In 1854 diplomats of Franklin Pierce tried to but Cuba from Spain. The Spanish said that they would rather sink and destroy Cuba.
From 1868 to 1878 the Cubans revolted against Spain.
In 1886 the Cubans forced the Spanish to get rid of slavery.
American capitalists then invested large sums of money into sugar cane plantations on Cuba.
Later there was another war for independence controlled by Jose Marti who was a Cuban poet and journalist. They destroyed property including U.S. owned sugar plantations. Marti thought that this would get the U.S. to intervene and attack the Spanish.
Yellow Journalism was used to increase war tensions and get the U.S. citizens to turn against Spain by dramatizing events of destruction of Spain against Cuba in newspapers. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer did this since they were newspaper tycoons. Frederick Remington drew pictures of the atrocities Spanish people were doing to the Cubans for the newspaper. They said Cuba Libre! which inspired U.S. citizens to be pro Cuban.
In 1897 William McKinley became president. He was pressured by demands from U.S. citizens to help Cuba so he tried diplomacy to help Cuba. Spain took back Weyler, made Cuba have limited self government, and changed the policy of concentration camps.
In 1898 the U.S.S Main was ordered to be sent to Cuba to bring back American citizens. In February 15, 1898 the U.S.S Main exploded in the Havana harbor, killing over 200 people. U.S. journals blamed it on the Spanish.
The Spanish American war started in April 20 1898. On April 9 the Spaniards followed U.S. instruction with a six month cease fire. In April 30 1898 The u.S. went to the Philippines and on April 31 George Dewet the Commodore commanded his army to attack the Spanish boat group at Manila which was the capital of the Philipines
In the 1880s the majority of American leaders were for imperialism, with it being the practice of nations controlling weaker areas. Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy tried to get government officials to get more US Naval power to compete with other nations. Later the government responded by building nine steel hulled cruisers from the time of 1883 to 1890. This made the U.S. the third strongest naval power.
Some U.S. citizens used the philosophy of Social Darwinism and Anglo Saxon superiority to back up the idea that the U.S. needs to spread civility to other nations. They also wanted Christianity to be spread.
In 1867 William Seward, the secretary of State under the president Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, helped the U.S. buy Alaska by arranging the deal which allowed the U.S. to buy Alaska. This was sold from Russia.
In 1959 Alaska was made a state.
In 1867 the U.S. took over the midway islands.
in the Pacific ocean 13,000 miles north of Hawaii.
During the 16790's U.S. Merchants would stop in Hawaii to refuel on their way to China and India.
In the 1820's Yankee missionaries created christian churches and schools there.
In 1875 the U.S. allowed Hawaiian sugar to be imported without tax. Later though the McKinley Tariff in 1890 made it so people did have to pay taxes on the imported Hawaiian sugar. This led farmers to try to get Hawaii annexed so their business wouldn't suffer. Most of the population by that time was made up of U.S. Citizens and immigrants.
In 1887 the U.S. got Hawaii to allow them to create a naval base in pearl harbor. During that time the King Kalakaua was forced by business leaders to amend Hawaii's constitution, making it so only wealthy landowners could vote. After Kalakaua died in 1891 his sister became Queen Liliuokalani and wanted Hawaii to be ruled by Hawaiians. She tried to remove property owning rules for voting. Then business groups revolted with the help of the U.S. Marines and this was encouraged by the embasador John L. Stevens. They overthrew the queen and created a government controlled by Sanford B. Dole. Cleveland wanted the queen to be given her power back, but Sanford B Dole refused, so the U.S. officially recognized the republic of Hawaii. He didn't want anexation unless most Hawaiians wanted it.
In 1897 William McKinley became president and wanted annexation. In August 12, 1898, Hawaii was made a U.S. territory. In 1959 Hawaii was turned into a U.S state.
In the Spanish American war the United states sent General Nelson A. Miles with soldiers to go onto the island of Puerto Rico. The general told the locals that he was only there for their protection, property protection, freedom, etc. The military temporarily controlled Puerto Rico.
In 1900, Congress created the Foraker Act which stopped military rule of Puerto Rico and created a civil government there. The U.S. could elect the upper house members of the legislature. The Puerto Ricans could only elect the members of the lower house.
In 1917 Congress gave Puerto Ricans that right to get U.S. citizenship and the right to elect both houses of the legislature. The U.S. didn’t promise independence to the Puerto Rican people after the Spanish-American War.
After The Spanish American War ended Cuba was officially free but the U.S. soldiers still stayed there. They kept the same government officials in office that were there when Spain had control of Cuba, and people who protested against it were exiled or sent to jail. They also gave clothing, food elementary school organization, help for farmers to cultivate crops again, etc. They got rid of yellow fever there, and increased sanitation and medical research.
The Platt amendment was created in 1901 in response the the creation of Cuba’s constitution in 1900, since the constitution didn’t say the relationship between Cuba and the U.S. The Platt amendment said that Cuba couldn’t make treaties that would lower its independence level or allow another nation to take over its territory, but the U.S. could keep Cuba from doing actions. Also Cuba wasn’t allowed to get a debt. The United States could buy or rent land for refueling stations for boats. The U.S. said that their army would not leave until the constitution was amended with the Platt amendment.
