AP Euro


Petrach (IT)

1304 - 1374

-"Father of Humanism"
-coined the phrase 'Dark Ages'
-sought out classical texts such as Cicero
-was accused by others for turning to the pagan culture of ancient Greece/Rome
-inspiration for a group of wealthy young Florentines - the civic humanists


1329 - 1384

-questioned the worldly wealth of the church, transubstantiation, teaching of penance and indulgences
-urged his followers to read the bible/ interpret it themselves

Golden Bull


-the practice of electing the emperor of the HRE was formally defined in the Golden bull of Emperor Charles VI
-granted 7 German princes the right to elect an emperor
-made it clear the the emperor held office by election and not by hereditary right

Jan Hus (Bh)

1369 - 1415

-led a revolt that combined religious/ nationalistic elements
-said it was the authority of the Bible not the church that mattered
-called to the Council of Constance in 1415, was promised safe passage but was burned at the stake

Capture of Ceuta by P.H.T.N


-Prince Henry The Navigator, the younger son of the King of Portugal, participated in the capture of the North African port of Ceuta from the Muslims
-sponsored a navigational school in Lisbon
-also sponsored a series of expeditions to find a route to India and the Far East around Africa

Luther (Ger)

1438 - 1546

-meant to be a Lawyer, 1505, "I will become a monk"
-was horrified but the indulgences
-tacked his 95 Theses on the Castle Church at Wittenberg
-originally, Pope Leo X had no care to get involved but later, said Luther had to either recant his ideas or be burnt alive
-placed under the ban by the Empire but hidden in a Wartburg Castle by the Elector of Saxony
-believed in 2 of the seven sacraments - baptism/ communion
-against the idea of transubstantiation - the blood/bread Christ thing
-not critical of the German princes and encouraged them to confiscate the lands of the Catholic Church


1452 - 1498

-a radical Dominican preacher
-led a Florentine population to expel the Medico rulers/ established a puritanical state... this marked the end of Florence's leading role int he Renaissance scholarship/art
-later, Ludovico saw that he was wrong and joined the anti-French Italian alliance and expelled the French/ restored the Medici/ the Medici burnt Savonarola at the stake
-he was hated for his pre-Lutheran call for a complete overhaul of the Church/ the institution of the papacy

Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

-painter, military engineer, architect, sculpture, scientists, an inventor
-Mona Lisa

Treaty of Lodi

1454 - 1490

-provided a balance of power among the major Italian city-states
-created an alliance between the enemies, Milan and Naples with the support of Florence
-made to ensure that outside powers would stay out of Italian affairs

-ended with Ludovico il Moro, the despot of Milan, initiating hostilities with Naples/ inviting the French to take their claim on Naples

Erasmus (Dutch)

1466 - 1536

-"The greatest of northern humanists"
-In Praise of Folly - used satire to criticize the problems of the Church
-Handbook of the Christian Knight - emphasized the idea of inner faith
-translated the New Testament
-wanted to reform the church

Ferdinand and Isabella marry


-Ferdinand, King of Aragon and Isabella, Queen of Castile get marry
-this lays the groundwork for the eventual consolidation of the Spanish peninsula
-Catholic Ferdinand/ Isabella demand religious uniformity in their lands
-use the Spanish Inquisition to hound down the converted Jews/ Moors and later to root out suspected Protestants

Copernicus (Pol)

1473 - 1543

-Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres - as a cleric, scared of the implications of his work.. published later/ dedicated it to Pope Paul III/ said it was just a mathematical hypothesis
-posed the Heliocentric system, the planets move in a circular motion around the sun


1475 - 1564

-David - was commissioned by the city of Florance to inspire the citizens in their long struggle against the overwhelming might of Milan
-Julius II asked him to make his tomb/ work on the Sistine Chapel

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

-Utopia - means "nowhere", was critical of many aspects of contemporary society/ sought to depict a civilization in which political/ economic injustices were limited by having all property held in common
-was highly critical of certain practices of the church
-served King Henry VIII as chancellor... later beheaded for refusing to take an oath recognizing Henry as the head of the Church of England


