A reaction to the eclectic revival of historic styles of the Victorian era and to 'soulless' machine-made production aided by the Industrial Revolution
DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETI:
Rossetti established himself as a painter and poet. He established The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood which focused on the natural side of entities and used a sharper range of colors. This group also strayed from using ideas and principles of art that were overly used.
Most well known for his designs using patterns on fabric and wallpapers. He was one of the leading designers of this movement. His key role was linking art to industry for commercial use.
Became part of the group mention earlier (The Pre-Raphaelites) and became greatly influenced by the other artists in the group. Well known for his stained glass designs.
Helped distinguish graphic design from printing production. In his books he controlled the format design, type selection, illustrations, and all other visual designs.
THE FOUR MACKS: Contributed greatly to the movement.
An international decorative style whose identifying visual quality is an organic, earthlike line. Freed from origins and gravity, it can either undulate with strike energy or flow with grace as it defines modulates, and decorates a given space.
Known as the "father of posters" due to his revolutionary poster designs.
Not only did he himself design furniture, posters, illustrations, book cover art, lace, wall papers/coverings, fabrics, rugs, pottery, stained glass windows, jewelry, calendars, typefaces and stamps, but he also taught his student the ways of art nouveau.
H. DE TOULOUSE-LAUTREC:
Lautrec's posters portrayed Montmartre entertainers as celebrities, and increased the popular medium of the advertising lithograph to the level of high art.
His paintings later influenced generations of artists and designers. He incorporated Roman Catholicism as the basis for symbolism in his paintings.
Influenced by the idea of contrast, Bradley created bold posters that would define Art Nouveau.
American George Eastman invents flexible film which allows for multiple images to be produced on light sesitized paper.
In 1886 Ottomar Mergenthaler got a patent for the linotype machine. It could do the work of eight men.
Introduction of motion picture was a massive breakthrough in the design industry.
An international decorative style which is identified through visual quality is an organic, plantlike line. Freed from origins and gravity, it can either undulate with whiplash energy or flow with elegant grace as it defnes modulates, and decorates a given space.
Penfield's "Haper's" postered gained great popularity and expressed his use of color printing to create an engaging design.
Helped create a new identity for German architecture.
His empphasis used on human figures in his posters and designs created an original view for future designers to aspire to.
Posters used original and influencial aspects to emphasize the meaning.
He andLemaire created the designs for the atmosphere of the Theatre Francais as well as the Hôtel de Ville, Paris.
Vienna Secession was created in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Kunstlerhaus. This movement consisted of painters, sculptors, and architects
Important members were Koloman Moser, Gustav Klimt, Josef Hoffman and Joseph Maria Olbracht
Focus on typography and radical forms differentiates Secession work from Art Nouveau ispirations.
During his time he was critisized for his daring sybolism.
Moser was an influential designer and created work for various companies including: Johann Backhausen & Söhne (textiles), Prag-Rudniker (furniture), Jacob & Josef Kohn (furniture), E. Bakalowits Söhne (glass), and Josef Böck (porcelain). His inventiveness as a designer earned him the nickname “Tausendkünstler” (thousand-artist).
Was a co-founder of the secession and later designed costumes and sets for the opera.
Professor who was part of the Club Of Seven and later the Seccession. Had influentail designs.
Created influential paintings, architecture, graphic designs and industrial designs. Brought on a modern feel.
Designers were sought influence from Cubism and Modernism but still saw the need to express traditionally representative subject matter. Later it evolved to Plakatstil and beyond.
Pryde and Nicholson used simple and bold designs, as well as flat images and silhouettes
Bernhard's posters were original and took part in the industrailization of design.
HANS RUDI ERDT:
One of the greatest poster designers of the 20th century. His designs emphasized strong outlines and a flair for layout.
Created his own version of the Austrian Poster. His designs could be elegant and fluent to exaggerated and overdrawn,
In the German “plakatstil” (or poster-style) all decorations and embellishments are extracted and replaced by simple lines. Hohlwein was greatly influenced by this movement.
Futurism was an artistic and social movement that started in Italy in the early 20th century. It focused on and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere. The founder of Futurism and its most influential personality was the Italian writer Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Marinetti began the movement in his Futurist Manifesto.
Helped the expansion of typography through his book Depero Futurista (1927), in advertising by his Vogue covers (1929, 1930), and formally by a poster titled Subway (1929).
Created original works through the influence of the DADA movement.
Aimed to become a Dadaist and was known as a master of collage.
Worked with graphics and photomontage.
He was a painter, writer, sculptor, photographer, and filmmaker, and was well known for his association with the French Surrealist group in Paris during the 1920s and 30s.
The first flight was conducted by the Wright brothers. Airplane became one of the most important inventions ever and helped to connect the populations world.