A torchlight protest was made to protest the U.S. military staying and trying to make them agree to the Platt amendment with protesters trying to get Cuba to go to war with the U.S. because of the outrage. They stopped though since the U.S. soldiers stayed in Puerto Rico. The Cubans agreed to the amendment. In 1903 the Cubans accepted a treaty where the U.S. was a protectorate having partial control over Cuba. The U.S. was trying to take over Cuba partially because the U.S. businesses had invested in crops and mining industries there. They also invested in railroads.
In February 1899 the Filipinos had a Philippine American war when they went against America in a revolt lead by Emilio Aguinaldo. Emilio Aguinaldo thought that the Americans said they would give Philippine freedom, so revolted when he found out that the U.S. purchased their land and controlled them like Spain did. He started to use war tactics involving ambush so the Americans reacted by forcing the Filipinos to live in areas that had bad sanitation, low food supply, and disease. Since most of the U.S. soldiers where African American some defected to the Filipino side since they noticed newspapers asking how the African American soldier could promote racial segregation.
The U.S. created a government where the Filipinos would elect members of the lower house and the U.S. would elect members of the Upper house. The Philippines became independent on July 4, 1946.
In 1899 John Hay issued the Open Door noteswhich were letters to different leaders of imperial nations asking for trading rights to be shared with the U.S. so there wouldn't be a trade monopoly on China from any one Imperial nation. The nations aggreed.
There were different Chinese groups that were secret societies that didn't want foreighners invading in the land of China. One of these groups were the Boxers that wanted the Europeans to leave. They killed foreigners and missionaries. In 1900 the rebellion was stopped by soldiers from Bittain, Fance, Gemany, and Japan.
Open Door notes were created by John Hay saying that the U.S. would keep China an impartial trader.
The Anti Imperialist league was created with famous people in it.
William McKinley was elected again in 1900.
William McKinley was killed in 1901 and Theodore Roosevelt became president because he died. President Roosevelt then helped settle a war bettween Russia and Japan. Nicholas the second of Russia decieded to have war with Japan since they were both trying to control Korea. The japanese did a surprise attack at the beggining of the war. During the battles since Japan started to run out of money and people they asked president Roosevelt to create peace negotitions bettween them because Japan was loosing the war but didn't want Russia to know. Originally Japan wanted to be payed and get half of an island but the Russians refused so Roosevelt got Japan to take only hlf of the island and to not be payed. This allowed Japan to have Rusian interests in Manchuria and Korea. This gave Roosevelt the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize.
The U.S and Britain decided to split control of a theoretical canal they had planned to be created in 1850.In 1901 the U.S got complete rights to the canal in the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty in 1901. This Canal would be made through central America. A French company tried to make a canal in panama which was one of the possible choices or canal locations that U.S. wanted, but they didn't finnish it so later they sent an agent Phillipe Bunau-Varrilla to as te U.S if they wanted to buy the partially built canal. The U.S. bought it in 1903. The u.S. needed to get permission though from Columbia though, and when they tied to negotiate an aggreement with Columbia it ended unfavorably. Bauna Varrillahelped to create a Panama rebellion though so in November 3, 1903 Panama rebelled with U.S. support. This made it so Columbia had a bad relationship with the U.S . On 11-18-1903 THe U.S obtained Panama though monetary transaction. They would pay an anual rent of $250,000 and payed $10 million originally.
During creation of the Canal there was spread of yellow fever and malaria amonf the people constructing it. By the time it was constructed over 5,600 wokers died.Thebuilding officially started in 1904. The canal was finished and open on 8-15-1914.. The congress payed Columbia $25 million to make up for the loss of the Panama cannal due to them. Roosevelt created the Rooosevelt Corollary in 1904 which was added to the Monroe Doctrine. It stated tat the U.S.cound use it's international police powe on South America if they didn't follow the business interests of the U.S.
The Taft group had the policy of loaning money to foreighn contries with United States business workers which was called dollar diplomacy by people who didn't aggree with it.
In 1914 a group of U.S. citizens were arrested by Huerta's officers (Huerta was the ruler of Mexico at the time who overthrought the previous ruler.) and released them, saying they were sorry to the united states. Woodrow Wilson utilized this to have a reason to send U.S marines to the supposedly important port of Verracruz in Mexico. Argentina, Brazil, and Chile proposed that Huerta wouldn't be the leader of Mexico and that the U.S would leave Veracruz. Mexico didn't accept this plan. The nationalist president Venustiano Carranza became president in 1915. Wilson recogized it as a government
In 1911 thee was a rebellion in Nicaragua that made it almost bankrupt and Taft loaned them money. Taft was the one who came ater Roosevelt. The bankers were allowed to controll Niciragua's custom duties beause of that. The U.S. bank was given controll of Niciragua's national bank and railroads.The NIciraguans tried to attack Adolfo Diaz.
Fransisco Pancho Villa and Emilio Zapata wanted to get rid of Carranza's government so they organized a rebellion. Villa said he would get revenge on the U.S for siding with Carranza. U.S. workers were sent to work in Carranza's mines but before they got there they were killedby Villa's group. Villa's group attacked Columbia and killed 17 U.S. citizens. Wilson sent General John J. Pershing and a group of soldiers after Villa to capture him dead or alive, but Villa couldn't be found for almost a year. He then put soldiers on the Mexican border. On 6-1916 U.S. soldiers battled with Carranza's army . Carranza wanted the U.S. army to leave but they didn't. On 2-1917 Wilson sent Pershing to the U.S. Mexico got a constitution that makes it so the government would controll the oil and minerals. It also made it so there were regulations on foreighners. Caranza didn't follow the constitution and ruled as a dictator. In 1920 a moderate Alvaro Obregon.