1483 - 1520

-came from Urbino
-was given important commissions from Vatican palaces
-The School of Athens - shows Plato/ Aristotle standing together


1484 - 1531

-many of his ideas were similar to Luther's
-denied all the sacraments
-died leading the troops of Zurich against the Swiss Catholic cantons in battle

Henry VII


-defeated Richard III in 1485 and established the Tudor dynasty
-aka Henry Tudor

B. Dias goes 'round Cape of GH


-Bartholomew Dias, Portuguese captain, sailed around the Cape of Good Hope

Loyola (Basq)

1491 - 1556

-organized the group called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
-was a Spanish noble
-decided that the Bible was the sole source of faith
-Spiritual Exercises - where he wrote his ideas



-the Spanish armies of Ferdinand, King of Aragon and Isabella, Queen of Castile conquered the last independent Islamic outpost in Spain, Grenada

Columbus sails to Bahamas


-A Genoese sailor working under the Spanish
-spoke of converting the whole world to Christianity
-landed in eastern Bahamas, thought it was an undeveloped part of Asia - the "Indies"

Da Gama reaches Coast of India


-Vasco da Gama, Portuguese, reached the coast of India
-defeated the Arab fleets that patrolled the Indian Ocean by being the first to successfully mount cannons on their ships/ deploying ships in squadrons (this gave them a tactical advantage)
-the Portuguese established themselves/ controlled the lucrative spice trade for a while

Henry VIII

1509 - 1546

-after his father death in 1509, took the throne
-with the help of the decimation of aristocratic opponents from the War of the Roses/ an expanding economy, Henry was able to restore royal authority
-created bureaucracy
-The Defense of the Seven Sacraments - criticized Luther
-the 'King's great matter'... he wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon but the church would not allow it because she was the aunt of powerful Charles V
-with the Church of England, wanted to keep all the aspects of the Catholic worship ex minus the pope
-closed the English monasteries/ confiscated the lands

Calvin (Fr)

1509 - 1564

-Institutes of the Christian Religion - most of his ideas can be found here
-said that since God is all powerful, already predestined where you are going to go (heaven/hell), no freewill
-very strict, closed taverns in Geneva (trying to make it the new Jerusalem
-Calvinism spread quickly in1540s/1550s
-Calvinism went to France, those who followed called Huguenots

Machiavelli - The Prince


-The Prince - the collapse of the Italian independence was the historical context for it
-Machiavelli was a Florentine Republic diplomat/ official in the chancellery
-when the Republic was overthrown by the Medici, he was forced into exile
-the book is him trying to convince the Medici to partake of his services
-Machiavelli was horrified by the increasing foreign domination of the Italian peninsula/ said they needed a strong, ruthless leader to unify Italy

Cortes lands in Mexico


-Hernan Cortes, Spanish, lands in Mexico with 600 men
-arrived at the heart of the Aztec Empire.... Tenochtitlan
-at the time, the Aztecs were not liked by the people because they had conquered them/ their sacrificial ways were unwelcomed so the natives were cooperative with the Spanish
-the Aztecs think the Spanish are gods/ try to give gifts to them
-Cortes takes the ruler, Montezuma captive
-Aztecs smacked down by European diseases
-by 1521, Cortes declared the former Aztec Empire to be New Spain

Charles V elected Emp


-the powerful Habsburg
-attempted the establish genuine imperial control over the German state
-saw Lutheran Reformation was a weapon for the German princes/ wanted to avoid losing their independence
-overall failed to create a unified German stat

Magellan tries to circumnavigate


-Ferdinand Magellan, set out to circumnavigate the globe
-died in the Philippines though..
-proved that the territory Columbus found was NOT the Far East but something new

Emp Maximilian died


-AFTER, this leads to his grandson/ heir, Charles V, to struggle with the French King, Francis I, who also wants the throne

German Peasant's Revolt


-can see Luther's conservatism
-the revolt was the result of German peasants' worsening economic conditions/ their belief that Luther would have wanted it.. this was not the case

Castiglione's The Courier


-strove to describe the 'ideal' man, one who knew several languages, familiar with classical lit, skilled in the arts

