IB History 12 SL

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Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

First war fought under the development of industrialization.

Caused by conflict over Manchuria.

Russia - Trade - wanted access to warm water ports in Manchuria, planned expansion of railway to Vladivostok across the heart of Manchuria

Japan - rapid growth in population lead to a strong demand for raw materials and markets for their factories. Adopted western attitude of imperialism towards China

Effects:

Unexpected Japanese victory - beginning of Japanese emergence as a great power, sparked nationalist revolutions and self-assertion of Asians against Western control

Russian frustration --> Revolution of 1905 --> Russian Revolution of 1917

WWI

1914 - 1919

Stalemate

1915

new heavy artillery, machine guns lead to trench warfare and stalemate. No British or French attack gained more than 3 miles of land on the western front. Usage of the "creeping barrage"

Battle of Ypes

1915

First usage of gas by the Germans. Failed because they were unable to exploit the initial surprise and panic.
Usage of machine guns w/c caused stalemate & the development of trench warfare

Battle of Somme

1916

battle of attrition - British attack on Somme successfully takes some pressure off of France's Verdun, but suffers about 400,000 casualties to take some 30 miles of land. (some tanks used too)

Treaty of London

1916

One of many treaties made during the war to attract allies with the promise of "booty"

Fr & Br promised Italy territories in Austria-Hungary (Dalmatian Coast), South-Eastern Balkans, North Africa

Battle of Verdun

February 21 1916 - November 1916

battle of attrition, to "bleed the enemy white" - German siege of the historic French Fortress. Both sides suffered some 300,000 casualties. Germans eventually withdrew.

Sykes-Picot Agreement

May 1916

Britain and France divided up Mesopotamia, Syria and Lebanon into Anglo-French spheres of interest (Middle East)

Battle of Jutland

May 31, 1916

Germany attempts to severely damage the British fleet and affect their ability to transport supplies and troops to France, even if they are defeated in the process. Successfully manages to inflict more damage on British fleet than what they sustained before quickly retreating, but strategically changed nothing.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

January 1917

Hindenburg Line

March 1917

Purposeful German retreat to the strongly fortified line constructed in 1916. More easily defended and with less manpower. Closer to supply lines.
resulted in G's success in France

Entrance of USA

April 6 1917

America declares war on the Central Powers as not an Ally, but as an "associated" power in reaction to the German unrestricted submarine warfare campaign b/c since 1914, American economy had become dependent on shipping goods to Allies.

Convoy System

May 1917

with help of the American navy, Allied shipping was escorted by warships.

Battle of Cambrai

November 1917
  • tanks show their potential as a possible solution to the stalemate --> finally glimpsed war of movement !
  • used by the British to attack the German Hindenburg line successfully advances forward 4 to 6 miles over the supposedly impregnable line
  • however over the next week, Germans won back almost all of the land

Wilson's 14 Points

January 8 1918

Wilson announces his 14 points

1) no more secret diplomacy (treaties)
2) freedom of the seas
3) removal of economic barriers
4) reduction of arms/disarmament
5) national self-determination
6) evacuation of all Russian territory
7) Belgium to be evacuated and restored while keeping her sovereignty
8 ) French territory returned - Alsace-Lorraine from Franco-Prussian War 1871
9) re-adjustment of frontiers of Italy - keeping in mind nationalities of the populations concerned
10) A-H to be allowed autonomous development
11) Romania, Serbia and Montenegro evacuated. Serbia given access to the sea. Balkan state borders secured along historic lines of nationality and allegiance
12) Turkey assured sovereignty, Dardanelles permanently open for free passage
13) Independent Poland given all territories with polish majority and access to the sea
14) formation of the League of Nations to secure political independence and territorial integrity for all nations

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 3 1918

SU pulls out of war and signs peace treaty with Germany that gives independence to Poland, the Baltic provinces, Ukraine, Finland and the Caucasus.

German Armistrice

November 11, 1918

Ludendorff and Hindenburg conceded defeat, advised Kaiser to appeal to Wilson's 14 points in an armistrice

Russo-Polish War

February 1919 - March 1921

Border dispute between Polanlish and Ukraine Republics against Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine

Poland won and gained some territory

Treaty of Versailles

June 28 1919

By Jan 1920, ratified by all great powers except USA

USA goes into isolationism, doesn't want to be pulled into defending other nations from aggression. Anglo-American military guarantee of France voided. Treaty of Versailles would have to be carried by by Britain and France alone.