In the 19th century there was increased nationalism. Russia considered itself a protector of all of Europe’s Slavic citizens. One of them was Serbia which was independent, but most of the citizens in Serbia were citizens of Austria Hungary. European nations increased their empires and militarism was increasing France, Britain, Germany, Russia, Austria Hungary, and Italy. In 1890 Germany had the strongest military. In 1897 Wilhelm 2 decided that Germany should have a powerful navy. They competed with the British navy.
In 1907 there was an alliance of the Allies and the Triple Alliance. The Allies were France, Britain, and Russia. The Triple Alliance was Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy. Germany, Austria Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire were the central powers.
On June 1914 Archduke Ferdinand went to Sarajevo, Bosnia in the Palkan Peinsula, and he was killed by Gavrillo Princip in the Serbia terrorist organization the Black Hand. On July 28, 1914 Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia, using this attack on Archduke Ferdinand as an excuse.
In August 1, 1914 Germany declared war on Russia since they were allied with Austria Hungary. On August 3, 1914 they declared war on France. They then attacked Belgium and Britain declared war on Austria Hungary and Germany. Belgium was attacked as part of the Schlieffen Plan that Germany had which was to keep Russia at bay while they went through Belgium to France, defeated France, and then both armies would destroy Russia. In September 1914 the Allies stopped the German march toward France and battled in trench warfare. The trench warfare included three types of trenches, a dugout, and a no man’s land in between enemy trenches. The first trench warfare battle was on July 1, 1916.
In 1914 in the U.S. socialists thought the war was a bad example of a capitalist struggle with imperialists, Germany and England, to control colonies and markets in the Middle East, China, and Africa. Also there were people who didn’t want their children to go to war. The U.S. was officially neutral to world war 1. People would want the war to go in favor of whatever country their ancestors were from. Later though the attack on Belgium increased U.S. sympathy in the Allies. The U.S. had a stronger economic link to the Allies than to Germany. This was partially because during the war the Allies kept buying weapon supplies from the U.S. but Germany hardly bought anything from them. Britain blockaded the German ports to keep weapons and military supplies form getting through. They then didn’t allow food through. They mined the North sea and kept their blockade in neutral ports. The U.S. ships hardly brought supplies to Germany anymore because of the blockade. In 1917 Germany was in a famine. Germany then created a blockade with U-boats in German waters declaring any boats in British waters will be sunk. In 5-7-1915 a U-boat sank a British passenger boat the Lusitania with 128 U.S. citizens and 1,198 people onboard. The Germans said that the boat carried ammunition but the U.S. citizen opinion went against Germany. In 8-1915 another U boat sank a British liner with two U.S. citizens in it. Germany then said it wouldn’t sink anymore passenger ships. In 3-1916 Germany torpedoed a Drench passenger ship and 80 U.S. citizens were killed or injured. Germany then said it would stop attacking passenger ships if the U.S> gor Britain to get rid of its policy of blocking German ports. In 1916 Wilson was reelected. On 1/1917 Wilson asked for peace so the war would end. Germany refused and renewed submarine warfare in British waters. The Zimmermann note was interecepted by British spies and the U.S> found out that Germany said that if Mexico allied with Germany Germany would help it regain lost territory in the U.S. Four unarmed U.S. merchant ships were sunk with 36 deaths. On 3-1916 The Russian monarchy was replaced with a representative government. In 4-1917 America went to war with Germany to create peace for democracy.
On 4-1917 the war with Germany and America was declared by The U.S. and at the time 2000,000 men were in the military with hardly any officers having battle experience. Congress created the Selective Service act on 5-1917 where men had to register with the government and they were randomly drafted into the military. The African American troops were separate and hardly did any fighting mostly, but a group in regiment 269 fought continuously more than any of the other regiments. There was an eight month training time given to the soldiers where people would work 17 hours per day for war practice. Girls were allowed to be nurses in the Army corporation but weren’t paid or given a rank. Girls also got noncombat work in the Marines as nurses, secretaries, and phone operators with military ranking. The U.S. tried to find a methodology of transportation for the food, men, and equipment to the battle field. The government let shipyard builders not go into the draft or got them delayed from being drafted. The public relations group worked with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce to get people to see the importance of shipyard work. Service flags were given to the families of shipyard workers like the ones given to members of the army. They got car owners to drive ship builders to and from work. Pieces were built separately from the ship yard and were sent to the shipyard as standardized parts. 95 ships were sent out on 7-4-1918. The government took over commercial and private ships for the war. The U.S. vCive Admiral Willim S. Sims got the British to utilize a convoy system where a group of destroyers bring merchant ships across the Atlantic. This technique seemed to work. The Germans had more difficulty repacing their lost U-boats and submariners. Supposedly the amount of soldiers and the enthusiasm of the soldiers was the advantage the U.S. had in the war and the reason they were employed to help the allied forces. The American Expeditionary Force was led by General John J. Pershing and had infantry soldiers called dough boys. Machine guns were improved to shoot 6000 rounds of ammunition per minute and tanks and airplanes were utilized. The tanks were bullet proof and by 1917 the British were able to push over fences with tanks to make room for infantry units. At the beginning of the war Pilots would try to shoot each other with pistols since propeller blades would block the bullets of mounted machine guns. Later the Germans created a gear system that allowed the bullets to not hit the blades of the airplane. Also the airplanes could travel faster while carrying loads of more mass. In 1918 the British had a bomber group with 22,000 planes supposedly. Balloons were utilized by the allied and axis powers to gain Intel on the other sides. In World War 1 poison gas was utilized. Gas masks were utilized to combat this. People got trench foot from standing in trenches where their toes would rot and they would get trench mouth. Shell shock also happened which an emotional breakdown was caused by the stress of war supposedly. There was also increased filth, along with rats, and polluted water. On 5-1917 the Germans were nearing Frances western side and the U.S. helped to stop the attack. Later the Americans attacked to counter German attacks at Chateau Theirry and belleau Wood. They also helped to win the second battle of Marne. Alvin Yourk was considered to be a war hero since he killed 25 Germans utilizing a revolver and shotgun. Austria Hungary surrendered on 11-3-1918. German sailors and soldiers went agains the government and on 11-9-1918 socialist leader in Berlin created a republic. The Kaiser supposedly gave up the throne. On 11-11-1918 Germany signed an armistice.