Reformation Parliament


-1529 --> 7 years
-King Henry VIII used this as a tool to give him ultimate authority on religious matters

Pizarro goes to Peru


-Francisco Pizarro, Spanish, set out for Peru with 200 men
-captured the Inca Emperor, Atahualpa and asked for ransom
-by 1533 got tired of the Emperor so killed him
-1560s, the Spanish stomped out all the resistance

Act in Retraint of Appeals


-during the time King Henry VIII wanted to get divorced to Catherine of Aragon
-declared that all spiritual cases within the Kingdom were within the King's jurisdiction and authority and not the pope's

Anabaptists Takeover Munster


-attacks against the Anabaptists worsen after this
-they attempted to create an Old Testament theocracy in which men were allowed to have multiple wives
-captured using combined Catholic/ Protestant armies

Act of Supremacy


-acknowledged the King of England as the Supreme head of what would become known as the Church of England

Papal Bull of 1540


-Society of Jesus accepted as an official order in a papal bull
-they began to distinguish themselves as a teaching order and also worked as Catholic missionaries in places where Lutheranism had made large inroads

Schmalkaldic Wars (HRE vs Prot)


-fought between Charles and some of the Protestant princes

El Greco

1541 - 1614

-Greek born, but 'Spanish' painter
-his work reveals much about Spain

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

-the centerpiece of the Catholic Reformation
-was dominated by the papacy and its power
-took steps to address some of the issues that had sparked the Reformation such as simony, the selling of church offices, the education of the clergy
-endorsed their traditional teaching on such matters as the sacraments, the role or priests, and the belief that salvation comes from faith as well as works
-they created the baroque style in art

Brahe (Dan)

1546 - 1601

-constructed the best astronomical tables of his age
-lost part of his nose in a duel
-proposed a system in which the mood/ the sun revolved around Earth
-Kepler was his student

Cervantes (Sp)

1547 - 1616

-Don Quixote - bemoans the passing of the traditional values of chivalry in Spain

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

-son of King Henry VIII
-during his short reign, saw an attempt to institute genuine Protestant theology into the church that Henry had created

Mary Tudor

1553 - 1558

-Edward Vi's half sister
-daughter of Catherine of Aragon
-attempted to England back into the orbit of the Catholic Church
-restored some of the formal links to the papacy, but also held some of the Protestant beliefs
-burned many Englishmen at the stake - called, Bloody Mary
-her half sister was Elizabeth

Peace of Augsburg


-to end the Schmalkaldic Wars
-Charles forced to sign the Peace of Augsburg
-a treaty that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in those territories ruled by a Lutheran ruler/ a Catholic ruler ensured that the territory remained Catholic
-did NOT grant recognition to the Calvinists

Charles V abdicated HRE


-Charles V was Spanish King Ferdinand and Isabella's grandson
-for the 1st half of the 16th century, he controlled the empire that dominated Europe
-Spanish possessions gave him wealth/ had the Castilian foot soldiers who were the best in Europe
-was exhausted from his attempts to crush Protestantism so stepped down
-when denouncing the throne, gave his brother Ferdinand the title of Holy Roman Emperor and the eastern Habsburg lands: Austria, Bohemia, Hungary
-Charles V's son however got the better deal (see event)

Philip II (Sp)

1556 - 1598

-Spanish Charles V's son
-when his father, Charles V stepped down as Holy Roman Emperor, gave his brother the title/ land but gave PHILIP Spain and its holdings in the New World/ southern Italy and the Netherlands


1558 - 1603

-daughter of Anne Boleyn
-reached a religious settlement, one in which the Church of England followed a middle-of-the-road Protestant course
-educated in the Italian humanist program of classical studies
-used the prospect of marriage as a diplomatic tool
-by staying single, she exposed England to the risk of religious war, because without an heir, Mary Stuart (the ruler of Scotland) was her heir

Henry II dies (Fr)


-French Monarch Henry II dies... religious conflicts rose
-his 15 year old son takes the throne, Francis II but then the year later replaced by Charles XI... see people for more info


