First war fought under the development of industrialization.
Caused by conflict over Manchuria.
Russia - Trade - wanted access to warm water ports in Manchuria, planned expansion of railway to Vladivostok across the heart of Manchuria
Japan - rapid growth in population lead to a strong demand for raw materials and markets for their factories. Adopted western attitude of imperialism towards China
Unexpected Japanese victory - beginning of Japanese emergence as a great power, sparked nationalist revolutions and self-assertion of Asians against Western control
Russian frustration --> Revolution of 1905 --> Russian Revolution of 1917
new heavy artillery, machine guns lead to trench warfare and stalemate. No British or French attack gained more than 3 miles of land on the western front. Usage of the "creeping barrage"
First usage of gas by the Germans. Failed because they were unable to exploit the initial surprise and panic.
Usage of machine guns w/c caused stalemate & the development of trench warfare
battle of attrition - British attack on Somme successfully takes some pressure off of France's Verdun, but suffers about 400,000 casualties to take some 30 miles of land. (some tanks used too)
One of many treaties made during the war to attract allies with the promise of "booty"
Fr & Br promised Italy territories in Austria-Hungary (Dalmatian Coast), South-Eastern Balkans, North Africa
battle of attrition, to "bleed the enemy white" - German siege of the historic French Fortress. Both sides suffered some 300,000 casualties. Germans eventually withdrew.
Britain and France divided up Mesopotamia, Syria and Lebanon into Anglo-French spheres of interest (Middle East)
Germany attempts to severely damage the British fleet and affect their ability to transport supplies and troops to France, even if they are defeated in the process. Successfully manages to inflict more damage on British fleet than what they sustained before quickly retreating, but strategically changed nothing.
Purposeful German retreat to the strongly fortified line constructed in 1916. More easily defended and with less manpower. Closer to supply lines.
resulted in G's success in France
America declares war on the Central Powers as not an Ally, but as an "associated" power in reaction to the German unrestricted submarine warfare campaign b/c since 1914, American economy had become dependent on shipping goods to Allies.
with help of the American navy, Allied shipping was escorted by warships.
Wilson announces his 14 points
1) no more secret diplomacy (treaties)
2) freedom of the seas
3) removal of economic barriers
4) reduction of arms/disarmament
5) national self-determination
6) evacuation of all Russian territory
7) Belgium to be evacuated and restored while keeping her sovereignty
8 ) French territory returned - Alsace-Lorraine from Franco-Prussian War 1871
9) re-adjustment of frontiers of Italy - keeping in mind nationalities of the populations concerned
10) A-H to be allowed autonomous development
11) Romania, Serbia and Montenegro evacuated. Serbia given access to the sea. Balkan state borders secured along historic lines of nationality and allegiance
12) Turkey assured sovereignty, Dardanelles permanently open for free passage
13) Independent Poland given all territories with polish majority and access to the sea
14) formation of the League of Nations to secure political independence and territorial integrity for all nations
SU pulls out of war and signs peace treaty with Germany that gives independence to Poland, the Baltic provinces, Ukraine, Finland and the Caucasus.
Ludendorff and Hindenburg conceded defeat, advised Kaiser to appeal to Wilson's 14 points in an armistrice
Border dispute between Polanlish and Ukraine Republics against Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine
Poland won and gained some territory
By Jan 1920, ratified by all great powers except USA
USA goes into isolationism, doesn't want to be pulled into defending other nations from aggression. Anglo-American military guarantee of France voided. Treaty of Versailles would have to be carried by by Britain and France alone.
Dealt with Austria.
Self-determination - Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia granted independence
huge chunks of land given to Italy and Romania
Galicia given to Poland
Istria, Trieste and St. Tyrol with some 230,000 ethnic germans given to Italy.
forbid anschluss (union with Germany)
reparations (for 30 years)
army limited to 30,000
navy disbanded and split among the allies (lost her coast)
dealt with Bulgaria
ceded lands to Greece, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia), Romania
limited army to 20, 000, one weaponry factory, no importing of weapons
but later 75% of the treaty was remitted (not applied)
lost 72% of territory and 64% of population
self-determination was impossible to apply since ethnic lines were not clear cut in Hungary
ceded lands to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia
trade system became rigid as it lost 62% of its railways and had become landlocked (had to pay numerous tolls and tariffs)
lost majority of financial institutions
still had to pay war reparations
army redued to 35 000. lost navy and air force.
created bitterness, unemployment, worsened inflation.
Dealt with Turkey
France & Britain very involved here. Britain wants to strengthen Greece but France already had pre-war investments in Turkey.
Constantinople remains Turkish. Thrace and Dardanelles given to Greece.
Never put into effect by Turkish gov. Instead a nationalist group under Mustapha Kemal creates a rebel gov.
