The War

1914 to1915: Illusions and Statement

End of the War

1815

People were reminded that almost all European wars had in fact ended in a couple of weeks

I'll be home for Christmas

1914

Jubilant citizens who showered the soldiers with flowers as the left believed that the warriors would be home by Christmas

Feeling toward going to war

1914

Austrians felt going to war was exciting

Avoided

1914

Many political leaders thought that war involved so many political involvement and economic risk that it was something that was avoided

The Western Front

Germans Halted

September 6, 1914 - September 10, 1914

The German advance was halted a short distance from Paris at the first battle of Marne. To stop them the French military leaders loaded two thousand Parasian taxicabs with fresh troops and set the to front line.

Trenches

1915

Two lines of trenches soon reached from the English Channel to the frontiers of Switzerland

Trench Welfare

1915

The western front had become bogged down in trench welfare that kept both sides in virtually the same positions for years

The Eastern Front

Close Call

1915

A German-Austrian army defeated the Russian army in Galicia and pushed Russians far back into their own territory. Russian casualties stood at 2.5 million killed, captured, or wounded. The Russians had almost been knocked out of the war.

Broken Alliance

May 1915

The Italians betrayed their German and Austrian allies in the Triple Alliance by attacking Austria

Defeated

August 30, 1915 - September 15,1915

The Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was decisively defeated at the battle of Tannenberg and the battle of Masurian Lakes

Elimination of Serbia

September 1915

Buoyed by their success, Germany, and Austria-Hungary joined by Bulgaria attacked and eliminated Serbia from the war

1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter

Defense

1914 - 1916

The trenches dug had become elaborate systems of defense

No Mans Land

1914 - 1916

Troops lived in holes in the ground separated from each other by a strip of territory known as no-mans-land

Tactics of Trench Warfare

Industrial Revolution

1914 - 1918

The Industrial Revolution was largely responsible for bringing about this change in how war was fought

Elusive Breakthrough

1916 - 1917

Millions of young men died fighting for the elusive breakthrough

Lives Lost

1916

The German goal was to bleed the French army white in the ten months of fighting at Verdun 700,000 French and German young men lost their lives over a few miles of land

War in the Air

Danger in the Sky

1915

Machine guns were mounted on the noses of the planes which made the skies more dangerous

Aircrafts

1915

Airplanes had appeared on the battlefield for the first time in history

Damage in England

1915

Germans used their giant airships and the Zeppelins to bomb London and eastern England this caused little damage but frightened many people

Widening the War

Japan in the War

1902

Japan a British ally seized a number of German-held islands in the Pacific

Balkan

April 1915

The allies tried to open a Balkan front by landing forces at Gallipoli southwest of Constantinople

Revolt

1917

A British officer known as Lawrence of Arabia urged Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman overloads

World Conflict

1917

The war that had started in Europe had truly become a world conflict

Ottoman Empire Destroyed

1918

British forces from Egypt destroyed the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East

Entry of the United States

Suspension

1915

The German government suspended unrestricted submarine warfare

The Lusitania

May 7, 1915

The British ship Lusitania was sunk by German forces there were about 1,100 civilian casualties including over 100 Americans

Battle of Jutland

May 31,1916

The German and the British naval forces engaged in direct battle at the battle of Jutland

Evil Plans

January 1917

The Germans were eager to break the deadlock in the war. German naval officers convinced Emperor William II that resuming the use of unrestricted submarine warfare could starve the British submission within six months

United States goes to war

April 1917

The British were not forced to surrender and the return to unrestricted warfare brought the United States into the war

American Troops

1918

American troops did not arrive in Europe in large numbers. They gave the Allied Powers a psychological boost as well as major new source of money and war goods

The Home Front: The Impact of Total War

Supplies

1916

Masses of men had to be organized and supplies had to be manufactured and purchased for years of combat

Total War

1916

World War I became a total war involving a complete mobilization of resources and people

Increased Government Powers

Economies

1916

Throughout Europe wartime governments also expanded their power over their economies. Free market capitalism systems were temporarily put aside

Woodrow Wilson

1916

United States president Woodrow Wilson said men and women "who remain to till the soil and man the factories are no less a part of the army than the men beneath the battle flags"

Manipulation of Public Opinion

DORA

1916

The British Parliament passed the Defense of the Realm At (DORA) it allowed the government to arrest and protest traitors

Cracks

1916

There were signs that civilian morale was beginning to crack under the pressure of total work

Total War and Women

Voting

1918

Most women gained the right to vote for example in Germany, Austria, Great Britain, and the United States

Women at Work

1918

38% of the workers in the Krupp Armaments works in Germany in 1918 were women

Unemployment

1919

There would be 650,000 unemployed women in Great Britain