1561 - 1626

-a lawyer, official in the government of James I, a historian, an essayist but did NOT perform scientific experiments
-The Advancement of Learning - and other, Bacon attacked scholasticism
-had a hand in the system of inductive reasoning, Empiricism - asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience, to examine evidence from nature


1562 - 1598

-The French Wars of Religion
-before seemed that the struggled between the feudal aristocracy and the monarchy was settled but....
-the fighting was ostensibly concerned with religious ideas but was a lot of the aristocracy and the monarchy battling for supremacy


1564 - 1642

-took a Dutchman's spyglass, made his own and looks to the sky
-decided that since the moon had a mountainous surface like earth's, it was made up of a similar material
-Dialogues of the Two Chief Systems of the World - the Catholic Church began to condemn his work/ warned him not to publish more BUT he did... in the next piece the Simplicio vs the smart guy, Pope thought Galileo was making fun of him and put him under house arrest


1564 - 1616

-received little more than a primary school education
-Hamlet, King Lear etc
-pieces reveal unsurpassed understanding of the human psyche/ a genius for dramatic intensity

Battle of Lepanto (Sp vs Ot)


-in the Mediterranean, the Spanish fought for supremacy against the Ottoman Empire and won a notable success against them in the battle of Lepanto


1571 - 1630

-student of Brahe but disagreed with his findings
-used Brahe's data and said that the orbits were actually elliptical

St. Bart's Day Massacre


-St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
-Henry of Navarre plans to get married to King Charles IX's sister, Catherine convinced her son/the King to create the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Henry III (Fr)

1574 - 1589

-French Monarch Henry II dies --> Francis II, a year later --> Charles IX, 14 years later --> Henry III
-All of the brothers were dominated by their mother, Catherine de Medici
-in 1574, turned to the Huguenots to defeat the powerful Catholic League
-made Henry of Navarre his heir

Sacking of Antwerp


-Antwerp was controlled by the Spanish... was sacked during the Dutch War for Independence and it lead to Amsterdam being the replacement of Antwerp as the economic center

Treaty of Berwick


-Elizabeth entered into a defensive alliance with Scotland
-she recognized James, Mary Queen of Scot's son who was raise Protestant, as the heir
-she gave James a English pension

Hobbes (En)

1588 - 1679

-was horrified with the turmoil of the English Revolution/ convinced man was like an animal... "nasty, brutish and short"
-Leviathan - man formed states, aka the great Leviathan because they were necessary
-was in favor of absolutism

Spanish Armada to England


-Philip sent the spanish Armada in 1588 to try and conquer England/ Queen Elizabeth
-Armada defeated
-this defeat ensured that England would remain Protestant and free from foreign dominance

Henry IV (Fr)


-originally Henry of Navarre
-French King Henry III made him his heir/ in 1589 when he was assassinated, Henry IV took the throne - this begun the Bourbon dynasty
-faced trouble with Spain... they wanted to keep France Catholic/ most Parisians were Cath for Henry IV switched back and forth between Calvinism/ Catholicism
-1593, converted permanently to Catholicism
-created idea of Politique, putting the interest of France before the goal of religious unity
-with his finance minister, Duke of Sully, established monopolies on commodities such as salt to restore finances of the monarchy
-limited the power of the French nobility


1596 - 1650

-opposite to Bacon, chose deductive thought or Rationalism, using reason to go from a general principle to the specific principle, it provided for a better understanding of the universe as opposed to relying on the experimental method
-I think, therefore I am
-Discourse on Method - reduce nature to two elements : mind/matter

Edict of Nates


-King Henry IV, Henry of Navarre issued the Edict of Nates... grated the Huguenots freedom to worship and assemble even though he was Catholic

DutEasInComp established


-the Dutch East India Company established
-was operated under quasi-government control/ funded by both public and private investment
-gave rise to the popularity of joint-stock companies

James VI (Sc)


-as promised, Elizabeth gave the crown to her cousin, King James VI of Scotland
-his interest lay in asserting his divine notion of kingship
-Jame's opposition to the Puritan proposal to reform the Church of England, which made the moderate Puritans more extreme against him
-James had a three-part program... 1)unit England with Scotland, 2) to create a continental-style standing army, 3) set up new royal finance