Aug 1922, Turkish troops ready to engage allied troops occupying Constantinople and the Straits
1923 Treaty of Lausanne - revised the terms of the Treaty of Sevres. Allied powers given freedom of navigation through the straits, but areas remain Turkish and no more foreign interference in Turkish finances (French influence is removed)
Defensive alliance. Would come to the other's aid if invaded (by Germany)
Czech., Romania, Yugo. to prevent Hungary from reclaiming land
lead to economic and military co-operation between these states
Four Power Treaty - US, Jp, Fr, Br
- anglo-jap alliance ended
- recognize others possessions in the pacific, diplomatic solutions
Five Power Treaty - USA, Br, Fr, Japan, It
limitations on naval fleets - wanted to restrain Japan, & also because couldn't afford a naval race at this point
ratio of naval strength to be US-5, Brit-5, Jap-3, Fr-1.67, It-1.67
agreed to respect each other's holdings in Pacific
9 Power - US, Jp, Fr, Br, Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal
- open door policy China
to discuss global economic problems following WWI & strategies to rebuild central and eastern Europe --> how to approach Ger & the new Red Russia
Ger & SU band together during Genoa conference, both denied LN
agreement to establish full diplomatic relations
union against Poland, both lost territories to it
both agree to cancel any financial claims on each other from the war
--> secret agreements for military and economic cooperation
--> G to avoid military restrictions of Treaty of V by testing in Russian territory
Mussolini hailed as a hero for standing up for Italy.
French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr - Germany's "industrial heartland" to force payment of reparations
Britain is benevolently neutral, America does nothing.
France blocks Britain & Sweden's attempts to refer the crisis to the League of Nations
9 months of worker's passive resistance and strikes financed by German gov --> hyperinflation in Germany, weakening of the Franc
***Last attempt to carry out Versailles treaty by force.
Not strictly anti-German, only if Anschluss occured
conference included Germany (first inclusion as an equal)
--> general purpose: prevent war
"Spirit of Locarno" - nations working together peacefully
undermined Treaty of Versailles --> Ger. Fr. Belgium agree to frontiers established at Versailles conference
Ger. arbitration treaties with Poland and Czech --> doesn't guarantee their borders, but promised to seek international resolution to these borders
Fr. treaties with Poland and Czech. guaranteeing military aid for Ger aggression
Br offers military aid against ger aggression for Belgium and Fr but NOT poland and Czech
Germany joined League of Nations
Guaranteeing Romanian Frontiers
motivated by Romanian suspicion of the growing Italian influence in Albania
Franco-Yugoslav Treaty of Friendship
triggered by the Wall Street Crash Oct. 1929 and spread around the world due to the new interdependence of the economies of all nations (US dominance)
world trade fell by 70%
-economic crisis : unemployment hit 13 mil Americans, 6 mil Germans, 3 mil British.
devastating blow to progress towards new framework for peaceful international co-operation
sudden tread to make nations self-sufficient economically (via tariff barriers) - huge colonial empires would be an advantage --> prompted have-nots to want one like those of France and Britain
resulted in a surge in aggression for Germany, Italy and Japan: helped bring Hitler to power, strengthened Japan's will to annex Manchuria, prompted Italian preparation for the conquest of Abyssinia
weakened Allies - delayed their rearmament programs and each suspected the other of causing their problems
France, wary of a new German attack, builds this defensive line. However, it was a failure as G once again invaded from Belgium.
extension of Washington Conference
Am, Br, Japan agree to 5:5:3 ratio of all ships
fixed reparation payments to be very low in light of the Great Depression
Communists do really well, won 100 seats and evoked fear
Hitler becomes Fuhrer without election
Failed but caused deterioration of relations between Ger & Italy
Franco-Italian agreement to act together :
- if Germany rearms by itself
- if Austria' s independence is threatened.
Treaty of Mutual Assistance signed
Italian conquest of Abyssinia is not stopped by the LN
Br & Fr - domestic unrest, divided public opinion in midst of an election - passive action
October Protocols signed by Ger & It
Policy of appeasement
B wanted G as a strong trading partner, felt they were within their rights
G claimed to was for self defense due to the alliance b/w F & SU
Fr refused to invade (prepared for defensive war) without 100% Br backup
Direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles - Allied Policy of Appeasement
Met with little resistance from the people
Austrian Chancellor replaced by a pro-Nazi one
Area of Czechoslovakia with a large German population
Germany, Italy and Japan - the "have-nots", didn't have vast territories or economic resources
Germany was beginning to gain influence, since had similar expansionist, nationalistic and militaristic ambitions ( & was also feared by other European nations), attracted allies
Usage of radar and sonar allow Britain to break German cipher (codes) and track German U-boats
Air battle, Ger vs Br
Area bombing to destroy Britain's means of production
total war - accidental bombing of London at night...
German succeeds with the Blizkrieg tactic
France falls quicker than expected after Germans bypass their Maginot line (defeated after 1 month - June)
Brings America into the war
Island hopping - America aims for areas with strategic importance to create a path to bomb Japan
usage of aircraft carriers
Largest tank battle in history
Extensive sustained bombing campaign to target North’s industrial, transportation, oil and gas locations
After 1972: almost all of the industrial and communication facilities were destroyed
Nationalist uprising attempts to overthrow the gov.
causes - Ideologically polarized between nationalists and Republicans
attracted a lot of foreign intervention since it mirrored the split all over Europe. Nationalists appealed to Ger & Italy. Republicans approached Br Fr and Russia
Fr & Br for non-intervention - avoid conflict with Germany > strategic dangers of another nationalist, fascist victory, domestic division also --> threatened civil war in Fr
Ger & It - advantages of having Spain as an ally - possibility of a naval/submarine base & mineral resources
Ger & Russia - divert international attention
Manchu dynasty is overthrown. China is declared a republic under Yuan in 1912
China became increasingly fragmented. Regions arbitrarily ruled by militarist leaders who imposed their own taxes.
