Homer Plessy deliberately sat in an all-white carriage on a train and was arrested. When he appealed to the Supreme Court they ruled it was legal as long as the facilities were the same. The start of "seperate but equal"
Roosevelt establishes Fair Employment Practices Commission to force war industries to not discriminate on the grounds of 'race,creed colour or national origin' when employing.
due to increasing population of blacks in Detroit- b v w
lack of housing etc
fight for employment
Lonnie E. Smith, a black voter sued an election official for the right to vote in a primary election, supported by the NAACP, Thurgood Marshall represented him and the Supreme Court ruled in his favour.
Irene Morgan was arrested for refusing to sit in a segregated section of an interstate bus although the interstate transportation was supposed to be desegregated it enforced segregation within Virginia's borders, Thurgood Marshal was her co-counselor, the Supreme Court ruled in her favour saying enforcing segregation on interstate buses was illegal.
to investigate racial problems in America
"To Secure These Rights' report 1947 by committee suggesting radical changes to solve these problems
9980- guaranteeing fair employment practices in the civil service
10308- established the Committee on Government Contract Compliance
prevented Federal Housing Administration from lending money to segregated housing projects
Fair Deal programme- building houses in urban areas for African Americans
Morgan v Virginia was a de jure change.
16 CORE activists (8 black and 8 white) planned to travel by bus from northern states to southern and draw public attention that many bus companies were still ignoring the ruling
9 April 1947 - lasted for two weeks. sat in opposite colour areas.
successfully proved that southern states were ignoring the Supreme Court rulings.
resulted in 12 CORE members arrested and violent white backlash.
failed to force southern states such as North Carolina to desegregate
picketed the stores for refusing to allow black customers
NAACP and Truman supported stopping rules restricting blacks from buying houses in white areas, the Supreme Court ruled in their favour, however the ruling was only de facto and proved ineffective.
successfully challenged "seperate but equal", Herman Marion Sweatt was refused admission to the School of Law of the University of Texas, the case was delayed allowing time to create a "seperate" black law school, Sweatt was represented by Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP, they pointed out the inequality between the 2 schools as they lacked teachers, books and resources.
the school inferior to the local white school
United Defence League organised a week long bus boycott in Baton Rouge (Louisiana's capital) in June 1953.
accompanied by carpooling 'operation free-lift' transported blacks around the city in 100 private cars
failed to desegregate the buses as it was too short to attract media attention or to hurt the finances
but set example and gave ideas for future eg Montgomery
Linda Brown had to walk 20 blocks to attend an all black school as opposed to the much closer white school, he father Oliver Brown supported by the NAACP and Thurgood Marshall took the case to the Supreme Court who ended "seperate but equal", black reaction= increase in local activism, white reaction= signing of the Southern Manifesto to reject ruling, significance= symbolic, Chief Justice Earl Warren was highly sympathetic, but by 1957 mainly de jure change only.
Due to little de facto change of Brown, NAACP asked Supreme Court to establish a timetable for desegregation, not much action, no-one pleased= NAACP thought too vague, Southern racists saw as another attack on way of life
Due to Montgomery Bus Boycott not changing desegregation laws, supreme court rule segregation of buses was illegal after Amelia Browder was arrested for refusing to give up her seat, supported by the NAACP
Local governor Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to prevent children entering -> 3/09/1957 white mob and national guard refused to let the students through
Due to Mayor's request, media attention and public's disobedience to court ruling, Eisenhower ordered Faubus to remove National Guard and US Dept of Justice gained a court injunction forcing the National Guard to withdraw. White mob still refused to let students through. Eisenhower forced to take NG under Presidential control, and on 25/09 students enrolled, escorted by NG.
Faubus passes law to close local schools -> 400 students forced to enrol elsewhere.
Cooper V Aaron
1959 Little Rock reopened.
Supreme Court saying states were bound by Court's decisions and had to enforce them even if the states disagreed with them, (aftermath and reaction of Little Rock)
Elijah Muhammad called for the creation of a separate state for blacks
First student sit-ins against segregation at lunch counters occur at Greensboro
segregation of the interstate bus services illegal
James Meredith’s attempt to attend Mississippi University was only successful as a result of Federal troops being used
Four black children were killed in the Birmingham church bombing – the arrested white man was charged with unlawful possession of dynamite but not murder. Only some years later were the guilty brought to trial for murder
organised by CORE, SNCC and NAACP
improve voting registration
white violent backlash
mostly a failure
created division in the civil rights movement
more criticism towards MLK
support for Black Power grew
Voting Rights Act was passed which in theory made it illegal for anyone to restrict the right of anybody to vote
LBJ commissioned for report as evidence to improve de facto problems in North
backfired as report blamed black people for violence etc
showed that MLK misunderstood conditions up North
peaceful protest did not work for de facto problems
State laws forbidding inter-racial marriage were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
Thurgood Marshall became the first Black American to be appointed to the Supreme Court by Lyndon Johnson
Jane Daniel convicted of robbery received a longer sentence than a man would have been given, won her case
Another attempt by MLK that failed
At the Mexico Olympics, a Black Power protest was made at the medal ceremony for the men’s 400 metres by Tommy Smith and John Carlos
symbol of end of civil rights movement
Lorena Weeks took her employers Southern Bell to court after they promoted a less qualified man over her, won case, job and $31,000 in back pay = set precedent for women to challenge sexism in the workplace
13th, 14th and 15th Amendments- abolished slavery, equal citizenship rights, forbade denial of the right to vote based on race
Black Americans moved up north to industrial cities such as Chicago and Detroit to work in war industries
Further 500,000 moved north during the economic boom following WW1
Committee on Negro Organisation- increased the black voter registration from 1.5% in 1940 to 17.3% in 1947.
1/4 of Black American living in North, concentrated in industrial cities, Philadelphia, Detroit, Indianapolis, Chicago and New York. By 1950- 1/3 BA's in North
Failed due to local Police Chief Laurie Pritchett's tactics
knew what MLK's strategy and prevented the campaign getting media attention.