Louis XII


-French King Henry IV, Henry of Navarre, killed and his 9 year old son, Louis XIII takes throng with the help of Cardinal Richelieu
-Richelieu defeated the Huguenots/ took away many of the things granted by the Edict of Nates
-Richelieu brought France into the Thirty Years War, surprisingly not on the Catholic side but on the Protestant's in order to counter the Spanish Habsburgs

Ferdinand crowned (30)


-Ferdinand of Styria, and avid Catholic, crowned King of Bohemia


1618 - 1648

-The Thirty Years War
-began in Bohemia, catholic Ferdinand of Styria crowned King of Bohemia
-but majority of Bohemians = Protestant and Ferdinand was intolerant to their religion
-Protestant nobles rebel, throw 2 catholic advisers out of a window
-Matthias the HRE dies and Ferdinand was elected Emperor
-right after elected Emperor, finds out that rebels in Bohemia had deposed him/ elector Frederick, the Calvinist Elector of the Palatinate, as king
-Ferdinand turned to Duke of Bavaria for help
-Battle of White Mountain, Bavarian forces ^ win, Ferdinand back on the throne
-BUT still private armies that wanted to fight/ stay employed/ people like King of Denmark gets involved because saw the Protestants as a threat
-also Emperor Ferdinand confiscated defeated Protestant princes' land/ created the genuine opportunity to forge a unified state under Habsburg control... but needed an army so went to the Bohemian noble, Wallenstein
-Wallenstein won a series of victories in the north
-Edict of Restitution... this led to the King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war
-later Adolphus dies/ Wallenstein is murdered
-the last phase of the war = the French/ Swedes vs the Austrian Habsburg/ their Spanish allies
-ends with the Peace of West Phalia


1623 - 1662

-Pensees - ideas like Pascal's Wager can be seen... said believing in God is greater than the expected value of not believing
-was involved with the Jansenists, a Catholic faction that saw truth in St. Augustine's idea of total sinfulness/ the need for salvation to be achieved through faith

Charles I (Sc/En)

1625 - 1641

-the some of King James VI of Scotland
-felt that the Anglican Church provided the greatest stability for the state
-the relationship between Charles and Parliament went off badly when they granted him Tonnage and Poundage for one year not for life...
-instead, Charles who was committed to the war against Spain, used his dowry and went to the Spanish port of Cadiz --> failure... to pay for the disaster, asked for loan from the wealthier subjects/ they refused... some thrown into jail
-later decides to govern England without calling parliament
-needed money, called a fake 'emergency' to collect ship money
-ultimately ruined his powerful position by insisting that Calvinist Scotland adopt the Episcopal structure of the Church of England/ to follow the English Book of Common prayer

Petition of Rights


-Parliament called again in 1628 after denying Charles the money to pay for his disasters trying to attack a Spanish port... Charles forced to sigh the Petition of Rights
-the petition said the king could not demand a loan without the consent of Parliament/ they have to be called more often
-also prohibited people from being imprisoned without published cause/ stopped the government housing soldiers in peoples houses without their permission

Edict of Restitution (30)


-outlawed Calvinism in the empire and required Lutherans to turn over all property seized since 1552
-this lead the King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, to get involved... he said he was defended the Protestant rights in Germany, but he was also interested in the German territory along the Baltic

Adolphus dies/ Wall' (30)


-Adolphus dies in battle/ a year later Wallenstein is murdered

Short Parliament


-Charles V called Parliament after 11 years, but was dissolved again after it refused to grant funds prior to Charles addressing their own grievances


1642 - 1727

-wondered what force kept the planets in an elliptical orbit around the sun
-posited that all planets/ objects operated under the effects of gravity
-was very religious/ spent a lot of time looking at biblical dates/ calculating things about them
-showed white light was a heterogeneous mixture of colors rather than pure light as previously believed
-the father of calculus
-became the head of the British Royal Society