At the encouragement of the Comintern communist organization from Russia, CCP & KMT collaborated for their shared goal of overcoming warlordism. During this time, CCP grew by their affiliation with the presently more popular KMT. However, it also turned the GMD under Jiang to turn against the CCP --> Shanghai Massacre.
37, 000 communists killed in Shanghai, including civilians (women and children) upon the order of Jiang (KMT). Triggering event of the Chinese Civil war.
End of the united front
Using propaganda, the CCP portrayed their retreat from the KMT as a heroic march to the north to fight the Japanese.
Benefited Mao as the CCP was able to avoid major battles but still claim the credits + weakening of both Japan & KMT
Declared by Mao, but not recognized by western powers.
expanded to Five in '52
all except the CCP
based on the Soviet model
Policy aimed to close the gap formed between rural areas and cities due to the industry-heavy 5 year plan.
- forced collectivization
- backyard steel
Mao's last act of extensive propaganda, aimed to revive a revolutionary spirit.
Encouraged young ppl to persecute anyone who is disloyal to the party
Feb - revolution ends Tsarist regime
October - Bolsheviks seize power from the Provisional Government
- create a communist society (+ surrounded by enemies)
- tighten gov control
- backward country
- Great depression = need to become self sufficient
- focused on heavy industry & military weapons
- Red army = biggest army in the world + well equipped
- end high unemployment + increase family income
- consumer & household goods sacrificed
- production figures unreliable
- shortage of food, fear, arrest
- socialist ideology
- supposed to be more efficient to support cities
- finance industrialization
- increase gov control over crops
- Stalin able to control food supplies
- modern techniques & chemicals introduced
- de-kulakization (most hard working farmers gone)
- Farmer resistance, maintained by force
- death of 5 million ppl & 27% of livestock
- production figures unreliable
For the politicians
- old Bolsheviks
- communists who joined during the civil war and rose to the top ranks, they were loyal Stalinists but knew about Lenin's testament and Stalin's responsibility for the collectivization disaster
almost all the accused confessed (couldn't really disagree)
and the purging of officials was a useful way to explain the failures of collectivization
Target: armed forces
- 3 out of 4 full generals
- all 12 lieutenant generals
- 60/67 corps commanders
- all 8 navy admirals
Limit big business monopolies
Abolish large stores to protect small shops
Failed, no support fromt the people, Hitler imprisoned, writes Mein Kampf
Cut unemployment and welfare benefits. Made the forced imposed gov even more unpopular
Catholic religious and social organizations granted independence in exchange for Vatican's recognition of the regime and renouncement of clerical interference in politics
Due to the arson of the Reichstag building & the gov's fear of communist domination
Hitler became chancellor & national hero that will eliminate socialist threats
- Article 48 allowed the chancellor to rule w/out consent of the Reichstag therefore giving Hitler a legitimate reason to establish a totalitarian state
- upon Nazi claims of a communist takeover, Hindenburg passed the "Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State", allowing Hitler to ignore restrictions on police power and take over and the Nazis to arrest communists and other political opponents
Hitler unleashed a wave of terror before the elections
resulted in the party wining 288 out of 489 seats, leading to the Enabling Act
After a campaign of violent intimidation where they depicted opposition as unpatriotic, arrested oponents in the SPD and trade unions and surrounded the building housing the Reichstag with S.A and S.S. troops.
This law essentially allowed Hitler to make laws and treaties with foreign states without Reichstag approval
- meant that Hitler no longer needed the support of political parties
burned approx. 25, 000 volumes
got rid of all books with pacifist, socialist or Jewish authors
all political formations except Nazis became illegal
SPD (Communist Party) already banned in June
Eliminated problematic & rising SA leaders via SS by manipulating both sides.
-Hitler needed the support of the army & gov more than SA
Gov dictated what to produce, price & profit in order to become self sufficient
But the plan failed as G was still not really do fight long term war in WWII & 30% raw materials were still imported although by the end of 1938, total industrial production had increased by 100% since 1933
Turning point - began severe persecution after the annexation added 200,000+ Jews to the Reich and a large number of violently radical anti-semites
5 governments of compromise.
Strike was suppressed by the Fascists which gained them support by the gov.
The King gave Mussolini emergency powers that gave him power to rule as a dictator. (He promised to use it to solve the social & political problems in Italy)
Aimed to sell surplus to support industrialization
- production doubled but overall food cost increased b/c all land was used for growing grain
Aimed to clear marshal land and use it for farming
Gov took over unprofitable states & told them to bigger industries.
Resulted in giant monopolies