History of animation

History Of Animation

Persistence of vision


Peter Roget presented his paper 'The persistence of vision with regard to moving objects' to the British Royal Society.

The Phenakistoscope


Dr. Joseph Antoine Plateau a Belgian scientist and Dr. Simon Rittrer constructed a machine called a phenakitstoscope. This machine produced an illusion of movement by allowing a viewer to gaze at a rotating disk containing small windows; behind the windows was another disk containing a sequence of images. When the disks were rotated at the correct speed, the synchronization of the windows with the images created an animated effect.

Eadweard Muybridge


Eadweard Muybridge started his photographic gathering of animals in motion.

Thomas Edison


Thomas Edison started his research work into motion pictures.

George Eastman


George Eastman began the manufacture of photographic film strips using a nitro-cellulose base.

The Kinetoscope


Thomas Edison announced his creation of the kinetoscope which projected a 50ft length of film in approximately 13 seconds.

Emile Renynaud


Emile Renynaud, combining his earlier invention of the praxinoscope with a projector, opens the Theatre Optique in the Musee Grevin. It displays an animation of images painted on long strips of celluloid.

The Cinematograph


Louis and Augustine Lumiere issued a patent for a device called a cinematograph capable of projecting moving pictures.

The Vitascope


Thomas Armat designed the vitascope which projected the films of Thomas Edison. This machine had a major influence on all sub-sequent projectors.

Humorous phases of funny faces


J. Stuart Blackton made the first animated film which he called "Humorous phases of funny faces." His method was to draw comical faces on a blackboard and film them. He would stop the film, erase one face to draw another, and then film the newly drawn face. The Ôstop-motionÕ provided a starting effect as the facial expressions changed be fore the viewerÕs eyes.



n France Emile Cohl produced a film, Phantasmagorie which was the first depicting white figures on a black background.

En Route


Emile Cohl makes En Route the first paper cutout animation. This technique saves time by not having to redraw each new cell, only reposition the paper.

Little Nemo


Winsor McCay produced an animation sequence using his comic strip character "Little Nemo."

Old Doc Yak


J.R. Bray devised "Colonel Heeza Liar," and Sidney Smith created "Old Doc Yak."

Jonh Bray


John R Bray applies for a patent on numerous techniques for animation. One of the most revolutionary being the process of printing the backgrounds of the animation.



Winsor McCay produced a cartoon called "Gertie, The Trained Dinosaur" which amazingly consisted of 10,000 drawings.

Earl Hurd


Earl Hurd applies for a patent for the technique of drawing the animated portion of an animation on a clear celluloid sheet and later photographing it with its matching background. [Cel animation]

"Silk Hat Harry"


The International Feature Syndicate released many titles including "Silk Hat Harry","Bringing Up Father", and "Krazy Kat".

Felix The Cat


Pat Sullivan created an American cartoon "Felix the Cat."

Alice's Wonderland


Walt Disney extended Max Fleischer's technique of combining live action with cartoon characters in the film "Alice's Wonderland".

Disney Bros.


Walt and Roy Disney found Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio.

El Apostol


The first feature-length animated film called "El Apostol" is created in Argentina.

Warner Brothers


Warner Brothers released "The Jazz Singer" which introduced combined sound and images

Steam Boat Willy


Walt Disney created the first cartoon with synchronized sound called "Steam Boat Willy"

The King of Jazz


The King of Jazz is produced by Universal. In it is a short animated sequence done by Walter Lantz. It is the first animation done with the two strip technicolor process