Louis XIV


-Louis XIII dies leaving throne to Louis XIV... his mother, Ann of Austria selected Cardinal Mazarin to help him
-during his time, had to struggle with the 'Fronde' a period of rebellions
-Mazarin dies/ Louis decides to rule without a chief minister
-created the notion of 'divine rights'.... said that parliamentary bodies had no right to judge the behavior of the King
-builds Versailles as a way to dominate the French nobility/ ignore the people/ Parisian mob.. place cost a lot but was worth it since it turned the previously plotting against him aristocrats into members of his court interested in gossip/ court stuff
-had his minister, Colbert... together they centralized the French economy by instituting mercantilism (making the country as wealthy as possible)
-tried to abolish internal tariffs, created the Five Great Farms which were large, custom-free regions
-places a reliance on the foreign colonies to buy the mother country's exports.... 1680s, Louis controlled trading ports in India
-wanted to strike at Dutch so organized the French East India Company... was a failure due to lack of gov control/ interest
-decided to eradicate Calvinism (see1685)
-wanted to expand territory... early part of reign, was successful and conquered territories in Germany/ Flanders
-BUT THEN , the English king died (who had been getting subsidies from the French) and the new William of Orange, the leader of the Netherlands was out to get Louis XIV

Peace of Westphalia (30)


-marked the end of the Thirty Years War
-by the end, the HRE maintained its numerous political divisions
-the treaty ensured that the Emperor would remain an ineffectual force within German politics
-also reaffirmed the Augsburg's 'princes decide the religion in their territory' thing
-Calvinism recognized

The Commonwealth

1648 - 1660

-basically a military dictatorship governed by Oliver Cromwell
-1648, the King was defeated and Cromwell decided to execute him
-Cromwell had to deal with the class between the Independents/ the Presbyterians... I's wanted a state church/ they were down with religious freedom... P's wanted a state church "that would not allow dissent"..?
-Cromwell destroyed the Leveller elements in his army (a group who wanted a complete overhaul of English society)

Cromwell disperses Parl


-Cromwell dispersed a Parliament with an army in London that had challenged him
-he then replaced them with hand-selected individuals
-a group of army officials later create a written constitution and created the title 'Lord Protector' which Cromwell took

James II (En)


-Cromwell dies, later Charles takes his position.. this returned England to the Stuart dynasty... THEN when James, Charles' younger brother takes the throne
-was suspected of being a Catholic (like the previous Stuarts)
-demanded that the Test Act (which barred Catholics from serving as royal officials/ in the army) be repealed
-issued a Declaration of Indulgences... suspended all religious tests for office holders/ allowed freedom of worship
-wanted England have royal absolutism
-father a boy, brought up Catholic..and a girl, Mary (prot) but the boy to be the heir...
-these moves ^ to create a Catholic England created unity among the previously contentious Protestant factions of England SO - one faction invited William, the Stadholder of the Netherlands to invade England... he was also the husband of Protestant Mary, the daughter of James... --> the Glorious Revolution, James overthrown and William/ Mary rule together

Treaty of Nates revoked


-French King Louis XIV revoked Edict of Nates... wanted to eradicate Calvinism
-but this weakened the French state
-Louis demolished Huguenot churches/ took away their civil rights
-many left/ were exiled to England or the Netherlands

The Act of Toleration


-the Whigs/ Tories (the Whigs being more liberal than the Tories) promised the act of toleration would be granted when William became king
-was granted/ gave the right of public worship to Protestant nonconformists ec the Unitarians or the Catholics
-the Test Act remained meaning that Jews/ Catholics/ nonconformists could not sit in Parliament

Bill of Rights (En)


-the power to suspend/ dispend with laws became illegal
-armies couldn't be raised/ taxes collect without parliamentary consent
-monarch had to swear to uphold the Protestant faith/ the role couldn't be passed to a Catholic

The Act of Settlement


-passed to prevent the Catholic Stuart line from occupying the throne


1702 - 1713

-The War of Spanish Succession
-fought between the French and the English and the Dutch allies
-the war hit the peasantry hard because of the taxes that were collected to support Luois

Treaty of Utrecht


-left a Bourbon (Louis XIV's grandson, Philip) as King of Spain
-forbade the same monarch from ruling both Spain/ France