Graphic Design

1850-1900

Arts And Crafts

1860 - 1900

A reaction to the eclectic revival of historic styles of the Victorian era and to 'soulless' machine-made production aided by the Industrial Revolution

Artists:
DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETI:
Rossetti established himself as a painter and poet. He established The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood which focused on the natural side of entities and used a sharper range of colors. This group also strayed from using ideas and principles of art that were overly used.
WILLIAM MORRIS:
Most well known for his designs using patterns on fabric and wallpapers. He was one of the leading designers of this movement. His key role was linking art to industry for commercial use.
KELMSCOTT PRESS:
Became part of the group mention earlier (The Pre-Raphaelites) and became greatly influenced by the other artists in the group. Well known for his stained glass designs.
WILLIAM PICKERING:
Helped distinguish graphic design from printing production. In his books he controlled the format design, type selection, illustrations, and all other visual designs.
THE FOUR MACKS: Contributed greatly to the movement.

Art Nouveau

1880 - 1914

An international decorative style whose identifying visual quality is an organic, earthlike line. Freed from origins and gravity, it can either undulate with strike energy or flow with grace as it defines modulates, and decorates a given space.

Artists:
JULES CHÉRET:
Known as the "father of posters" due to his revolutionary poster designs.
EUGENE GRASSET:
Not only did he himself design furniture, posters, illustrations, book cover art, lace, wall papers/coverings, fabrics, rugs, pottery, stained glass windows, jewelry, calendars, typefaces and stamps, but he also taught his student the ways of art nouveau.
H. DE TOULOUSE-LAUTREC:
Lautrec's posters portrayed Montmartre entertainers as celebrities, and increased the popular medium of the advertising lithograph to the level of high art.
ALPHONSE MUCHA:
His paintings later influenced generations of artists and designers. He incorporated Roman Catholicism as the basis for symbolism in his paintings.
WILLIAM BRADLEY:
Influenced by the idea of contrast, Bradley created bold posters that would define Art Nouveau.

Flexible Film

1884

American George Eastman invents flexible film which allows for multiple images to be produced on light sesitized paper.

Linotype Machine

1886

In 1886 Ottomar Mergenthaler got a patent for the linotype machine. It could do the work of eight men.

Motion Picture

1896

Introduction of motion picture was a massive breakthrough in the design industry.

1900-1950

Art Nouveau

1880 - 1914

An international decorative style which is identified through visual quality is an organic, plantlike line. Freed from origins and gravity, it can either undulate with whiplash energy or flow with elegant grace as it defnes modulates, and decorates a given space.

Artists:
EDWARD PENFIELD:
Penfield's "Haper's" postered gained great popularity and expressed his use of color printing to create an engaging design.
PETER BEHRENS:
Helped create a new identity for German architecture.
MARCELLO DUDOVICH:
His empphasis used on human figures in his posters and designs created an original view for future designers to aspire to.
ADOLFO HOHENSTEIN:
Posters used original and influencial aspects to emphasize the meaning.
PRIVAT LIVEMONT:
He andLemaire created the designs for the atmosphere of the Theatre Francais as well as the Hôtel de Ville, Paris.

Vienna Secession And New Objectivity

1897 - 1930

Vienna Secession was created in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Kunstlerhaus. This movement consisted of painters, sculptors, and architects

Important members were Koloman Moser, Gustav Klimt, Josef Hoffman and Joseph Maria Olbracht
Focus on typography and radical forms differentiates Secession work from Art Nouveau ispirations.

Artists:
GUSTAV KLIMT:
During his time he was critisized for his daring sybolism.
KOLOMAN MOSER:
Moser was an influential designer and created work for various companies including: Johann Backhausen & Söhne (textiles), Prag-Rudniker (furniture), Jacob & Josef Kohn (furniture), E. Bakalowits Söhne (glass), and Josef Böck (porcelain). His inventiveness as a designer earned him the nickname “Tausendkünstler” (thousand-artist).
ALFRED ROLLER:
Was a co-founder of the secession and later designed costumes and sets for the opera.
JOSEF HOFFMAN:
Professor who was part of the Club Of Seven and later the Seccession. Had influentail designs.
PETER BEHRENS:
Created influential paintings, architecture, graphic designs and industrial designs. Brought on a modern feel.

Pictoral Modernism And Plakastil

1900 - 1930

Designers were sought influence from Cubism and Modernism but still saw the need to express traditionally representative subject matter. Later it evolved to Plakatstil and beyond.