The Treaty of Versailles resulted in the Germans owing a large sum of money to the Allied powers and loss of colonies originally owned by Germany. It also blamed the Germans for starting the war. This increased Germany’s anger against the allied powers. Adolf Hitler was a German soldier that was jobless after the war. In 1919 he went into the National Socialist German Workers party which was also called the Nazi party. He later became the leader of the group with his adept speaking skills and promised to get Germany out of Chaos. He created a book in jail called Mein Kampf where he set up the plan of the Nazi group and the belief structure. They had extreme nationalism supposedly. Hitler was born in Austria actually. He tried to created racial purification by only having Germans with blond hair and blue eyes as the master race. Jewish people, Slavic people, and nonwhite people were considered to only be able to serve the Arians. German people would be united in this empire. He also wanted Germany to be expanded. In 1932 roughly 6 million Germans didn’t have jobs. The people who didn’t have work any more joined the Nazis as storm troopers mainly. The Nazis came to power with the Great Depression and economic inflation to help them since the people thought Hitler could lead them out of the situation. In 1-1933 Hitler became the chancellor or prime minister then he destroyed the Weimar Republic. He created the third Reich.
In Russia the societ Union was created as a communist state in 1922 by Lenin who died in 1924. After 1924 Joseph Stalin took over and he tried to increase industrialization. He took over privately owned farms and had the farm collectives worked on by hundreds of families. In 1928 he created the first of his five year plans to increase industrialization. By 1939 He had created a totalitarian government where he had almost complete control over the citizens.
In Italy Benito Mussolini created a totalitarian group in response to demand by middle and upper class citizens for strong leadership because of unemployment, inflation, and strikes. He was a good speaker and was able to utilize the national pride and demand for a leader. By the time of 1921 He created the Fascist party where nationalism was considered to be important and the state interests were considered to be greater than individual interests. They also thought that the power of the government should be in a leader and group of party members. On October 1922 Mussolini got government officials, the army, and the police to ally with him and the king made him the controller of the government. He made Italy totalitarian.
In Japan nationalistic leaders were trying to take over the imperial Japanese government. They also wanted to expand the empire. In 1930 they did a surprise attack on the Chinese province Manchuria and they took over the province. The League of Nations(created after World War 1 to try to negotiate peace to prevent wars) sent reporters to Manchuria and considered the actions of Japan unjustified. Japan then left the league of nations. The ones that controlled Japans government now were militarists.
The U.S. citizens mainly thought they shouldn’t be involve in the new war and signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928 saying that they would not use war as a national policy. 62 other nations sighned. In the 1930s there were books that said that the U.S. was sent into World War 1 by greedy bankers and arms dealers. A congressional committee was made in North Dakota to hold hearings on people being merchants of death. They would utilize documentation of profits people made during the war. In 1933 Roosevelt officially recognized the Soviet Union and exchanged ambasadorw with Moscow. In 1934 he created the Reciprocal Trade Aggreement allowing him to make trade agreements with other nations. In 1935 Congress passed Neutrality acts which made it harder to sell weapons and give loans to nations in civil wars. Roosevelt got around the Neutrality acts by saying that Japan wasn’t officially at war with China so he sent weapons and supplies to China.
On 11-5-1937 Hitler announced to his top advisers secretly that he would take over Austria and Czechoslovakia. Most of Austria’s citizens were German and wanted Austria to be part of Germany. On 3-12-1938 German troops went to Austria without people attacking them or protesting. The next day the union with Germany was finished supposedly. Sudetenland was Czechoslovakia’s topographical defense location since it was on a mountainous region. Hitler said that the Czechs were abusing the Germans in Sudeten and he got troops to go to the border of Czech. The news papers lied to the citizens, saying that Germans were being murdered by Czechs. The French and British tried to protect Czechoslovakia and Hitler invited the French premier and British prime minister named Neville Chamberlain to meet with him at Munich. He said that Sudetenland would be his last territorial demand. On 9-30-1038 the French and British signed the Munich Agreement which gave Sudetenland to Germany. Winston Churchill thought that by signing the Munich agreement was appeasement to the Germans. Churchill warned Chamberlain that the Germans will try to gain more land. On 3-15-1939 the Germans took over the rest of Czechoslovakia. In 1939 Hitler tried to blame the Polish for mistreating Germans in Poland. Later Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler saying they wouldn’t attack each other, and a secret pact dividing Poland between them. On 9-1-1939 The Germans attacked Poland with their airplane bombs and tanks as part of their blitzkrieg strategy which meant lighting war. The idea was to quickly surprise attack and defeat Poland. On 9-3-1939 Britain and France declared war with Germany. In the last week of the attack the Soviet Union attacked east Poland and took over territory. Germany took over the west section of Poland with two thirds of the population. Some months after Poland was taken over French and British troops would sit at the Maginot Line which was a group of fortifications along France’s East boarder. They would wait for Germany to do something but German troops just looked back at them. This was called the phony war. Stalin took over Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. He then took over Finland in 1939. On 4-1940 Hitler took over Denmark and Norway supposedly to protect their freedom. HE then took over the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium. The Germans got past the Maginot Line by going through the ravines in northeast France, which the French and British thought impassible. Germany attacked France and the British and German soldiers left with a fleet of fishing ships and other ships they were able to escape with. Italy then allied with Germany and attacked South France. On 6-22-1940 the French surrendered to Hitler and he controlled the north section where a Nazi controlled politician controlled the south. A French General Charles de Gualle left to England deciding not to lose against Germany. In 1940 the Germans attacked with bombers and created a fleet of ships on the coast of France. Airplanes bombed Britain for two months every night. It started targeting aircraft and bases but then started to attack cities. The British Royal Air Force was able to attack the German airplanes at night with the new radars they had. Hitler then stopped the attack on Britain. German bombers still attacked cities so Britain attacked German cities.