Treaty of St. Germain

September 10 1919

Dealt with Austria.

dissolved monarch

Self-determination - Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia granted independence

huge chunks of land given to Italy and Romania
Galicia given to Poland
Istria, Trieste and St. Tyrol with some 230,000 ethnic germans given to Italy.
forbid anschluss (union with Germany)

reparations (for 30 years)

army limited to 30,000

navy disbanded and split among the allies (lost her coast)

Treaty of Neuilly - sur - Seine

November 1919

dealt with Bulgaria

ceded lands to Greece, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia), Romania

became landlocked

limited army to 20, 000, one weaponry factory, no importing of weapons

reparations

but later 75% of the treaty was remitted (not applied)

Treaty of Trianon

June 1920

lost 72% of territory and 64% of population

self-determination was impossible to apply since ethnic lines were not clear cut in Hungary

ceded lands to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia

trade system became rigid as it lost 62% of its railways and had become landlocked (had to pay numerous tolls and tariffs)

lost majority of financial institutions

still had to pay war reparations

army redued to 35 000. lost navy and air force.

created bitterness, unemployment, worsened inflation.

Treaty of Sevres

August 10, 1920

Dealt with Turkey

France & Britain very involved here. Britain wants to strengthen Greece but France already had pre-war investments in Turkey.

Constantinople remains Turkish. Thrace and Dardanelles given to Greece.

Never put into effect by Turkish gov. Instead a nationalist group under Mustapha Kemal creates a rebel gov.

Aug 1922, Turkish troops ready to engage allied troops occupying Constantinople and the Straits

1923 Treaty of Lausanne - revised the terms of the Treaty of Sevres. Allied powers given freedom of navigation through the straits, but areas remain Turkish and no more foreign interference in Turkish finances (French influence is removed)

Albanian Crisis

1921
  • Albania appeals for help against Greek and Yugoslavian aggression
  • Success: League oversees Yugoslav withdrawal
  • However, the role of League's threat of economic sanctions was secondary to allied powers (personal dispatch from Britain forced Conference of Ambassadors to fix borders) and Italy was made protector of Albania's independence

Polish-French alliance

1921

Defensive alliance. Would come to the other's aid if invaded (by Germany)

Little Entente

1921

Czech., Romania, Yugo. to prevent Hungary from reclaiming land

lead to economic and military co-operation between these states

Aaland Island's dispute

1921
  • Finland and Sweden conflict over islands
  • League's verdict is acceped though not altogether popular - islands to remain Finnish but the civil rights of the ethnic Swedish of the islands must be ensured

Washington Conference

1921

Four Power Treaty - US, Jp, Fr, Br
- anglo-jap alliance ended
- recognize others possessions in the pacific, diplomatic solutions

Five Power Treaty - USA, Br, Fr, Japan, It
limitations on naval fleets - wanted to restrain Japan, & also because couldn't afford a naval race at this point
ratio of naval strength to be US-5, Brit-5, Jap-3, Fr-1.67, It-1.67
agreed to respect each other's holdings in Pacific

9 Power - US, Jp, Fr, Br, Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal
- open door policy China

Genoa Conference

1922

to discuss global economic problems following WWI & strategies to rebuild central and eastern Europe --> how to approach Ger & the new Red Russia

Rapallo Agreement

1922

Ger & SU band together during Genoa conference, both denied LN

agreement to establish full diplomatic relations
union against Poland, both lost territories to it
both agree to cancel any financial claims on each other from the war
--> secret agreements for military and economic cooperation
--> G to avoid military restrictions of Treaty of V by testing in Russian territory

Corfu Incident

1923
  • assassination of 3 Italians in Greek territory
  • Italy issues a deliberately unacceptable ultimatum
  • Greece refused 3 of the demands
  • Italian troops occupy Greece ****** League of Nations insists Greece pays fine of 50 million $, Italian troops then withdraw --> Major powers can do as they please regardless of the league

Mussolini hailed as a hero for standing up for Italy.

