World War 1 (1914-1918)

The Road To World War 1

Triple Alliance

1882

The triple alliance was Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy and they were also called the central powers.

Conscription

1890 - 1914

Armies expanded significantly because of conscription, a military draft. Only the U.S. and Britain did not have drafts when the war began. Many armies doubled in size.

Military Alliance

1894

France and Russia created a military alliance

Impact From I.D.

1900

A mass growth of armies made the war more destructive. The Industrial Revolution gave nations much more destructive guns and weapons. Also there was more readily available supplies because of easier transportation.

Triple Entente

1907

France, Britain and Russia

Fights for land

1912 - 1913

Turks, Greeks, Rumanians and Serbs fought each other for land

World War Starts

1914

Since almost all European states had wars that lasted only a couple of weeks, everyone going into battle, thought they would be home by christmas. Everyone was eager for war and they thought there wouldn't be that many casualties.

Mobilization

1914 - 1918

Mobilization was the process of assembling troops and supplies making them ready for war. During 1914, mobilization was considered an act of war.

A Slavic State

1914

Serbia, who was supported by Russia was determined to make a giant Slavic state, but Austria-Hungary who had some Slavic minorities did not want this to happen.

Eager For War

1914

Governments spread propaganda trying to make citizens excited for the war. The eagerness of war was supposed to unite the classes with a patriotic feeling and lesson the appeal of socialism

Militarism

1914

Militarism is the aggressive preparation for war. Many military leaders spent years coming up with plans to win war and to mobilize millions of people and supplies during war. Military leaders thought changing the plans would lead to chaos in the army and so political leaders were forced the make decisions for the war instead of for politics.

Archduke Dead

June 28, 1914

Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary and his wife went to Bosnia, but a group of conspirators waited there in the streets who planned to kill them. The conspirators were a group called the Black Hand, A Serbian terrorist organization who wanted Bosnia to be Austria-Hungary free and be its own kingdom. The conspirators threw a bomb at the car but it bounced off and missed them. But later that day, Gavrilo Princip shot and killed both the archduke and his wife.

Austro-Hungary and Germany

July 23, 1914

The Austro-Hungary government was not sure if the Serbian government was involved with the archduke’s assassination but they didn’t care and wanted to control Serbia. Austrian leaders went to Germany for support and Emperor William 11 and his chancellor said they would support Austria no matter what, ever if they were to engage in war. Austrian leaders then sent an ultimatum to Serbia, making high demands that they rejected.

War With Serbia

July 28, 1914

Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war

Russia Mobilizes

July 29,1914

Russia wanted to support Serbia and Czar Nicholas 11 ordered partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary. Russian leaders told the Czar that they could not partially mobilize because Austria-Hungary was supported by Germany so Russia fully mobilizied, which Germany took as an act of war.

Schlieffen Plan

August 1, 1914

Germany told Russia they had 12 hours to revoke the mobilization and when they didn’t, Germany declared war on Russia. General Alfred von Schlieffen made a war plan named the Schlieffen Plan that was a two front war with France and Russia. According to the plan, Germany would conduct a small holding action on Russia while the rest of the army invaded France. After France was defeated, Germany would go after Russia.

War With France

August 3, 1914

Germany troops declared war on France. Germany then sent an ultimatum to Belgium, demanding that German troops be able to pass through to France.

War With Germany

August 4, 1914

Great Britain declares was on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality.

The War

Stalemate

1914

Germany and France were in battle but both had dug trenches that were lined in barbed wire and in a matter of weeks, both countries were in a stalemate unable to attack the other.

Battle of Tannenberg

August 30, 1914

Germany defeats Russia in the Battle of Tannenberg

Battle of Masurian Lakes

September 15, 1914

Germany defeats Russia in Battle of Masurian Lakes. Because of these two defeats, the Russians were no longer a threat to the German army.

Airplanes

1915

Planes were first used to spot enemy's positions. Fights for who controlled the air increased and pilots would fire at each other with pistols. Later machine guns were mounted to the nose of the plane.

Allied Powers

1915

Italy, Great Britain, Russia and France

Triple Alliance Violated

May, 1915

Italy violates triple alliance and attacks

Lusitania Sinks

May 7, 1915

Britain first uses its naval power to set up a blockade of Germany and in return, Germany does the same to Britain. But Germany also used unrestricted submarine warfare. When Germany sunk the Lusitania, about 100 of the people on board were Americans, causing an uprising in the neutral country America.

Unrestricted Warfare Suspended

September 1915 - January 1917

To avoid angering the U.S the Germans suspended unrestricted warfare. Britain and Germany then started engaging in actual hand to hand combat.

Serbia Out Of War

September, 1915

Austria-Hungary and Germany was joined by Bulgaria to attack and get Serbia out of the war.

Ottoman Empire Enters War

November, 1915

The ottoman empire was on Germany's side.

Trench Warfare

1916 - 1917

Millions of men die in trench warfare because both Germany and France had trenches where they lived and no one could come close to them or else they would be shot way in advance.

Women Taking Over Jobs

1917 - 1919

Because the men were off at war, women were required to take over the mens jobs. They started becoming chimney sweeps, truck drivers, farm laborers and factory workers. At the end of the war, women's jobs were taken from them and given back to the men. Also the wages for women after the war would be lowered. But despite low wages, women proved themselves and in Britain and the U.S. women were able to vote around 1918.

U.S. Enters War

April 1917

When Germany starts back up unrestricted warfare, the U.S. enters the war on the Allies side.

Ottoman Empire Destroyed

1918

British troops from Egypt destroyed their empire.

The Last Year Of The War

Russia Drops Out Of War

November 1917

Because of its own revolution, they were forced to drop out.

War Is Ending

September 29, 1918

because russia dropped out of the war, german military leaders took the advantage to march into paris. however, French, Moroccan and American troops threw the Germans back. By then, military officials were telling German leaders that they had lost the war.

Communists Try To Take Over

December 1918

Germany changed their government to a democratic republic. A German socialist party tried to overthrow the government and were murdered.

Final Settelment

January 1919

Representatives of 27 allied nations met in Paris to make final settlements of the war.
Woodrow Wilson outlined "fourteen points" his proposal to the U.S. congress. Wilson said to reach a just and lasting peace openly rather than secret diplomacy,

Paris Peace Conference

1919

Complications occurred because secret treaties were made to see who would get more land before war ended. Germany was not invited and Russia could not attend because of civil war
Britain only wanted Germany to pay
U.S. only wanted peace
France said they suffered the most from German attacks and wanted National Security to protect themselves from future attacks. They also wanted Germany striped of their weapons and to pay for the reparations of the war, France also wanted a state to separate Germany from France.

Leauge Of Nations

January 25, 1919

Woodrow Wilson, U.S. president proposed the league of nations to prevent future wars. It was an international peace keeping organization.

Treaty Of Versailles

June, 1919

A piece settlement was created between the defeated nations, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey.

Treaty With Germany

June 28, 1919

In the treaty of versailles, it stated that Germany and Austria were the countries that started the war. The treaty stated that Germany was responsible for paying all the reparations for all the allied governments and their people. Germany also had to reduce their army to a hundred thousand men, cut back its navy and eliminate their airforce