On 11-9-1938 to the next day Kristallnacht happened meaning the night of broken glass where Nazi storm troops attacked Jewish businesses, homes, and synagogues in Germany. American journalists and other journalists witnessed this. Synagogues were burned and Jews were arrested. The Germans then blamed it on the Jews. The Nazis then tried to get the Jews to emigrate but most nations wouldn’t accept them since they already had plenty of Jews that immigrated there as refugees. America accepted high profile refugees like Einstein. Hitler later created what he considered the final solution which consisted of genocide of non Anrians. This was mainly directed towards Jews but was also directed towards Gypsies, Freemasons, Jahovah’s Witnesses, etc. HE also blamed Jews for being part of a grand Jewish conspiracy to take over the world. The Nazis also tried to destroy mentally ill people and disabled people. Nazi squadrons shot them on the spot. Jewish people were then sent into crowded ghettos in Polish cities. The ghettos were then sealed off with barbed wire and walls. In the ghettos people were forced to work for the Germans and there was hardly any food. Also dead people were there and weren’t pulled away when they died. Some Jewish groups created resistances and other created secret newspapers. There were secret schools and secret music groups. Jews in German and German owned territory were also forced to wear yellow star of davids to locate them. Later Jewish people were brought into trains i=then to concentration camps. The Concentration camps were created originally t put political protesters. People were hardly given any food, and their valuables were stolen. There was also bad sanitation and rats. People were worked every day in the daylight. The ones that couldn’t work any more were killed. In 1942 Hitler decided to also crate gas chambers to kill them. There were even Germans in the prison camps supposedly shy of work. Auschwitz was the largest death camp and doctors in the security squadrons would decide who was healthy enough to live and who would die. The groups had to leave what they owned and were told they would get it back later. The ones to die would be told they were taking a shower and would be gassed. Nazi doctors tried to improve the master race by doing experiments on people.One of these was Josef Mengele who utilized experiments mainly on twins to improve the master race and study telepathy.Heinrich Himmler was another member of the S.S. who tried to selectively create the master race by consciously controlling the genetics of the populace. He also expanded the number of people sent into concentration camps.
In 9-1939 Franklin Delanor Roosevelt got congress to utilize a cash and carry policy where the nations at war could still by good from the U.S. if they paid in cash and shipped it themselves. Roosevelt supposedly said that this would keep the Germans from attacking the U.S. and getting the U.S. into another war, since it would effectively keep us out of the war but would still support France and Britain. Later the Neutrality act of 1939 was passed and the cash and carry policy started. On 9-27-1940 Germany, Italy, and Japan sighned the tripartite act forming the axis powers. This led them to be allied, and to decide to attack any nation that would attack any one of them. If the U.S. attacked that would make ti so they would have a two ocean war, the Atlantic and Pacific. The U.S. increased spending on the defence under Roosevelt duringm this time. There was also the first peace time military draft that took place. Roosevelt ran in the third election against Wendell Willkie, but both had almost the same views on every subject, so Roosevelt was voted in again with a roughly 55 percent vote for him. After he was reelected the president said that it would be impossible to have peace with Hitler. They then tried to neutrally be in the war in undeclared war. Since in the 1940s Britain didn’t have much more cash to spend on military supplies called the arsenal of democracy, Roosevelt suggested a lend and lease policy. The lend lease policy would allow the president to lend or lease war supplies to any country that needs to be defended so the U.S. is defended. Isolationists supposedly didn’t like the plan but the majority of the U.S. citizens wanted it so Congress passed the Lend Lease Act in 3-1941. In 6-1941 Hitler attacked the soviet union even though he agreed not to earlier. Roosevelt, then seeing that they would be enemies, started to utilize his lend lease procedure with the Soviet Union. Hitler had hundreds of submarines attack lend lease policy boats and created what was later known as wolfpack attacks where U boats would be waiting in the North Atlantic where the boats would be expected to be. Usually 40 submarines would be there at a time. They sank 350,000 tons of shipments in the moth. In 9-1941 Roosevelt gave the navy permission to destroy German U boats for self-defense. Later these attacks were stopped or avoided because of radar and other detection methodologies, and antisubmarine airplanes with aircraft carriers. Congress voted with a one vote win to extend the draft time for the military members. Roosevelt and Churchill supposedly had a secret meeting where they created the Atlantic Charter. The Atlantic charter made it so both the U.S. and Soviet Union agreed to give each other and try to preserve for each other freedom of vessel motion in the sea, would have self disarmament towards each other, and economic cooperation with each other. Roosevelt also said that although Congress hadn’t agreed to war the U.S. would have an undeclared war against Germany. This was utilized for another document called the Declaration of the United Nations which 26 different nations signed. Since a German U boat attacked a U.S. destroyer On 9-4-1941 Roosevelt told navy commanders to destroy u boats once spotted. German