Occupation of the Ruhr

January 1923

French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr - Germany's "industrial heartland" to force payment of reparations

Britain is benevolently neutral, America does nothing.

France blocks Britain & Sweden's attempts to refer the crisis to the League of Nations

  • Germany requests a three year moratorium, Britain declares that because they have to repay America, France has to repay Britain.

9 months of worker's passive resistance and strikes financed by German gov --> hyperinflation in Germany, weakening of the Franc

***Last attempt to carry out Versailles treaty by force.

Czech-French alliance

1924

Not strictly anti-German, only if Anschluss occured

Dawes Plan

1924 - 1926
  • Private American loans to Ger. Ger stabilize financial and industrial sectors, pay back reparations
  • Germany paid approx $1 billion but received $2 billion from US
  • 2 year moratorium

London Conference

April 1924
  • Introduction of Dawes Plan and agreement to withdraw French and Belgian forces from the Ruhr within 12 months
  • Fr diplomatic defeat - US and Br agree to band together to restrain France from re-occupying the Ruhr

Greco-Bulgarian conflict

1925
  • territorial dispute
  • League's commission of inquiry's verdict is accepted by both sides --> SUCCESS

Locarno

1925

conference included Germany (first inclusion as an equal)
--> general purpose: prevent war

"Spirit of Locarno" - nations working together peacefully

undermined Treaty of Versailles --> Ger. Fr. Belgium agree to frontiers established at Versailles conference

Ger. arbitration treaties with Poland and Czech --> doesn't guarantee their borders, but promised to seek international resolution to these borders

Fr. treaties with Poland and Czech. guaranteeing military aid for Ger aggression

Br offers military aid against ger aggression for Belgium and Fr but NOT poland and Czech

Ger -> LN

1926

Germany joined League of Nations

Franco-Romanian Treaty

1926

Guaranteeing Romanian Frontiers
motivated by Romanian suspicion of the growing Italian influence in Albania

G - SU Treaty of Friendship

1926

Fr-Yugo Treaty

1927

Franco-Yugoslav Treaty of Friendship

Kellog-Briand Pact

1928
  • following the "Locarno Spirit"
  • condemned war as a solution to international problems
  • signed by 65 nations

The Great Depression

1929 - 1933
  • triggered by the Wall Street Crash Oct. 1929 and spread around the world due to the new interdependence of the economies of all nations (US dominance)

  • world trade fell by 70%
    -economic crisis : unemployment hit 13 mil Americans, 6 mil Germans, 3 mil British.

  • devastating blow to progress towards new framework for peaceful international co-operation

  • sudden tread to make nations self-sufficient economically (via tariff barriers) - huge colonial empires would be an advantage --> prompted have-nots to want one like those of France and Britain

  • resulted in a surge in aggression for Germany, Italy and Japan: helped bring Hitler to power, strengthened Japan's will to annex Manchuria, prompted Italian preparation for the conquest of Abyssinia

  • weakened Allies - delayed their rearmament programs and each suspected the other of causing their problems

Young Plan

1929
  • payments owed by Germany cut down by 25%
  • Br & Fr forces with evacuate Rhineland in 1930, 5 years before what the Treaty of Versailles dictated
  • International loan $200 million
  • if met financial difficulties, could ask for 2 year moratorium
  • annual payments fixed to run until 1966

Maginot Line

1929

France, wary of a new German attack, builds this defensive line. However, it was a failure as G once again invaded from Belgium.

London Conference

1930

extension of Washington Conference
Am, Br, Japan agree to 5:5:3 ratio of all ships

Manchurian Crisis

1931
  • Japan invades and occupies Manchuria
  • League responds cautiously with a slow commission of inquiry while Japan continued occupation due partly to a lack of support from US and Br
  • Japan left the League Feb 24 1933, once the verdict asks Japan to compromise. Only armed intervention would stop Japan. Japan ditches restriction of Washington Conference 1922

World Disarmament Conference

February 1932 - 1934
  • Also known as Geneva Disarmament Conference
  • Germany attained "equality of rights" in League of Nations
  • Failure : June 1933 - Hitler extracts Germany from the World Disarmament Conference while assuring Britain and Italy of peaceful intentions by the Four Power Pact, assuming France would not ratify it (true – drive wedge between France and allies)
  • Nov. begins plans of increasing military spending, enacted by 1938

Lausanne Conference

July 1932

fixed reparation payments to be very low in light of the Great Depression

German Rearmament

1933 - 1935
  • long term plan for increases in armed forces, independent Luftwaff (air force)
  • naval program for a moderate naval fleet (still keeping option of a British alliance open)
  • reintroduced conscription!!!!!