Are Deco is a high class artistic and design style that began in Paris, it was influenced by cubists and futurists. Art Deco was an ornamental style, and its lavishness is attributed to reaction to the forced austerity imposed by World War I.It was suitable for modern contexts - "It could have been read from speeding car."
A. M. CASSANDRE:
He was a poster and theatre designer, lithographer, painter and creator of typefaces.
His designs were greatly influenced by cubism, yet used color, line, and content to create a symbolic language communicated through his posters.
Created lithographs, including "Le Tumulte Noir" ("The Black Craze") which portrayed the exciting jazz music and dance that dazzled Paris.
He set the basis for his ideas in the periodical of De Stijl, in a series of articles that were summarized in a separate booklet published in Paris in 1920 under the title Le Néo-plasticisme (see Neo-plasticism) by Léonce Rosenberg.
THEO VAN DOESBURG:
His editorship of De stijil allowed him to connected to the world of design.
Titanic sank after it crashed into a huge iceberg on its journey to the USA.
World War I greatly affected design in its time. Many army and antiwar posters were made.
Bauhaus was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was known for the approach to design that it publicized and taught
1914: Henri van de Velde resigns his position to return to Belgium, nominates Walter Gropius (former student of Peter Behrens) as his successor
Weimar Arts and Crafts school combined with Weimar Fine Arts academy; new school called ‘Das Staatliche Bauhaus’ (the New State Home for Building)
Bauhaus is the logical consequence of German interest in improved design for industrial society, as seen in Deutsche Werkbund
KEY EARLY MEMBERS
Walter Gropius, Director
Teachers: Paul Klee, Vasily Kandinsky
In 1937 Moholy-Nagy moved to Chicago to become the director of the New Bauhaus, which was a school which displayed its doctrines in America.
A student at the Weimar Bauhaus, where he originally attended the pre-course under Johannes Itten, after which he took a workshop on mural painting, lead by Wassily Kandinsky.
In 1925 the he finished his training with a final examination. He was given the position of head of the newly created workshop for print and advertising at the Dessau Bauhaus, where they also produced the school's own printworks.
Kandinsky accepted an invitation of Walter Gropius, the founder of the Bauhaus (the Higher school of construction and art designing) and moved to Weimar where Kandinsky headed a fresco workshop.
At the Bauhaus Dessau, Joost taught calligraphy (1925 to 1932) and conducted the sculpture workshop (1928–1930), and the advertising, typography and printing workshop and the photography department (1928–1932). From 1929 to 1930, he was also a life-drawing teacher, teaching life and figure drawing for the upper semesters from 1930.
Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that began in Russia starting in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. The movement leaned toward art as a practice for social purposes. Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends and movements such as Bauhaus and the De Stijl movement. Its influence was pervasive, with major impacts upon architecture, graphic and industrial design, theatre, film, dance, fashion and in a way music.
He was a central figure of Russian Constructivism, owing much to the pre-Revolutionary work of Malevich and Tatlin
Was one of the founder-members of the First Working Group of Constructivists set up in March 1921
He experimented with materials, making constructions from wood and paper that broght the geometry of Suprematism with a more Constructivist feel using actual volumes in space.
Russian draughtsman, architect, printmaker, painter, illustrator, designer, photographer, teacher and theorist, who was greatly influenced by constructivism.
Experimented greatly with constructivism.
Contributing factors in rise of American Design in this time era:
WPA Project initiated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Flight of European immigrants to America, including Max Ernst, Marcel DuChamp, Piet Mondrian, Walter Gropius, Mies Van De Rohe, Herbert Bayer, Herbert Matter, Josef Albers, Laszlo Maholy-Nagy and Ladislav Sutnar.
Used bright primary colors and defined shapes to emphasize his designs as his own.
First financial crisis that hit America and later Europe. It had a huge influence on the world. From design standpoint it was ironically beneficial as the New Deal was accepted by US government gave designers a lot of government work and therefore helped shape roots of modern american graphic design.
This movement finds clarity through asymmetrical type that is set up by type content, rather than formalist type setting tradition.
Essence was clearness, not beauty
Spatial intervals used for design
Rules, bars, boxes used for structure, balance, emphasis
Symetrical organization was artificial
Famous for his typefaces, including Sabon.
World War II greatly affected design in its time. Many army and antiwar posters were created. This major event could not be ignored by those who took part in graphic design. Many movements,such as DADA, more or less directly reacted to WWII.
New York School stands for very diverse group of New York-based graphic designers from 1940-1970, who produced posters and identity. Most significant designers of this movement were:
Famous designer who helped establish the "swiss style" in the U.S.
