed forces’ needs. Volunteers and draftees went to military bases for 8 weeks to have there basic training.
1940’s- Contributions from minority groups: Even though discrimination was still an issue, over 30,000 Mexican Americans joined the armed forces. African Americans also served but they were still segregated til they protested and finally saw combat. Asian Americans also joined the armed forces, and Native Americans enlisted in the armed services too (also women).
1942- Manhattan Project: it was a code name used for research wok that was across the country. It was a US government research project that made the first atomic bomb.
1942- Industrial contributions: Factories across the nation were completely changed to War Production. They built tanks, planes, boats and command cars. “From making mechanical pencils to bomb parts, from filling bottles with drinks to filling shells with explosives.”
1944- Labors contribution: Almost 18 Million worked in war industries. It increased compared from 1941. Almost half of the workers were women. Also more than 2 million workers were minorities. Just like women they also suffered discrimination at first.
War Bonds: these are debt securities that helped financed military operations during the war. It was seen as a way to reduce inflation and remove money from circulation.
Henry J. Kaiser: An American Industrialist known as father of shipbuilding. He established Kaiser shipyard which built Liberty Ship.
Albert Einstein: Einstein urged the study for Nuclear Fission for the military purposes. This led to the massive Manhattan project.
Government economic controls: Roosevelt created the Office of Price Administration.The OPA fought freezing prices of most goods. Congress also raised taxes and imposed taxes to people who didn’t pay before.
War Production board: They made sure that armed forces and war industries get the supplies they needed in order to win the war.
* “Europe first, then Japan”- Ro0sevelt and his advisors believed that Germany was a greater threat than Japan so they went against Hitler first
- After taking control in Europe they went for Japan
*Battle of the Atlantic- Germans wanting to prevent food and war supplies to get to Great Britain
- After Germans destroyed 681 allied ships the allies gathered and formed convoys
- With their tracking the allies were able to destroy German U-boats really quick
*Battle of Stalingrad- Germans wanted to take control over Stalingrad
- In the summer of 1942 Germans attacked and took control of about nine tenths of the city
- But in the winter the Soviets counterattacked and fought until the Germans surrendered
- Their victory marked a turning point in war
*D-Day- The first day of the invasion of Normandy under Eisenhower’s command
*Battle of the Bulge- In 1944 Americans take over Aachen
- Hitler wanted to get it back so he ordered his troops to break through Allied lines
Hitler hoped his victory would split American and British forces and break up their allied supply lines
German tanks drove into allied territories creating like a bump in the lines
* “Unconditional Surrender”- Germany-