Elections

January 1933

Communists do really well, won 100 seats and evoked fear

Ger-Pol Non Aggression Pact

1934

Hindenburg's death

1934

Hitler becomes Fuhrer without election

Nazi Coup in Austria

July 1934

Failed but caused deterioration of relations between Ger & Italy

  • Germany wanted Austria as a satellite
  • Italy wanted Austria as a buffer between Italy and Germany
  • Germany also wanted South Tyrol back, a German-speaking region given to Italy in the Treaty of Versailles

Rome Agreement

January 1935

Franco-Italian agreement to act together :
- if Germany rearms by itself
- if Austria' s independence is threatened.

Stresa Conference

April 1935
  • Allies discuss forming a front against Germany seeing German rearmament ignored the restrictions of the Versailles Treaty.
  • It, Fr, Br, --> Stresa Front : to prevent German revision of the Versailles Treaty by force, maintain Locarno and support independence of Austria
  • Hitler reassures them of peaceful German intentions through speech : proposed a series of non-aggression pacts with neighbors, promised to observe Locarno and accept OVERALL limitation on armaments
  • Anglo-German Naval Agreement - Ger proposed a limit on Ger. Navy to 35% of Royal Navy

Franco-Soviet Treaty

May 1935

Treaty of Mutual Assistance signed

  • Fr doesn't follow up with military staff talks, mistrust
  • aimed to restrain Russia from moving closer to Germany (Rapallo Agreement 1922)

Abyssinian Crisis

1936

Italian conquest of Abyssinia is not stopped by the LN

Br & Fr - domestic unrest, divided public opinion in midst of an election - passive action

  • feared diplomatic consequences of alienating Italy ( Fr wanted good relations as a possible ally against Ger. with US & Br isolationism while Br had a similar situation with Egypt)

Rome-Berlin Axis

October 1936

October Protocols signed by Ger & It

  • It. relations with Br Fr (Abyssinian Crisis) & USSR (Spanish Civil War) had deteriorated
  • came to agreement over Austria, It. accepts German intentions to make Austria a German Satellite

Re-militarisation of Rhineland

December 1936

Policy of appeasement
B wanted G as a strong trading partner, felt they were within their rights
G claimed to was for self defense due to the alliance b/w F & SU
Fr refused to invade (prepared for defensive war) without 100% Br backup

German Invasion of Austria

1938

Direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles - Allied Policy of Appeasement

Met with little resistance from the people
Austrian Chancellor replaced by a pro-Nazi one

Ger annexation of Sudetenland

October 1938

Area of Czechoslovakia with a large German population

Tripartite Pact

1939

Germany, Italy and Japan - the "have-nots", didn't have vast territories or economic resources

Germany was beginning to gain influence, since had similar expansionist, nationalistic and militaristic ambitions ( & was also feared by other European nations), attracted allies

WWII

1939 - 1945

Battle of the Atlantic

1939 - 1945

Usage of radar and sonar allow Britain to break German cipher (codes) and track German U-boats

Battle of Britain

1939

Air battle, Ger vs Br

Area bombing to destroy Britain's means of production

no stalemate
total war - accidental bombing of London at night...

Invasion of Poland

September 1 1939

Battle of France

1940

German succeeds with the Blizkrieg tactic
France falls quicker than expected after Germans bypass their Maginot line (defeated after 1 month - June)

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

December 7 1941

Brings America into the war

Battle of Midway

1942

Island hopping - America aims for areas with strategic importance to create a path to bomb Japan

usage of aircraft carriers

Battle of Kursk

1943

Largest tank battle in history

Vietnam

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

Operation Rolling Thunder

1965 - 1968

Extensive sustained bombing campaign to target North’s industrial, transportation, oil and gas locations
After 1972: almost all of the industrial and communication facilities were destroyed

Spain

King Abdicated

1931

Military Coup

1936

Nationalist uprising attempts to overthrow the gov.