Artists:
BEGGARSTAFFS:
Pryde and Nicholson used simple and bold designs, as well as flat images and silhouettes
LUCIAN BERNHARD:
Bernhard's posters were original and took part in the industrailization of design.
HANS RUDI ERDT:
One of the greatest poster designers of the 20th century. His designs emphasized strong outlines and a flair for layout.
JULIUS KLINGER:
Created his own version of the Austrian Poster. His designs could be elegant and fluent to exaggerated and overdrawn,
LUDWIG HOHLWEIN:
In the German “plakatstil” (or poster-style) all decorations and embellishments are extracted and replaced by simple lines. Hohlwein was greatly influenced by this movement.

Futurism, DADA, Cubism, Surrealism

1900 - 1930

Futurism was an artistic and social movement that started in Italy in the early 20th century. It focused on and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere. The founder of Futurism and its most influential personality was the Italian writer Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Marinetti began the movement in his Futurist Manifesto.

Artists:
FORUNATO DEPERO:
Helped the expansion of typography through his book Depero Futurista (1927), in advertising by his Vogue covers (1929, 1930), and formally by a poster titled Subway (1929).
MARCEL DUCHAMP:
Created original works through the influence of the DADA movement.
KURT SCHWITTERS:
Aimed to become a Dadaist and was known as a master of collage.
JOHN HEARTFIELD:
Worked with graphics and photomontage.
MAN RAY:
He was a painter, writer, sculptor, photographer, and filmmaker, and was well known for his association with the French Surrealist group in Paris during the 1920s and 30s.

Airplane

1903

The first flight was conducted by the Wright brothers. Airplane became one of the most important inventions ever and helped to connect the populations world.

Art Deco And De Stijil

1910 - 1930

Are Deco is a high class artistic and design style that began in Paris, it was influenced by cubists and futurists. Art Deco was an ornamental style, and its lavishness is attributed to reaction to the forced austerity imposed by World War I.It was suitable for modern contexts - "It could have been read from speeding car."

Artists:
A. M. CASSANDRE:
He was a poster and theatre designer, lithographer, painter and creator of typefaces.
JEAN CARLU:
His designs were greatly influenced by cubism, yet used color, line, and content to create a symbolic language communicated through his posters.
PAUL COLIN:
Created lithographs, including "Le Tumulte Noir" ("The Black Craze") which portrayed the exciting jazz music and dance that dazzled Paris.
PIET MONDRIAN:
He set the basis for his ideas in the periodical of De Stijl, in a series of articles that were summarized in a separate booklet published in Paris in 1920 under the title Le Néo-plasticisme (see Neo-plasticism) by Léonce Rosenberg.
THEO VAN DOESBURG:
His editorship of De stijil allowed him to connected to the world of design.

Titanic Sinks

1912

Titanic sank after it crashed into a huge iceberg on its journey to the USA.

World War One

1914 - 1918

World War I greatly affected design in its time. Many army and antiwar posters were made.

Bauhaus

1919 - 1933

Bauhaus was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was known for the approach to design that it publicized and taught

SHAPING BAUHAUS
1914: Henri van de Velde resigns his position to return to Belgium, nominates Walter Gropius (former student of Peter Behrens) as his successor
Weimar Arts and Crafts school combined with Weimar Fine Arts academy; new school called ‘Das Staatliche Bauhaus’ (the New State Home for Building)
Bauhaus is the logical consequence of German interest in improved design for industrial society, as seen in Deutsche Werkbund
KEY EARLY MEMBERS
Walter Gropius, Director
Teachers: Paul Klee, Vasily Kandinsky

Artists:
WALTER GROPIUS
LASZLO MOHOLY-NAGY:
In 1937 Moholy-Nagy moved to Chicago to become the director of the New Bauhaus, which was a school which displayed its doctrines in America.
HERBERT BAYER:
A student at the Weimar Bauhaus, where he originally attended the pre-course under Johannes Itten, after which he took a workshop on mural painting, lead by Wassily Kandinsky.
In 1925 the he finished his training with a final examination. He was given the position of head of the newly created workshop for print and advertising at the Dessau Bauhaus, where they also produced the school's own printworks.
VASILY KANDINSKY:
Kandinsky accepted an invitation of Walter Gropius, the founder of the Bauhaus (the Higher school of construction and art designing) and moved to Weimar where Kandinsky headed a fresco workshop.
JOOS SCHMIDT:
At the Bauhaus Dessau, Joost taught calligraphy (1925 to 1932) and conducted the sculpture workshop (1928–1930), and the advertising, typography and printing workshop and the photography department (1928–1932). From 1929 to 1930, he was also a life-drawing teacher, teaching life and figure drawing for the upper semesters from 1930.

