The triple alliance was Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy and they were also called the central powers.
Armies expanded significantly because of conscription, a military draft. Only the U.S. and Britain did not have drafts when the war began. Many armies doubled in size.
France and Russia created a military alliance
A mass growth of armies made the war more destructive. The Industrial Revolution gave nations much more destructive guns and weapons. Also there was more readily available supplies because of easier transportation.
France, Britain and Russia
Turks, Greeks, Rumanians and Serbs fought each other for land
Since almost all European states had wars that lasted only a couple of weeks, everyone going into battle, thought they would be home by christmas. Everyone was eager for war and they thought there wouldn't be that many casualties.
Mobilization was the process of assembling troops and supplies making them ready for war. During 1914, mobilization was considered an act of war.
Serbia, who was supported by Russia was determined to make a giant Slavic state, but Austria-Hungary who had some Slavic minorities did not want this to happen.
Governments spread propaganda trying to make citizens excited for the war. The eagerness of war was supposed to unite the classes with a patriotic feeling and lesson the appeal of socialism
Militarism is the aggressive preparation for war. Many military leaders spent years coming up with plans to win war and to mobilize millions of people and supplies during war. Military leaders thought changing the plans would lead to chaos in the army and so political leaders were forced the make decisions for the war instead of for politics.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary and his wife went to Bosnia, but a group of conspirators waited there in the streets who planned to kill them. The conspirators were a group called the Black Hand, A Serbian terrorist organization who wanted Bosnia to be Austria-Hungary free and be its own kingdom. The conspirators threw a bomb at the car but it bounced off and missed them. But later that day, Gavrilo Princip shot and killed both the archduke and his wife.
The Austro-Hungary government was not sure if the Serbian government was involved with the archduke’s assassination but they didn’t care and wanted to control Serbia. Austrian leaders went to Germany for support and Emperor William 11 and his chancellor said they would support Austria no matter what, ever if they were to engage in war. Austrian leaders then sent an ultimatum to Serbia, making high demands that they rejected.
Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war
Russia wanted to support Serbia and Czar Nicholas 11 ordered partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary. Russian leaders told the Czar that they could not partially mobilize because Austria-Hungary was supported by Germany so Russia fully mobilizied, which Germany took as an act of war.
Germany told Russia they had 12 hours to revoke the mobilization and when they didn’t, Germany declared war on Russia. General Alfred von Schlieffen made a war plan named the Schlieffen Plan that was a two front war with France and Russia. According to the plan, Germany would conduct a small holding action on Russia while the rest of the army invaded France. After France was defeated, Germany would go after Russia.
Germany troops declared war on France. Germany then sent an ultimatum to Belgium, demanding that German troops be able to pass through to France.
Great Britain declares was on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality.
Germany and France were in battle but both had dug trenches that were lined in barbed wire and in a matter of weeks, both countries were in a stalemate unable to attack the other.
Germany defeats Russia in the Battle of Tannenberg
Germany defeats Russia in Battle of Masurian Lakes. Because of these two defeats, the Russians were no longer a threat to the German army.
Planes were first used to spot enemy's positions. Fights for who controlled the air increased and pilots would fire at each other with pistols. Later machine guns were mounted to the nose of the plane.
Italy, Great Britain, Russia and France
Italy violates triple alliance and attacks
Britain first uses its naval power to set up a blockade of Germany and in return, Germany does the same to Britain. But Germany also used unrestricted submarine warfare. When Germany sunk the Lusitania, about 100 of the people on board were Americans, causing an uprising in the neutral country America.
To avoid angering the U.S the Germans suspended unrestricted warfare. Britain and Germany then started engaging in actual hand to hand combat.
Austria-Hungary and Germany was joined by Bulgaria to attack and get Serbia out of the war.
The ottoman empire was on Germany's side.
Millions of men die in trench warfare because both Germany and France had trenches where they lived and no one could come close to them or else they would be shot way in advance.
Because the men were off at war, women were required to take over the mens jobs. They started becoming chimney sweeps, truck drivers, farm laborers and factory workers. At the end of the war, women's jobs were taken from them and given back to the men. Also the wages for women after the war would be lowered. But despite low wages, women proved themselves and in Britain and the U.S. women were able to vote around 1918.
When Germany starts back up unrestricted warfare, the U.S. enters the war on the Allies side.
British troops from Egypt destroyed their empire.
Because of its own revolution, they were forced to drop out.
because russia dropped out of the war, german military leaders took the advantage to march into paris. however, French, Moroccan and American troops threw the Germans back. By then, military officials were telling German leaders that they had lost the war.
Germany changed their government to a democratic republic. A German socialist party tried to overthrow the government and were murdered.
Representatives of 27 allied nations met in Paris to make final settlements of the war.
Woodrow Wilson outlined "fourteen points" his proposal to the U.S. congress. Wilson said to reach a just and lasting peace openly rather than secret diplomacy,
Complications occurred because secret treaties were made to see who would get more land before war ended. Germany was not invited and Russia could not attend because of civil war
Britain only wanted Germany to pay
U.S. only wanted peace
France said they suffered the most from German attacks and wanted National Security to protect themselves from future attacks. They also wanted Germany striped of their weapons and to pay for the reparations of the war, France also wanted a state to separate Germany from France.
Woodrow Wilson, U.S. president proposed the league of nations to prevent future wars. It was an international peace keeping organization.
A piece settlement was created between the defeated nations, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey.
In the treaty of versailles, it stated that Germany and Austria were the countries that started the war. The treaty stated that Germany was responsible for paying all the reparations for all the allied governments and their people. Germany also had to reduce their army to a hundred thousand men, cut back its navy and eliminate their airforce