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

causes - Ideologically polarized between nationalists and Republicans

attracted a lot of foreign intervention since it mirrored the split all over Europe. Nationalists appealed to Ger & Italy. Republicans approached Br Fr and Russia

Fr & Br for non-intervention - avoid conflict with Germany > strategic dangers of another nationalist, fascist victory, domestic division also --> threatened civil war in Fr

Ger & It - advantages of having Spain as an ally - possibility of a naval/submarine base & mineral resources

Ger & Russia - divert international attention

China

Chinese Revolution

1911

Manchu dynasty is overthrown. China is declared a republic under Yuan in 1912

Warlord Period

1916 - 1928

China became increasingly fragmented. Regions arbitrarily ruled by militarist leaders who imposed their own taxes.

Emergence of CCP

1921

Northern Expedition

1926 - 1927

At the encouragement of the Comintern communist organization from Russia, CCP & KMT collaborated for their shared goal of overcoming warlordism. During this time, CCP grew by their affiliation with the presently more popular KMT. However, it also turned the GMD under Jiang to turn against the CCP --> Shanghai Massacre.

Chinese Civil War

1927 - 1949

Shanghai Massacre

1927

37, 000 communists killed in Shanghai, including civilians (women and children) upon the order of Jiang (KMT). Triggering event of the Chinese Civil war.
End of the united front

Japanese Invasion

1933

Long March

1934 - 1935

Using propaganda, the CCP portrayed their retreat from the KMT as a heroic march to the north to fight the Japanese.

Sino - Japanese War

1937 - 1945

Benefited Mao as the CCP was able to avoid major battles but still claim the credits + weakening of both Japan & KMT

Proclamation of People's Republic of China

October 1, 1949

Declared by Mao, but not recognized by western powers.

Agrarian Reform Law

1950

Marriage Reform Law

1950
  • end of oppression of Women in China via law, though cultural viewpoints were unswayed

Three Anti's Movement

1951

expanded to Five in '52

Banning of political parties

1952

all except the CCP

Five Year Plan

1953 - 1958

based on the Soviet model

Hundred Flowers Campaign

1957

Great Leap Forward

1958 - 1961

Policy aimed to close the gap formed between rural areas and cities due to the industry-heavy 5 year plan.
Policies
- forced collectivization
- backyard steel

Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1969

Mao's last act of extensive propaganda, aimed to revive a revolutionary spirit.
Encouraged young ppl to persecute anyone who is disloyal to the party

Soviet Union

Russian Revolution

February 1917 - October 1917

Feb - revolution ends Tsarist regime

October - Bolsheviks seize power from the Provisional Government

5 year Plan

1928 - 1942

Reason
- create a communist society (+ surrounded by enemies)
- tighten gov control
- backward country
- Great depression = need to become self sufficient
Policy
- focused on heavy industry & military weapons
Success
- Red army = biggest army in the world + well equipped
- end high unemployment + increase family income
Failure
- consumer & household goods sacrificed
- production figures unreliable
- shortage of food, fear, arrest

Collectivization

1928 - 1940

Reason
- socialist ideology
- supposed to be more efficient to support cities
- finance industrialization
- increase gov control over crops
Success
- Stalin able to control food supplies
- modern techniques & chemicals introduced
Failure
- de-kulakization (most hard working farmers gone)
- Farmer resistance, maintained by force
- death of 5 million ppl & 27% of livestock
- production figures unreliable

Show Trials

1936 - 1939

For the politicians
- old Bolsheviks
- communists who joined during the civil war and rose to the top ranks, they were loyal Stalinists but knew about Lenin's testament and Stalin's responsibility for the collectivization disaster

almost all the accused confessed (couldn't really disagree)
and the purging of officials was a useful way to explain the failures of collectivization

Climax of Purges

1937 - 1938

Target: armed forces
- 3 out of 4 full generals
- all 12 lieutenant generals
- 60/67 corps commanders
- all 8 navy admirals