Constructivism

1919 - 1922

Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that began in Russia starting in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. The movement leaned toward art as a practice for social purposes. Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends and movements such as Bauhaus and the De Stijl movement. Its influence was pervasive, with major impacts upon architecture, graphic and industrial design, theatre, film, dance, fashion and in a way music.

Artists:
ALEXANDER RODCHENKO:
He was a central figure of Russian Constructivism, owing much to the pre-Revolutionary work of Malevich and Tatlin
VAVARA STEPANOVA:
Was one of the founder-members of the First Working Group of Constructivists set up in March 1921
GUSTAV KLUTSIS:
He experimented with materials, making constructions from wood and paper that broght the geometry of Suprematism with a more Constructivist feel using actual volumes in space.
EL LISSITZKY:
Russian draughtsman, architect, printmaker, painter, illustrator, designer, photographer, teacher and theorist, who was greatly influenced by constructivism.
STENBERG BROTHERS:
Experimented greatly with constructivism.

Roots Of Modern American Design

1925 - 1950

Contributing factors in rise of American Design in this time era:

WPA Project initiated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Flight of European immigrants to America, including Max Ernst, Marcel DuChamp, Piet Mondrian, Walter Gropius, Mies Van De Rohe, Herbert Bayer, Herbert Matter, Josef Albers, Laszlo Maholy-Nagy and Ladislav Sutnar.

Artists:
LESTER BEALL:
Used bright primary colors and defined shapes to emphasize his designs as his own.
ERTÉ:
MEHEMED AGHA
ALEXEJ BRODOVICH
HERBERT MATTER

Great Depression

1929

First financial crisis that hit America and later Europe. It had a huge influence on the world. From design standpoint it was ironically beneficial as the New Deal was accepted by US government gave designers a lot of government work and therefore helped shape roots of modern american graphic design.

The New Typography And Isotype Movement

1930 - 1950

This movement finds clarity through asymmetrical type that is set up by type content, rather than formalist type setting tradition.

Essence was clearness, not beauty
Spatial intervals used for design
Rules, bars, boxes used for structure, balance, emphasis
Symetrical organization was artificial

Artists:
JAN TSCHICHOLD:
Famous for his typefaces, including Sabon.
ERIC GILL
PIET ZWAR
GERD ARNTZ
LADISLAV SUTNAR

World Ware Two

1939 - 1945

World War II greatly affected design in its time. Many army and antiwar posters were created. This major event could not be ignored by those who took part in graphic design. Many movements,such as DADA, more or less directly reacted to WWII.

New York School

1940 - 1970

New York School stands for very diverse group of New York-based graphic designers from 1940-1970, who produced posters and identity. Most significant designers of this movement were:

Paul Rand
Bradbury Thompson
Alvin Lustig

Artists:
PAUL RAND:
Famous designer who helped establish the "swiss style" in the U.S.
BRADBURY THOMPSON
SAUL BASS
ALVIN LUSTIG

1950-2000

International Typography

1950 - 1980

Influential design style influenced by ideals of rationalism and universal communication
Visual characteristics: sans-serif typography, neutrality, grid system
Historical context: Basel School of Design; Ernst Keller- "Father of Swiss School of Graphics asymmetrical layout, flush left, ragged right ege use of photography
Early examples included type-primary design element

Artists:
MAX BILL:
Worked as an architect, painter, graphic artist and sculpturist and also as a product designer.
ANTON STANKOWSKI
ARMIN HOFFMAN
J. MÜLLER-BROCKMANN
JACQUELIN CASEY

Color TV

1951

Color TV was already introduced in UK and in the next year in the USA, however it took years since the program was actually broadcast in color. Even though it was still a big turning point in motion and film design.

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

This Was long conflict in Vietnam. Many anti-war posters were created because of this event. It shaped politics, society in US and also the graphic design in certain ways.

Pop Art

1955 - 1980

Pop art is an art movement that came out in the mid 1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art challenged tradition by insisting that an artist's use of the mass-produced visual common way of popular culture is contiguous with the perspective of fine art. Pop removes the material from its context and singles out the object, or merges it with other objects, for contemplation. The concept of pop art refers not as much to the art itself as to the concepts and attitudes that led to it.

Artists:
ANDY WARHOL
ROY LICHTENSTEIN
JASPER JOHNS
EDUARDO PALOZZI
TOM WESSELMANN

Psychedelic Movement

1958 - 1975

Many artists in the late 1960s and early 1970s tried to illustrate the psychedelic experience. One example of this experimentation is seen in Mati Klarwein's painting Annunciation, which was used as the cover art for Santana's Abraxas. The cover of Pink Floyd's 1968 album A Saucerful of Secrets is also of this type. The cover of Oasis' 2008 album, Dig Out Your Soul, also has a psychedelic album cover, with an almost muted color scheme.