U boats then sank the Pink Star merchant ship that was U.S. owned, the U.S. destroyer Kearny, and the U.S. destroyer Reuben James. Roosevelt publicized this and pointed out that the Germans attacked first. This started the undeclared war with the Germans. In 7-1937 Hideki Tojo who was the chief of staff of one of Japan’s armies attacked China. In 1941 Only the U.S. could stop Japan from taking over Asia, since the British were busy in the war. Japan then took over French military bases in Indochina. The United states then stopped trading with Japan in protest. One of the things that the U.S. used to trade with Japan was oil, and that was needed by Japan for its military machines. The Japanese military leaders decided that either they needed to get the U.S. to give them oil again, or they needed to steal oil in the Dutch East Indies. On 11-5-1941 Tojo had the Japanese Navy get ready to attack the U.S. The U.S. broke the encrypted codes though that the Japanese had and ew that the Japanese would attack. It just didn’t know where they would attack. Later Roosevelt warned military leaders in Guam Hawaii, and the Philippines that Japan would try to have war with the U.S. but they should let Japan attack first so everyone knows Japan started the war. On 11-6-1941 Roosevelt found a decoded message from the Japanese saying not to accept any U.S. peace proposals. On 11-7-1941 Pearl harbor was attacked by the Japanese. Almos the whole U.S. Pacific fleet was sunk during the two hours that the attack took. 2,403 people were killed and 1,178 U.S. people were wounded supposedly. Three aircraft carriers survived since they happened to be out at sea that day. On 11-8-1941 the U.S. Declared war on Japan. Then Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. Isolationists lost faith in isolation after the attack and decided to have war.
The U.S. citizens supposedly responded to Pearl Harbor by deciding to attack Japan. 5 million people volunteered for the military but it supposedly wasn’t considered to be enough to battle on two fronts so the draft was extended to encompass 10 million soldiers. They were then sent into basic training for 8 months. This was part of the selective service and GI. Army Chief of staff General George Marshall suggested a Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps. It started out with their group having less rights and privileges but after they got thousands of members it lost the status of being auxiliary and got full army benefits. Groups were racially discriminated against however, so some groups like African American groups had people in them that said that they shouldn’t be trying to end racial problems in another country when it hasn’t even been achieved in their country. More than 300,000 Mexican American soldiers joined the army. Roughly one million African Americans were in the military in segregated units. Over 13,000 Chinese Americans and 33,000 Japanese Americans joined the U.S. Thousands would be spies for the military of the U.S. In 2-1942 the last automobiles for public use during the war were created. After that the automobile plants were used to create military vehicles. Other factories were used for weapon creating. Seven shipyards were created by in 1942. Prefabricated parts were used. In 1944 even though there was a draft there were still 18 million workers. Over 6 million of them were girls supposedly. Defense plants hired over 2 million minority workers. Before the war African Americans wouldn’t be hired unless being hired for low level jobs like janitor. A Philip Randolph, president and creator of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters organized a march on Washington. It was planned to occur on 7-1-1941 where African Americans would say that they were loyal and wanted the right to work and fight for the country. Roosevelt thought it might create white violence so he asked Randolph to the white house and asked him to stop the protest. There were so many people that were planned to be in the March that they would not be able to all stay in Washington. Roosevelt got Randolph to cancel the March in return for the president having an executive orirder telling all labor unions and employers to give equal and complete participation of all workers in the defense industries without discrimination based on race, creed, color, or national origin. In 1941 Roosevelt created the Office of Scientific Research and Development. The OSRD improved radar, sonar, and encouraged the use of the pesticide DDT. They also tried to increase usage of drugs like penicillin for the army. They also created the atomic bomb. In 1939 German scientists split uranium atoms and released energy. This led to the start of exploration of the atomic bomb. This lead Albert Einstein to write a letter to Roosevelt to warn him. Roosevelt then created a committee to study to the Uranium discovery. In 1941 it was reported that it would take 3 to five years to create the atomic bomb. In 1942 a project was made to build the bomb faster. Since most people were working in the war the prices would logically rise because of increased demand and low supply so the Office of Price Administration was created which froze the prize on most goods. Income taxes were increased and extended to people that previously didn’t pay taxes. The higher taxes reduced demand for products because there was less money for them to spend. The government tried to get people to buy war bonds. This kept inflation below 30 percent. The War Production Board was created was created to make sure the resources needed to win the war were sent to the army. It decided which companies would switch from peace to war status and got materials for the creation of weapons. They also had resource collection drives. The OPA created a system for rationing goods to the military. Family’s would get ration books with coupons to buy food and supplies.