Germany

25 points

1920

Limit big business monopolies
Abolish large stores to protect small shops

Munich Beer Hall Putsch

November 1923

Failed, no support fromt the people, Hitler imprisoned, writes Mein Kampf

Bruning

1930

Cut unemployment and welfare benefits. Made the forced imposed gov even more unpopular

Hitler appointed Chancellor

1933

Concordat

1933

Catholic religious and social organizations granted independence in exchange for Vatican's recognition of the regime and renouncement of clerical interference in politics

Reichstag Fire

February 27 1933

Due to the arson of the Reichstag building & the gov's fear of communist domination
Hitler became chancellor & national hero that will eliminate socialist threats
- Article 48 allowed the chancellor to rule w/out consent of the Reichstag therefore giving Hitler a legitimate reason to establish a totalitarian state
- upon Nazi claims of a communist takeover, Hindenburg passed the "Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State", allowing Hitler to ignore restrictions on police power and take over and the Nazis to arrest communists and other political opponents

1933 Election

March 5 1933

Hitler unleashed a wave of terror before the elections
resulted in the party wining 288 out of 489 seats, leading to the Enabling Act

Enabling Act

March 23 1933

After a campaign of violent intimidation where they depicted opposition as unpatriotic, arrested oponents in the SPD and trade unions and surrounded the building housing the Reichstag with S.A and S.S. troops.

This law essentially allowed Hitler to make laws and treaties with foreign states without Reichstag approval
- meant that Hitler no longer needed the support of political parties

Civil Service Law

April 1933
  • classified Jewish people as non-Aryans
  • removed them from all government positions
  • limited number of Jewish university students
  • gov. directed boycott of Jewish businesses failed
  • law impact lessened at insistence of Hindenburg and Hitler's Nationalist partners out of concern for economic effects
  • excluded those who practiced their profession before WWI, war veterans, children of those who died in war

Book Burning

May 1933

burned approx. 25, 000 volumes
got rid of all books with pacifist, socialist or Jewish authors

Political Parties Banned

July 1933

all political formations except Nazis became illegal

SPD (Communist Party) already banned in June

Night of Long Knives

June 30 1934

Eliminated problematic & rising SA leaders via SS by manipulating both sides.
-Hitler needed the support of the army & gov more than SA

Nuremburg Racial Law

September 1935
  • deprived Jewish people of German citizenship
  • accompanied by the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour - forbade relationships between Jews and Aryans

4 Year Plan

1936

Gov dictated what to produce, price & profit in order to become self sufficient
But the plan failed as G was still not really do fight long term war in WWII & 30% raw materials were still imported although by the end of 1938, total industrial production had increased by 100% since 1933

Annexation of Austria

1938

Turning point - began severe persecution after the annexation added 200,000+ Jews to the Reich and a large number of violently radical anti-semites

Kristallnacht

November 7 1938
  • well orchestrated pogrom carried out by party leaders, SA, SS and the Hitler Youth (though they didn't wear their uniforms) against Jewish people
  • 11,200 synagoges and temples burned. 7,500 Jewish-owned businesses ruined, 91 murdered and 26,000 arrested and sent to concentration camps
  • later explained to be a spontaneous outburst of righteous indignation at the murder of a diplomat of the German embassy by a 17 year old Jewish youth

Italy

Unstable Italian Government

1919 - 1922

5 governments of compromise.

Battle for Lira

1920
  • started in the 1920s Inflated the lira value making exports more expensive Resulted in unemployment b/c ppl couldn't sell their goods

General Strike

1922

Strike was suppressed by the Fascists which gained them support by the gov.
The King gave Mussolini emergency powers that gave him power to rule as a dictator. (He promised to use it to solve the social & political problems in Italy)

March On Rome

October 22, 1922

Battle for grain

1925

Aimed to sell surplus to support industrialization
Result
- production doubled but overall food cost increased b/c all land was used for growing grain

Battle for Land

1928

Aimed to clear marshal land and use it for farming

IR

1933

Gov took over unprofitable states & told them to bigger industries.
Resulted in giant monopolies

Egypt