World History

Middle Ages

Fall of Western Roman Empire

476 AD - 477 AD

Clovis won battle against German army

496 AD - 497

Clovis accepted Christianity as a result of battle anxiety.

Clovis united Francs into 1 Kingdom

511 - 512

Created an alliance b/w Church and State. Clovis also died in 511.

Gregory I became Pope

590 - 591

aka "Gregory the Great" He broadened the atuority fo the papacy beyond spiritual role

Charles Martel becomes Major Domo

700 - 701

Domo - mayor of the palace, the most powerful person in the Frankish Kingdom

Battle of Tours

732 - 733

Charles defeats Muslim raiders (Spain); significant for Christian Europeans b/c if not, W Europe could've become a Muslim Empire

Invasions destroyed Charlemagne's Empire

800 - 1000

Treaty of Verdun

843 - 844

Charlemagne's heirs sign the treaty to split empire into 3 kingdoms

Muslims sacked Rome

846 - 847

Muslims start to plunder Europe

900 - 901

Feudalism structures society

911 - 912

the first Crusade

1096 - 1099

Christians vs. Muslims,ordered by Pope Urban II, Christians won.

2nd Crusade

1147 - 1149

3rd Crusade Truce

1192 - 1193

Truce b/w Richard theLion Hearted and Saladin

Classical China and India

Genghis Khan Unites the Mongols

1200 - 1227

Died in 1227 from illness

African Civilizations

Aksum Kingdom cut off from main port by Muslims

600 AD

this was important because the Aksum Kingdom was built on trade and when they were cut off from the port trade went down a lot

Ghana becomes a kingdom


Zimbabwe established by Shana people; Muslim advisors helped run Ghana

1000 - 1100

Zimbabwe was between two rivers: Zambezi and Limpopo

Hausa Kingdom emerged

1000 - 1200

height of prosperity in Africa

1200 - 1400

Mali founded by Mande speaking people from S Ghana


capital=Niani; Mali was made wealthy when miners from Ghana emigrated and found gold on Mali soil

Mali King Sundiata died, starting a period of turmoil

1255 - 1312

Mansa Musa ruled

1312 - 1332

devout Muslim, helped develop Timbuktu

king Ewuare expanded his empire, buily walls around Benin


Mutapa left Great Zimbabwe, wanted to find a new salt source


Zimbabwe abandoned for unknown reasons


Sunni Ali ruled and expanded Songhai Empire

1464 - 1492

portugese tried to conquer Mutapa Empire, failed


Muhummad defeated by Moraccan


The Americas

from 1500BC-1502AD

people started to farm in the Southwest

1500 BC

Adena people started to build earthen mounds

700 BC

used for religious services such as burials

classical period of Mayan Civilization

250 AD - 900 AD

built great cities, each ruled by a god-king. Centers for religion and trade. Pyramids, temples and palaces built to honor gods and kings

Teotihnacan city abandoned

750 AD

Mississippian group ended

800 AD

last group of people who built earthen mounds

fall of Mayan Civilization

850 AD - 900 AD

no actual reason. some theories include civil war, over population and farming may have damaged the enviroment, disease, famine

Toltecs take over abandoned Teotihnacan city

900 AD

Topiltzan exiled to Yucatan Peninsula, Toltec rule ends

1200 - 1300

exiled for suggesting that the Toltecs stop human sacrifices and worship a different god call "feathered serpent" in English

Triple Alliance made

1428 AD

an agreement between the Aztecs and 2 other city states

Pachacuti took Inca throne


great military conqueror

Montezuma II became emperor


called for more tributes and sacrifices which led to revolts. Emperor tried and failed to make life easier, people were worried about the future, eventually the Spanish arrived

the fall of Inca


fell because of civil war between two sons, Atahualpa and Huaskar, fighting for the throne

the Renaissance

from 1300 AD-1600 AD

Cosimo de Medici got control of Florence

1434 AD

changed the government from a republic to a Dictatorship

Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press


made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply

Leonardo de Vinci

1452 - 1519

throughout his life Vinci painted the Mona Lisa and The last Supper. he was also a scientist and he recorded his findings in a notebook

population started to grow rapidly after 100 years war and the bubonic plague


Donatello made the statue of David


Cosimo de Medici died, family continued to rule


Lorenzo de Medici


Also known as Lorenzo the Magnificant, he kept up the appearance of an elected government but it was still a dictatorship

Michelangelo Buanorroti

1475 - 1564

famous for the way he portrayed himan beings in art

Martin Luther was born


French king claimed throne of naples (S Italy)


started to invade N Italy, caused writers and artists to move out of N Italy and ideas of the Renaissance started to spread beyond Europe

Christian Humanist erasmus wrote The Praise of Folly


in order to improve society everybody should study the Bible.

Machiavelli wrote The Prince


how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies, he was not concerned with what was morally right, but with what was politically effective

Thomas More wrote Utopia


a perfect society, no war, no starvation etc.

Luther declared an outlaw by the king of England


Martin Luther excommunicated for teachings


believed that anyone with faith was equal, only god could give salvation, pope had no authority

Baldassare Castioglione wrote The Courtier


taught people how to become a Renaissance Man, which is to say, a man who is an expert in many fields, particularly those concerning the Arts

William Shakespeare


born in 1564, wrote plays, both tragedies and comedies

Ancient Greece

Battle of Marathon

490 BC

Greeks won and sent Pheidippides to run 26 miles to Athens to tell of the victory and tell them not to surrender,he then died.

Persian War

490 BC - 479 BC

war between Persians and Greeks (mainly Athens and Sparta). Greeks won.


431 BC - 404 BC

Athens vs.Sparta, Sparta won, caused by Athens getting too much power from the Persian War. Athens Golden Age ended.


Hellenistic Empire

336 BC - 323 BC

Alexander the Great's Empire, became ruler in 336 BC, died in 323 BC

Punic Wars

264 BC - 146 BC

Rome vs. Carthage

Julius Caesar

59 BC - 44 BC

elected consul in 59 BC, conquered Gaul, murdered by his Senate,in 44 BC. Part of first triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.

the second triumvirate

44 BC - 31 BC

Octavian (Augustus Caesar), Mark Antony, and Lepidus. Lepidus was forced to retire by Octavian, Mark Antony fell in love with Cleopatra and than died in battle during a civil war between himself and Octavian

Pax Romana

27 BC - 180 AD

otherwise known as the roman peace.

The Byzantine empire/ the fall of the Roman Empire

Justinian reigned


created Justinian's Code, consisting of four works, first is the code of Roman laws. Second is the digest which was opinions from Romes greatest legal thinkers. the third was the institutes which is a law textbook, the fourth the novellas or new laws which were passed after 534 AD. this code served the empire for 900 years. the Hagia Sophia was rebuilt by him.

Constantinople became Istanbul


Justinian changed then name of Constantinople after he conquered it


Paleolithic Age started 2.5 million years ago and ended in 8000 BC, the Neolithic Age started in 8000 BC and ended in 3000 BC.

"Lucy" was found


Lucy is a complete skeleton found by the Leaky's found in Africa, she lived 3.5 million years ago.