Even though the Allied agreed that destroying the Nazis was first on the agenda, the U.S. decided to attack the Japanese. In the six months since the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor the Japanese took over Hong Kong, Malaya, French Endochina, Burma, Thailand, most of China, he Dutch East Indies, Guam, Wake Island, the Solomon Islands, and ocean outposts.80,000 U.S. and Pilipino soldiers battled to Japanese to take back the territories that Japan controlled. The Japanese invaded in 12-1941 and General Douglass Mac Arthur was the commander of the Allied forces in the islands. Roosevelt then had Mac Arthur leave because they were cornered. In 1942 the allies raided Tokyo and other Japanese cities. Bombers also attacked. The Allies in the Pacific stopped Japanese ships heading toward astralia in the battle of Coral Sea. The fighting was mainly done with airplanes. The Japanese were stopped. Japan next tried to attack Midway/ The allies Also stopped the Japanese since they broke the Japanese code and new it would be their target. Admiral Chester Nimitz was the commander of the American naval forces in the Pacific and on June 3, 1942 he sent scout plains that found the Japanese attack fleet. The U.S. then sent torpedo planes and bombers to battle them. The Japanese lost that battle. The Battle of Midway led the U.S. to island hop which was winning victories in various islands one after another. In August 1942 the allies sent 19,000 troops ingo Guadalcanal in the Solomon islands. The Japanese abandoned the island later, calling it the death island. Guadalcanal was the allies first land victory on Japan. On October 1944 allied troops landed on Leyte island on the Philippines. General Mac Arthur was among them. The Japanese then sent a group of planes to kamikaze at the battle of Leyte Gulf where the kamikaze would be a suicide attack where people would crash their planes with explosives into ships. The Japanese lost the battle of Leyte Gulf, losing planes, aircraft carriers, etc. The Allies freed the prisoners of war there and then went to Iwo Jima which had 20,700 Japanese troops, a volcano, and was well defended with tunnels and caves. 6,000 marines dies and 200 Japanese lived. On April 1945 the U.S. Marines attacked Okinawa. The Japanese utilized kamikaze attacks to battle. They lost ships and men before even landing in Okinawa. After getting there they still were doomed. The battle ended on June 21, 1945 but over 7,600 U.S. soldiers died. The Japanese lost 110,000 though, including two Generals doing ritual suicide over their failure. The Manhattan project as utilized to build the atomic bomb and was lead by the scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer. Over 600,000 U.S. citizens helped with the project but didn’t know about it. It was first tested on July 16, 1945 in the destert near New Mexico. President Truman utilized this bomb on Hiroshima and Nagisaki . Hiroshima was attacked on August 6, 1945. The Hiroshima bomb was code named little boy and the Nagazaki bomb was code named fat man. Emperor Hiroshito surrendered afterwards. On February 1945 the Allies one in Europe and Roossevelt met with Churchill and Stalin in Yalta in the Soviet union. Roosevelt was a mediator, and Churchill disagreed with Stalin’s harsh approach of segregating Britain into occupatne zones. Roosevelt at that time wanted Stalin to still help in the war against Japan and to elp create the United Nations. Roosevelt got Churchil to agree to a remporary devision of Germany with four zones, each controlled by a different nation. Stalin promised free election in his section.
Stalin joined the war in Japan and agreed to be in an international conference in San Francisco which led to creation of the United Nations. The Nuremberg trials were held against Hitler’s party officials, government ministers, military leaders, and industrialists. They were tried for war crimes, crimes against the peace, and crimes against humanity. 12 out of the 24 defendents were sentenced to the death and most of the rest were sent to prison. Later 200 more Nazis were found guilty. A lot of the Nazis in the holocaust didn’t get tried. While the U.S. was still n Japan over 1,100 Hapanese including Hideki Tojo were arrested and put on trial. Seven were sentenced to death including Hideko Tojo. The occupation was seven years and the U.S. introduced a free market economy to recover the economy there. There were also elections with emperors still. Their constitution is the MacArthur constitution.
Roosevelt had a meeting with the Churchill in 12-22-1941. Roosevelt was convinced by Churchill that the Germans and Italians were more of a threat and that the U.S. should try to attack the Germans first. Hitler then had U boats attack merchant and material ships from U.S east coast in the Battle of the Atlantic. Later a convoy system with merchant ships being guarded by destroyers and airplanes was utilized and the U.S. destroyed the U boats faster than they were built. The U.S. also started producing 140 Liberty ships per month. In 1943 the British started winning more battles in the Atlantic. In 12-1941 the cold weather stopped the Germans from progressing in their attack on the Soviet Union. In summer 1942 the Germans attacked the southern Soviet Union where he wanted to take over oil locations in the Caucasus Mountains. He also wanted to destroy Stalingrad which was an industrial center in the Soviet Union. Then bombers attack Stalingrad. In 9-1942 the Germans took over 9/10 of the city. In the winter the Germans surrendered because they were too cold and hungry. After the Soviet victory the Soviets started to go towards Germany. The U.S. created project torch where they attacked German controlled North African territory. The Afrika Korps surrendered to the U.S. and British in 5-1943. Project torch was led by Dwight D. Eisenhower. Before the surrender of the Afrika Korps Roosevelt and Churchill had a meeting in Casablanca where they decided to only except unconditional surrender of the axis powers. They also decided to attack Italy first even though Roosevelt thought that there should be an invasion in Britain going through France and then to Germany. Sicily was defeated in 1943 and the Italian government took away Mussolini’s power and arrested him. Later there was a four month battle Bloody Anzio bettween them and the Germans since they didn’t want an invasion into their territory. Dwight D. Eisenhower lead Operation Overlord. The Allieds got roughly 3 million