The Cold War I

General

Teheran Conference

November 28,1943 - December 1, 1943

Meeting between the big three. Present was Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin.

Key areas of discussion:
-The state of war
->Allies had begun winning the war
->UK and US had not yet launched a second front
-Germany
->What to do with it after the war
->Not to repeat the failure from the Versailles treaty
->No agreement was made
-Poland
->Stalin wanted to secure his border by obtaining land from Poland after the war
->Agreement: USSR gets to keep land seized in 1939
Further led to:
->Puppet regime in Poland
->Tension between USSR and Poland after the discovering of murdered Polish officers in the Katyn forrest
Eastern Europe
-USSR demanded the right to keep the territory seized between 1939 and 1940
->Parts of Finland and Romania plus the Baltic states
-Went against the 1941 Atlantic Charter agreement between the US and the UK
Japan
-US and UK wanted Stalin to open a second front on Japan, however he was reluctant he did not want to do this before Germany was defeated
The United Nations
-Americans keen on replacement for the league of nations
-UK and USSR general approval

Conclusions:
-Agreement on a new international organization
-Agreement on the need for a weak post-war Germany

The Yalta Conference

Feb 4, 1945 - Feb 11, 1945

The big three meets again with the same leaders

The same topics are discussed:
The state of the war
-Germany on the verge of defeat
-Second front was started and UK+US had driven the Germans out of France
-US had control of air and sea in the Pasific and the Japanese were now in their final desperate self defense
Germany
-disarmed, demilitarized, de-Nazified and devided
-agreement on four zones -> situation should be temporary
-Allied Control Commission (ACC) to be set up in Germany to govern it
-Stalin demanded a large percentage of reparations from Germany
-> 20 billion, and half of it to USSR
East Europe
-Stalin agreed that there would be "free elections" in these countries to determine who should govern them
-This was perceived as a major victory for the US+UK
->was seen as the most significant wartime deal with USSR
Japan
-Stalin now promised to start the second front after the war in Europe was won
-Stalin demanded territory in return from Japan
UN
-Stalin agreed that the USSR would join th UN
-Agreement on Security Council

Conclusions:
-Agreement on UN
-Soviet agreed on joining war in the Pacific against Japan
-The big three signing a "Declaration For Liberated Europe" (linking back to point about E. Europe)

The Potsdam conference

July 17, 1945 - August 2, 1945

Churchill "Sinews of Peace"

March 5, 1946

-Introduces the term: "Iron Curatin". Hence better known as the Iron Curtain speech
-Promotes a stronger anglo-american alliance
-Encourage a firmer western front against the Soviet Union
-> Churchill encouraged the americans to not pull out of Europe after the War ended as he predicted USSR as the new threat
->Tries to break down the U.S. isolationist policy, with the background in the fact that the U.S. already has differed from this twice by interfering in the two WW
Soviet reaction to the speech
-Withdrew from the IMF
-More anti-western propaganda
-New five year plan

The Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

-States that the U.S. will support Greece with economical and military aid
-Considered by many historians as the start of the Cold War
-Also considered as the start of the U.S. containment policy (to prevent the spread of communism abroad)
-People supported the doctrine because they were convinced that communism would spread in areas with poverty
-The speech was made before a joint session of congress
-> A gathering of both houses, held at special occasions such as the state of the union address
-Opens a discussion about further financial aid to other European countries, which marked the beginning of the process of developing what which later is known as the Marshall aid/plan

Military

NATO

April 4, 1949 - Present

NATO Formed in Wasington

Warsaw Pact

May 14, 1955 - 1991

US

The Marshall plan

March, 1948 - 1952

-Financial aid offered to all Eorupean countries
-The Soviet union declined and also made Czechoslovakia and Poland decline
->To cover up the Soviet Unions weak economy
-> Parallel to what happened with the IMF
Goals
- Elevate western European countries economies
-Strengthen the western alliance
-Giving Europe the hope of reviving quickly after the second world war

The funding was a result of the following factors:
-Truman managed to pass the bill using the Czechoslovakian coup

The second red scare / McCarthyism

1950 - 1956

Senator Joseph McCarthy

hated unamerican actions
Investigations and arrests of people who had communist views or were suspected for it
-> Witch-hunt
There were some communists in the government, but not as McCarty portrayed it
Eisenhower criticized McCarthy, and asked Nixon to do the same -> when the Eisenhower administration gave info about McCarty's activities to the press this led to an end of -> He lost his seat in the senate
McCarty died in 1957 due to acute hepatitis, most likely due to alcoholism
Some argue that McCartyism continued to last after McCarthy was removed from his seat in the senate

Crises

The Prague coup

February 1948 - February 28, 1948

The communist party in Czechoslovakia backed up with support from Moscow took control over the Czechoslovakian government. In the years after the second world war Czechoslovakia's politics had been highly influenced by the communist party and other left winged parties. This lead to the communist party being the majority party after the 1946 elections.
-The coup frightened the west as it was seen as a sign of the USSR steamroller coming closer to the west and taking control over more of Europe
->Backed up by the fact that the Soviet Union was one of the worlds leading military forces in those days
-Denounced by U.S. and U.K.
-Czechoslovakian foreign minister found suspiciously dead in the end of february

The Berlin Blockade

June 24, 1948 - May 12, 1949

-The Soviet Union closed down all of the Western Allies ways into their sectors in Berlin
-Ended through a four-power agreement in New York
-The establishment of the Deutsche D-Mark in the three western zones was a leading factor to the Berlin blocade

Hungarian Uprising

October 23, 1956 - November 10, 1956
  • National uprising in Hungary against the current government and its Soviet imposed policies
  • October 24th: Soviet tanks enter Budapest on the order of the Soviet defense minister -Later on some historians have seen the Hungarian revolution as evidence that the Cold War in Europe had become a stalemate

USSR

Red Army occupation of Eastern Europe

1945 - 1947

COMECON

January, 1949 - 1991

Germany

Foundation of DDR (GDR)

1949

USA proposes neutralized Germany

1949

Foundation of West Germany

May 23, 1949

New Capital: Bonn

East German uprising

1953

East German workers in protest against soviet.

West Germany fully sovereign

May 5, 1955

The Berlin Wall

August 13, 1961 - November 9, 1989

US leadership

Franklin D. Roosevelt

1943 - April 12, 1945

He got the power in March 1933* (timeline begins 1943)

Harry S. Truman

April 12, 1945 - January 20, 1953

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Jan 20, 1953 - Jan 20, 1961

USSR leadership

Josef Stalin

1943 - March 5, 1953

In reality he got the power in 1922, but the timeline starts in 1943ish

Nikita Krushchev

Sep 14, 1953 - Oct 14, 1964

UK leadership

Winston Churchill

1943 - July 26, 1945

In reality he got the power in May 10, 1940, but the timeline begin in 1943ish

Clement Attlee

July 26, 1945 - October 26, 1951

Winston Churchill

Oct 26, 1951 - April 7, 1955

Anthony Eden

Apr 7, 1955 - January 10, 1957

Milestones

WWII ends

sep 1, 1945

Japan surrendered sep 2 their time* (This is US time)

USSR develops the nuclear bomb

September 25, 1949

The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union report the first explosion of the USSR's first nuclear bomb

MIKE Test

nov 1, 1952

U.S. successfully tests the thermonuclear bomb/hydrogen bomb