Life in Nazi Germany - AQA AS History Unit 2M

Resources: wikipedia , Hitlers domestic policy (book) by Andrew Boxer

Nazi seizure of power 1933-1934

Hitler appointed Chancellor

January 30, 1933

President Hindenburg reluctantly appointed Adolph Hitler as the chancellor of Germany

The seizure of power begins...

22 February 1933

Goring made the SS and SA policeman in Prussia, this legalized the violence against left wing opponents. This in turn inspired other SA leaders in Germany to do the same. However it caused much chaos and if Hitler did not regain control soon he would risk the chance of replacing Hindenburg when he dies.

Reichstag fire

27 February 1933

The Reichstag went up in flames. Hitler immediately blamed the communists and goring ordered a mass arrest of communist suspects. The next day Hindenburg was persuaded to sign a decree which suspended civil freedoms and allowed the Nazis to arrest political opponents. By the end of April 25 000 people were in protective custody in Prussia alone. the decree allowed Frick to take over the powers of government in each region, this allowed him to appoint reliable Nazi police chiefs in these regions. This destroyed the German federal system

The Reichstag election

5 March 1933

Nazis increased there vote from 33% in 1932 to 43% in 1933. This is because manly Germans liked the Nazis harsh actions against the communists. They were also backed by the authority of the state and Gobbels propaganda. they got 288/647 seats, however they needed at least two thirds destroy the constitution and establish a one party state.

The Enabling Act

23 March 1933

The enabling act granted the Cabinet - in effect, the Chancellor the authority to enact decrees without the participation of the Reichstag. the Nazis had communists arrested and socialists forbidden to take any seats, but they needed the centre party's vote to pass this act. They were subject to many promises and threats which resulted them voting to pass the act.They would be intimidated if they did not comply. The law passed 441 votes to 94.

Germany becomes a one Party State

7 April 1933 - 14 July 1933

Legal destruction of the remaining opposition followed swiftly and the Nazi wave of terror finished them off.
-7 April laws were passed to remove Jews from the civil service and legal profession.
-The SA and SS occupy all the trade unions which had not yet been destroyed.
-All trade unions merged into the German labour front.
-On the 22th June the SPD was formally outlawed.
-Middle class parties, DDP and DVP were of no significance because they lost all there electoral support to the Nazis before 1933.
-At the end of June the remaining parties voted to dissolve themselves.
-In April the DNVP joined the Nazis.
-On the 14th of July a law proclaimed that the NSDAP as "the only political party in Germany".

Useful notes:
-German democracy was destroyed in less than six months
-Goebbels said:"all this had been achieved much more quickly than we dared to hope".

Threat of the "second revolution"

6 July 1933

Hitler pronounced the nationalist revolution was over
- In August the SA lost there status as auxiliary policeman
- The SA was made redundant and its only purpose seemed to be a propaganda organisation. However Ernst Rohm and his followers disagreed and in May 1933 he issued a decree which said:"The SA and the SS have gained a victory on a barely conceivable scale, of which they may justly be proud. But before them lies the task of completing the national socialist revolution and creating the Third Reich. It seems to me that there is still some tough work and hard struggle before us".
-The aims of this so called revolution? - Its unclear, they new what they disliked but weren't sure what kind of society they wanted to create.
-The SA didn't like Hitler taking action legally, and were suspicious of him making deals with politicians and generals.

The purge of the SA

17 June 1934 - 30 June 1934

17th June
The Marburg speech-This was a speech which Franz Von Papen made about the SA, criticizing its second revolution and how Hitler was not doing enough to get them under control. This was vital in consolidating his power because if he did not get them under control Hitler may not have became the president.

30th June
To control this threat he used the SS to brutally kill certain members of the SA (including Rohm) in "the night of the long knives". Many were pleased with Hitler's actions because they did not trust the SA.