They invented a number system based on twelve and sixty. It allowed then to do multiplication and division along with inventing time. We still use this today.
Canals were used by the Sumerians to improve their agriculture. It also helped them stop flooding and allow their other jobs due to surplus food. Although they did not invent it they used it well
Cuneiform was invented by the Sumerians. This was the first alphabet with letters instead of symbols. It evolved into what we have today.
Menes was the first pharaoh in Egypt and rose to power in 3100 B.C.E. He wanted to finish a previous king's work and unite Upper and Lower Egypt. He invaded and took control of lower Egypt and married a princess of lower Egypt later to further his power. He wore both red and white crowns to symbolize the two Egypt's colors and later had them combined into a double crown.
During its 18 dynasty, Egypt began to reached its height in power and started New Kingdom. Egypt started to over take other areas to stop any invasions that could take place. They slowly captured other countries, like Kush, and became an empire. During it Ramses the Great fought to help the empire. After his death the mysterious Sea People attacked Egypt and took their empire's hold. The Empire fell as long as the New Kingdom.
Athens was a little different than Sparta. Just like Sparta, boys ran jumped and fought but this training wasn't as harsh. They also were in the army between the ages of 18-20 and older man in times of war. They also valued the mind as boys could learn math, music, Literacy, astronomy, myths and legends, and public speaking. However most of these were for rich boys, and girls got even less. Only with private tutors can they learn to be any more than obident housewives. They couldn't leave their houses, have any government position, and couldn't disobey their father or husband. I go by that they where finished when all of Greece was conquered.
Sparta's society was dominated by military. Their social system was created by Lycurgus between 900 and 600 BCE. Boys were treated badly to become soldiers. Most of their lives were lived in the army. And since they were away most of the time woman ran their own household. They had more rights than most Greek woman and also had slaves. They received training so to have better babies. Sparta was very vigorous and also ended when Rome conquered Greece.
! &imgrefurl=http://www.mrdowling.com/701-peloponnesian.html&usg=__7XNd8Oz6kLCouAIn6UoKOqN2JrA=&h=321&w=300&sz=20&hl=en&start=2&sig2=2MmMECsBPPflqCnIeFzIwA&zoom=1&tbnid=8UVdeShVNYCw6M:&tbnh=118&tbnw=110&ei=F5-RUeufE4fQqwGZtoHABg&prev=/search%253Fq%253Dpeloponnesian%252Bwar%2526sa%253DX%2526hl%253Den-US%2526biw%253D600%2526bih%253D1024%2526tbm%253Disch&itbs=1&sa=X&ved=0CC4QrQMwAQ&tbnh=118&tbnw=110&ei=F5-RUeufE4fQqwGZtoHABg&prev=/search%253Fq%253Dpeloponnesian%252Bwar%2526sa%253DX%2526hl%253Den-US%2526biw%253D600%2526bih%253D1024%2526tbm%253Disch&itbs=1&sa=X&ved=0CC4QrQMwAQ! This was the Greek war that threaten to tear Greece apart. Sparta was upset at Athens' power, so they did just what Athens did and made alliances. Then, Sparta tried to attack, but the Athenians did nothing. Sparta tried to cutoff Athens' food supply to force them into battle, yet they still did not fight. But then Athens tried to expand its empire which ended in fail. Along with defeat, they also had much of their navy destroyed. Sparta seized the moment, and conquered Athens claiming power. They ruled for 31 years until power was taken away and thrown around for city-state to city-state until Rome conquered them.
Julius Ceasar was a strong general whose best allies were Pompey and Crassus. He conquered most of Gaul, now France, in his time. Crassus eventually was killed in battle and Ceasar killed Pompey. Ceasar was later assassinated by the Senate and his own apprentice for being feared to have gotten too much power. He was stabbed at least 23 times and in some of his last breaths said "You to, Brutus."
Mt. Vesuvius is an active volcano in southern Italy. When a town was founded at its base, the people thought it was a mountain. And the day Vesuvius started to quake, people ignored the signs. Nobody was ready when the volcano spewed forth fire and ash. Many fled, however some thought they could wait it out. Unfortunately, they both were kill, buried under feet of ash and lava, preserved naturally. After three days Vesuvius went back to sleep, as Pompeii and Herculeam were now more.
Octavian was Julius' adoptive son. He, along with Marc Anthony, led an army to avenge his father's death. They defeated the murders and the rest committed suicide. Octavian went back to Rome while Marc Anthony went to fight Rome's enemies in the east. He married Octavian's sister, Octavia, but then divorced her to marry Cleopatra. This caused a civil war in which Octavian defeated Anthony and caused him and his wife to kill themselves. Octavian then became the sole leader, claiming power until stepping down in front of the senate, where they gave him his second name Augustus the revered one.