History of Russia


Reign of Peter the Great

1694 - 1725

He developed strong foreign relationships and helped Russia become one of the strongest powers in Europe. Peter the Great also helped Russia in becoming a Westernized country. Lastly, Peter the Great opened Russia to Western trade by capturing warm water territories such as the Black Sea.

Peter the Great founds his capital St. Petersburg

1703 - 1704

Peter built his new capital city on the land he won from Sweden in the Great Northern War. He forced tens of thousands of serfs to drain the swamps in order to build his new city on top of them. Many died in the process, but he invited many Italian artisans to help build this magnificent capital. This city signified Peter's attempt at modernizing Russia.

Reign of Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Catherine II married the grandson of Peter the Great and they had one child Paul who eventually was the heir to her throne. She continued the Westernization of Russia and the expansion to the south and west. The "Charter to the Nobility" would be issued in 1785 and it would give more power to nobles, as Catherine knew that she could not control all of Russia herself. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5htYavwnLr8 Here is a short biography of her

Russia + Austria fight Ottomans + Swedish

1787 - 1792

This war was fought for the control of areas in Southern Ukraine. Russians slaughtered the Ottomans with ease. The Ottomans wanted to regain control after their loss in the previous war, the Russo-Turkish war of 1768.

Napoleon invades Russia

1812 - 1813

Napoleon of France wanted to conquer all of Europe and in 1812 he wanted to invade Russia. This would prove to be a huge mistake because Russia is big and cold. Napoleon dragged his army all the way into Russia and had to retreat because he lost so many men. It would later be a lesson for everyone to never invade Russia. Napoleon's army was beat so badly without the two armies even fighting each other.

Cholera Outbreak

1829 - 1851

All of Europe had been experiencing Cholera outbreaks, so it was not just Russia. In 1830 and 1831, Cholera riots spurred and became a huge issue, as many people were dying from the disease. Crops were dying, and Stalin grabbed all of the food he could from farmers and put them in the market. This caused a huge famine and many peasants lost their lives. Stalin would later use many tactics like this for his own good.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Russia was fighting vs the alliance of France, England, and the Ottoman Empire. Russia wanted control of the Crimean Peninsula, and would do anything to have it. All Russia has wanted was warm water ports, and this was their opportunity. Sadly, Russia lost its naval fleet and had to surrender.

Emancipation Edict ends Serfdom

1861 - 1862

Czar Alexander II freed all of the serfs in Russia (about one-third of the population at the time). In reality, it only meant that serfs could own the land they worked on, or they could pay it off in money. This created tension in the lower class, because serfs were not one-hundred percent free. This would help make the Russian Revolution a success.

Russo-Turkish War

1877 - 1878

This war started over religious affairs between the two countries. Russia did not expect a serious amount of opposition from the Turks, and they were surprised when they met their forces. Russia also wanted water ports, and in the 19th century, Turkey had a decent amount of water ports. All Russia has ever wanted is warm water ports to trade with other countries.

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks split

1903 - 1904

Prior to 1903, the Bolsheviks were led by Lenin, and his ideas were agreed to be set for all of Russia. At the gathering of the Social Democrats in London in 1903, some people did not agree with Lenin's "What is to be done". As a result, a new group forms and it was the Mensheviks. Mortov would be the leader of the new group, and although they were in different groups, they were within the same party.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Also known as the Manchurian war, Russia and Japan were fighting over the territory of Manchuria. The Boxer Rebellion was stronger than expected, and European and Japanese forces were sent to suppress it. Russian troops were still occupying Manchuria and were demanded by Japan to leave by 1903. Russia failed to do so and went to war with Japan. Russia ended u being defeated.

Russia fights for the Allies in World War One

1914 - 1917

Russia fought against the Central Powers in World War One because they needed to defend their sister country Serbia from Austria-Hungary. A group of radicals in the Serbian army assassinated Archduke Ferdinand along with his wife, and that is the reason the two hated each other. Russia had to leave the war in 1917 because they were dealing with a civil problem. The Russian revolution took them out of the Great War.

Reign of Lenin

1917 - 1924

Lenin was put into power as the leader of Russia. This happened after the Bolsheviks overthrew the Kerensky Government. This was all happening during the Russian Revolution, which also started in 1917. This was also the time where Russia pulled out of World War due to political instability.

Russian Revolution

1917 - 1945

Lenin was the first main leader of Russia during the Revolution. During this time, a new calendar was installed, the capital was moved to Moscow, and Russia becomes a communist country. Stalin would later come into power after Lenin. He wanted people to remember Lenin and he wanted to carry on his beliefs and goals for the Revolution.

Communists win Civil War

1920 - 1921

After three years of civil war between the whites and reds, the Communists (reds) pulled out on top. During this civil war, millions have died from starvation. Lenin was also leader of the Communist party, but he died shortly after they won.