Influential design style influenced by ideals of rationalism and universal communication
Visual characteristics: sans-serif typography, neutrality, grid system
Historical context: Basel School of Design; Ernst Keller- "Father of Swiss School of Graphics asymmetrical layout, flush left, ragged right ege use of photography
Early examples included type-primary design element
Worked as an architect, painter, graphic artist and sculpturist and also as a product designer.
Color TV was already introduced in UK and in the next year in the USA, however it took years since the program was actually broadcast in color. Even though it was still a big turning point in motion and film design.
This Was long conflict in Vietnam. Many anti-war posters were created because of this event. It shaped politics, society in US and also the graphic design in certain ways.
Pop art is an art movement that came out in the mid 1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art challenged tradition by insisting that an artist's use of the mass-produced visual common way of popular culture is contiguous with the perspective of fine art. Pop removes the material from its context and singles out the object, or merges it with other objects, for contemplation. The concept of pop art refers not as much to the art itself as to the concepts and attitudes that led to it.
Many artists in the late 1960s and early 1970s tried to illustrate the psychedelic experience. One example of this experimentation is seen in Mati Klarwein's painting Annunciation, which was used as the cover art for Santana's Abraxas. The cover of Pink Floyd's 1968 album A Saucerful of Secrets is also of this type. The cover of Oasis' 2008 album, Dig Out Your Soul, also has a psychedelic album cover, with an almost muted color scheme.
This is not a real movement, but a collection of 5 of the most significant contemporary graphic designers that could not be connected to any movemen: Stefan Sagmeister, David Carson, Paula Scher, Shepard Fairey and Ed Fella.
on a philosophical side, Modernist design methods assumed that objects could have a priori significance. In other words that they could have a predetermined meaning that is in existence prior to the user experiencing the object. This suggests that the meaning of the object is constant, predetermined, and independent of its situation. This position allows for the possibility of a universal meaning to be attached to an artifact, with the act of consumption being a passive reception of given meaning. The cultural turn implicit in Postmodernism challenges the thought that the object of study can be an autonomous entity, it is said that an object is not able to speak for itself, but is in fact 'spoken for' by its social and political meaning. The values connected with the object are determined by the position from which the object is viewed and aesthetic appeal is regarded not as a universal value, outside of history, but rather as an ever-changing quality relative to the circumstance within which the object is consumed. In consequence, the true nature of things is to be found in social processes and structures that are around them, rather than in an intrinsic, immutable quality of the things themselves. This view challenges the authority of the designers decisions. Rather than there being one ideal solution to a design brief, there is an acknowledgment that different solutions exist for different circumstances. Instead of being based on an absolute judgement, the aesthetic preference of both the designer and the consumer is a socially determined. Their taste judgments are founded on a complex set of ideas including their class, educational background, and location. In other words, there is no correct form for an object, but a number of different possible forms, with their legitimacy being dependent on the historical situation of their reception.
Graffiti is any type of public marking and might appear in forms of simple written words to elaborate wall paintings. Graffiti has been around since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. In modern times, paint, most prominently spray paint, and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti utensils. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's consent is considered defacement and vandalism, which is a punishable crime. Graffiti may also portray underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression that is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within hip hop culture, graffiti has evolved alongside hip hop music, b-boying, and other elements. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to designate territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to cause disagreement amongst city officials/law enforcement and writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different types and styles of graffiti and it is a rapidly developing art form whose value is highly contested, reviled by many authorities while also subject to protection, sometimes within the same jurisdiction.
BLEK LE RAT
Data visualization is the investigation of the visual representation of data, meaning information that has been abstracted in some schematic form, including variables for the different sections of information. Main goal of data visualization is to relay information clearly and effectively through graphical ways. It does not mean that data visualization needs to look boring or simple to be functional or extremely sophisticated to look beautiful. To convey ideas effectively, both aesthetic form and functionality need to go hand in hand, providing insights into a rather sparse and complex data set by communicating its key-aspects in a more intuitive way. Yet designers often fail to achieve a balance between design and function, creating gorgeous data visualizations which fail to serve their main purpose, which is to communicate information. Indeed, Fernanda Viegas and Martin M. Wattenberg have implied that an ideal visualization should not merely relay the information clearly, but stimulate viewer engagement and attention.
Apple introduced first Macintosh -a user friendly computer based on MAC OS with graphical interface. This became the first computer that was greatly popular with common population. Most importantly this caused the so called Digital Revolution - a climax change in graphic design. Computers since then became major tool in designing graphics.
The end of long conflict between USA (west) and CCCP brought huge relief and an optomistic atmosphere and had an impact on design.
Internet stopped being army and scientific project and was commercialized and began to spread to the whole world. This was the start of internet as we know it today. The internet is considered to be a milestone in digital revolution as it greatly affected design and opened new possibilities to all artists.