British, American, and Canadian soldiers. They decided to attac Normandy in northern Franceand to make sure they wouldn’t be found out, they created a fake military operation and head courters and sent radio messeges saying they were going to attack the French port Calais. Hitler could easily intercept their messege and sent his troops there. On 6-6-1944 the invasion started called D-Day, even though it was postponed one day due to weather. Three parachute divisions went behind the German defences and thousands of soldiers came from the sea. The Germans attacked back though. After 7 days the Allies had an 80 mile long piece of France. On 6-25-1944 General Omar Bradley ordered an air and land strike on St. Lo. This allowed General George Patton to go towards Germany and farther through France since there was a gap in the German defence. Later French resistance and U.S. soldiers freed the French capital. By 9-1944 France, Belgium and Luxembourg were free. This allowed Roosevelt to get reelected in a fourth term. In 10-1944 Americans took over Auchen. Hitler had his soldiers go through the allies and retake over Belgium and Antwerp. On 12-16-1944 It was foggy and the Germans used that to their advantage to send eight tank divisions through weak U.S. defences. The tanks that drove in the allied territory created a bulge in the Allied lines so the battle was called the battle of the bulge. The Germans captured 120 U.S. GI’s and the SS troppers killed the hostages they captured . However by the time the battle was over the Germans lost 120,000 soldiers, 600 tanks and weapons, and 1,600 planes. The Soviet Union and the U.S. invaded Berlin and saw the concentration camp. They freed the prisoners. On 4-25-1945 the Soviet Union invaded Berlin, and soldiers that tried to run away were shot by the Germans and had signs placed on them saying that they betrayed Hitler. Hitler was in an underground bunker, iewed Eve Braun, and they both committed suicide. Hitler ordered the S.S. troops ahead of time to soak them in gasoline and burn them after they killed themselves. Later General Eisenhower accepted their unconditional surrender. On 5-8-1945 the Allies celebrated Victory in Europe day. Roosevelt died in 4-12-1945. Harry S. Truman became president.
After world war 2 there was increased economic prosperity supposedly for workers in the U.S. and the U.S. was supposedly the leading military and economic country. During the war the unemployment went below 1.2 percent in 1944 because of increased people in the defense industry. There were still long hours for workers and bad working conditions, but they were able to have a surplus of money because they didn’t spend as much usually and there were increased working opportunities. Farmers also had increased production of crops of up to 509 percent. In the 1940’s the crop growing weather ws better and there were increases in technology so the crops could easily be planted and harvested. Fertilizer was also utilized. Girls also worked during the war, but most lost their jobs after the war. More than 6 million workers where girls and the percentage of girls working in the work field increased to 35 percent. 1/3 of the jobs were in the defense department. People also micrated during the war because they wanted to get jpobs inm the defense industries or wanted to move to areas that would increase the probobility of getting jobs. African Americans left teh southeast and went almost anywhere else in the U.S. Most of them went to the middle Atlantic, Midwest, and South east.During the war the Affrican Amerocans could find better jobs than they could earlier. From 1940 to 1944 the percentage of African Americansin the group of U.S. workers increased from 16 percent to 30 percent. There was still discrimination against them though. In 1942 James Farmer who was a civil rights leader created the Congress of Racial Equality. This group began working within the year on discrimination ideals supposedly. In 1943 there was increased violence involving Africann Americans, and in summer tere were rumors taht were supppiosedly false that a group of people that were of european descent with high skin reflectense in the visible range accross multiple color wavelenghts killed a African American mother and her child. A group of African Americans then killed 17 white people. This lead the U.S. to be aware of the racial tensions they had. B8 1945 there were over 400 committees to improve connection bettween races.In the sumemr in 1945 in loss Angeles there was a series of anti Mexican zoot suit riots. This started after 11 sailors in Los Angeles said that they were attacled by zoot suit Mexicans. This lead servicemen and civilians to acts of violence against Mexicans. The mobs would beat zoot suit wearers. These lasted weeks.Mexican Americans thought that this would spread awareness about them and lead to better treatment later. There was also increased prejudice agaibnst Japanese Americans bvecause of the Pearl Harbor attacks. They thought the Japanese would mine and poisen them. I 1942 the War Department asked for evacuation of all Japanese from Hawaii. However the order was refuted by General Delos Ammons who saw that 37 percent of the citizens in Hawaii where Japanese Americans. If they were removed the economy might collapse. Later internment which was confinement of the Japanese started. Whites in the U.S> were being prejudice against Japanese and the newspapers made the Japanese look worse. On Ferbruary 19 1942 Roosevelt sighned a paper ordering the Japanese to be exported from California and parts of Washington, Arisona, and Oregon, for national security. The Japanese Americans were sent to relocation centers which were prison camps. Most of them were Japanese from the U.S. with Japanese parents. and most of them were in the military already. The Japanese Americans then sold their posessions for less then their regular value. Japanese Americans retorted in tghe courts and in Korematsu vs the U.S. it was considered militarily necesary to get rid of the Japanese. After the war the Japanese American Citizens Leage got the government to pay the people for the property that was lost in the prison camps. Congress allowed the use of 38 million dollars but that was less then a tenth of the money owed. In 1978 the JACL asked for payment of each person in the internment. 10 yars afterward Congress and the Ronald Reagen made a bill promising 20,000 dollars for every Japonese American sent to the camp. The Checks wre sent in 1990.