Artists:
VICTOR MOSCOSO
WES WILSON
MILTON GLASER
PETER MAX
STANLEY MOUSE

Significant Artists

1970 - 2000

This is not a real movement, but a collection of 5 of the most significant contemporary graphic designers that could not be connected to any movemen: Stefan Sagmeister, David Carson, Paula Scher, Shepard Fairey and Ed Fella.

Artists:
STEFAN SAGMEISTER
PAULA SCHER
SHEPARD FAIREY
DAVID CARSON
ED FELLA

Postmodernism

1970 - 2000

on a philosophical side, Modernist design methods assumed that objects could have a priori significance. In other words that they could have a predetermined meaning that is in existence prior to the user experiencing the object. This suggests that the meaning of the object is constant, predetermined, and independent of its situation. This position allows for the possibility of a universal meaning to be attached to an artifact, with the act of consumption being a passive reception of given meaning. The cultural turn implicit in Postmodernism challenges the thought that the object of study can be an autonomous entity, it is said that an object is not able to speak for itself, but is in fact 'spoken for' by its social and political meaning. The values connected with the object are determined by the position from which the object is viewed and aesthetic appeal is regarded not as a universal value, outside of history, but rather as an ever-changing quality relative to the circumstance within which the object is consumed. In consequence, the true nature of things is to be found in social processes and structures that are around them, rather than in an intrinsic, immutable quality of the things themselves. This view challenges the authority of the designers decisions. Rather than there being one ideal solution to a design brief, there is an acknowledgment that different solutions exist for different circumstances. Instead of being based on an absolute judgement, the aesthetic preference of both the designer and the consumer is a socially determined. Their taste judgments are founded on a complex set of ideas including their class, educational background, and location. In other words, there is no correct form for an object, but a number of different possible forms, with their legitimacy being dependent on the historical situation of their reception.

Artists:
APRIL GREIMAN
WOLFGANG WEINGART
MICHAEL GRAVES
ALLEN WONG
KASUMA NAGAI

Graffiti And Street Art

1970 - 2000

Graffiti is any type of public marking and might appear in forms of simple written words to elaborate wall paintings. Graffiti has been around since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. In modern times, paint, most prominently spray paint, and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti utensils. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's consent is considered defacement and vandalism, which is a punishable crime. Graffiti may also portray underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression that is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within hip hop culture, graffiti has evolved alongside hip hop music, b-boying, and other elements. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to designate territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to cause disagreement amongst city officials/law enforcement and writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different types and styles of graffiti and it is a rapidly developing art form whose value is highly contested, reviled by many authorities while also subject to protection, sometimes within the same jurisdiction.

Artists:
BANKSY
BLEK LE RAT
SWOON
MICHAEL TRACY
KLAUS WINKLER

Information Visualization

1970 - 2000

Data visualization is the investigation of the visual representation of data, meaning information that has been abstracted in some schematic form, including variables for the different sections of information. Main goal of data visualization is to relay information clearly and effectively through graphical ways. It does not mean that data visualization needs to look boring or simple to be functional or extremely sophisticated to look beautiful. To convey ideas effectively, both aesthetic form and functionality need to go hand in hand, providing insights into a rather sparse and complex data set by communicating its key-aspects in a more intuitive way. Yet designers often fail to achieve a balance between design and function, creating gorgeous data visualizations which fail to serve their main purpose, which is to communicate information. Indeed, Fernanda Viegas and Martin M. Wattenberg have implied that an ideal visualization should not merely relay the information clearly, but stimulate viewer engagement and attention.

Artists:
BENJAMIN FRY
BRADFORD PALEY
GEORGE LEGRADY
EDWARD TUFTE

First Macintosh Introduced

1984

Apple introduced first Macintosh -a user friendly computer based on MAC OS with graphical interface. This became the first computer that was greatly popular with common population. Most importantly this caused the so called Digital Revolution - a climax change in graphic design. Computers since then became major tool in designing graphics.

The Cold War Ends

1991

The end of long conflict between USA (west) and CCCP brought huge relief and an optomistic atmosphere and had an impact on design.

Internet

1995

Internet stopped being army and scientific project and was commercialized and began to spread to the whole world. This was the start of internet as we know it today. The internet is considered to be a milestone in digital revolution as it greatly affected design and opened new possibilities to all artists.