Parallel Timeline

Chris Fisher Mr. Ingles P.1 4/4/13

The Arts

Poems and Paintings

"Tale of a Sprinter" by Sudeep Pagedar

December, 1938

"THE PAST -

I am an athlete from Berlin,
my feet are fast and swift.
I can run faster than anyone!
Truly, this is the Lord's gift!

Any race I participate in,
I always come in first,
for I tell myself, "I HAVE to win";
it is like a great thirst.

Even if someone, somehow passes me,
I put on an extra burst of speed
and run past him, leaving him behind;
thus, I take the lead.

I once thought, "If I keep running this way,
I might be in the Olympics, some day..."

THE PRESENT -

But now the year is nineteen-thirty-eight
And for my dreams, it's just too late.

My running days are all gone,
I'm not going to see tomorrow's dawn.

Yes, it is true
that I can run very fast;
But it is also true
that I am a Jew...
There's no running, from the Holocaust" (25).

"Holocaust" by Sudeep Pagedar

March, 1939

"How do you
explain that term
to a ten-
year old boy
who, one day,
hears it mentioned
by some relatives?

And even if
you do manage
to make him
understand what it
actually does mean,
do you also
tell him that
because he is

A GERMAN JEW,

perhaps, some day,
he might be
included in it...?

Or should he
just not be
told, so that
he remains calm
and doesn't lose
sleep over it?

But what is sleep,
in front of death?
Perhaps Death is greater,
perhaps the two are the same;
we do not know yet
but we'll know, by the end of the day;
the Chambers are yet some hours away.

"To die, to sleep...to sleep, perchance to dream..."

How did Shakespeare realise that?
Did he know some Jew
who was persecuted too?
Perhaps he was wrong,
maybe he was right...
Anyway, I suspect we'll find out
by tonight" (25).

"Unable to Work" by David Olère

May 20, 1940

(18)

"Gassing" by David Olère

May 20, 1940


(18)

"The Food of the Dead for the Living" by David Olère

May 20, 1940

(18)

"David Olère Punished in the Bunker" by David Olère

May 20, 1940

(34)

"Holocaust" by Barbara Sonek

February 12, 1943

"We played, we laughed
we were loved.
We were ripped from the arms of our
parents and thrown into the fire.
We were nothing more than children.
We had a future. We were going to be lawyers, rabbis, wives, teachers, mothers. We had dreams, then we had no hope. We were taken away in the dead of night like cattle in cars, no air to breathe smothering, crying, starving, dying. Separated from the world to be no more. From the ashes, hear our plea. This atrocity to mankind can not happen again. Remember us, for we were the children whose dreams and lives were stolen away" (25).

"Frozen Jews" by Avrom Sutzkever

July 10, 1944

"Have you seen, in fields of snow, frozen Jews, row on row? Blue marble forms lying, not breathing, not dying.

Somewhere a flicker of a frozen soul - glint of fish in an icy swell. All brood. Speech and silence are one. Night snow encases the sun.

A smile glows immobile from a rose lip's chill. Baby and mother, side by side. Odd that her nipple's dried.

Fist, fixed in ice, of a naked old man: the power's undone in his hand. I've sampled death in all guises. Nothing surprises.

Yet a frost in July in this heat - a crazy assault in the street. I and blue carrion, face to face. Frozen Jews in a snowy space.

Marble shrouds my skin. Words ebb. Light grows thin. I'm frozen, I'm rooted in place like the naked old man enfeebled by ice" (25).

WWII Timeline

Japan Invades China

July 7, 1937

In 1937, Japan invaded China for their resources. Specifically Manchuria, China was rich in coal and oil. This invasion initiated World War II in the Pacific Theatre. (22)

The Munich Conference

September 22, 1938 - September 29, 1938

The Munich Conference was an agreement between Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy. It allowed Germany to annex Sudetenland, without any interference. These nations allowed this, which is known as the Munich Agreement. (23)
(17)

The Slovaks Declare Independence

March 14, 1939 - March 15, 1939

With the Germans pressuring them, on March 14, the Slovaks declared independence. They became the Slovak Republic, and soon prospered. The Germans occupied the Czech part of Czechoslovakia, which broke the Munich Agreement, and eventually formed a Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. (23)

Germany Invades Poland

September 1, 1939 - October 12, 1939

On September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland. Great Britain and France both feel obliged to help Poland, two days later. They declare war on Germany on September 3, 1939. This initiated World War II in Europe. (15)

Britain and France Declare War on Germany

September 3, 1939 - September 2, 1945

The declaration of War against Germany signaled the beginning of World War II. It led to the French being taken over, and Great Britain barely hanging on. World War II lasted until 1945. (6)

The Soviet Union Invades Poland

September 17, 1939

On this day, the Russian began to invade Poland from the east, along with the Germans in the west. Despite the British and French intervention, Germany and Russia still invaded. This later caused tension between Great Britain, France, and Russia. (32)

Warsaw Surrenders

September 27, 1939 - September 29, 1939

Because of Russia and Germany invading Poland, Warsaw, the capital of Poland, was soon evacuated. Germany and Russia split Poland between themselves, and resumed their domination of Europe. Despite Britain and French intervention, Germany and Russia did not leave Poland. (23)

Russia Invades Finland

November 3, 1939 - March 12, 1940

When the Soviet Union invaded Finland in 1939, the Winter War was initiated. On March 5, 1940, the Fins accepted the Russian's terms of peace, and the Winter War ended. It was a direct result of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact, that was signed in August 1939. (39)

Germany Invades Norway and Denmark

April 9, 1940 - June 9, 1940

On this day, Germany began their invasion of Norway and Denmark. In Denmark, King Christian X surrendered the day of the invasion, convinced that Denmark wouldn't stand a chance. Norway stood their ground and fought, along with British troops, until June 9, 1940. (15)

Italy Enters the War

June 10, 1940

On this day, Italy, which was ruled by Benito Mussolini, entered World War II. Their declaration of war, was the invasion of France, which was already taken over. They took sides with Germany, as the Axis Powers. (38)

The Battle of Britain

July 10, 1940 - October 31, 1940

Germany began bombing Britain on this day. While the Royal Air Force were outnumbered 300-1,600 they still had some advantages. They had two secret weapons, one was their radar system, that showed the British where the Luftwaffe were attacking from, and the other was their decrypter, the Enigma Machine. This battle ended in a victory for the British. (14)

The Italians Invade Egypt

September 13, 1940

On this day, the Italians began to move into British-occupied Italy, from Italian-occupied Libya. The British were stationed in Egypt to protect Suez Canal and Royal Navy bases at Alexandria and Port Said. Hitler offered assistance, which Italy refused, but Hitler who ignored Italy's protests, sent Graziani into Egypt. (16)

Germany Invades Africa

March 24, 1941

On this day, the Germans invaded North Africa for the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal was Great Britain's landline to oil and other necessary goods. The German's wished to cut this supply off, so they attacked, but lost. (46)
(30)

Germany Invades Russia

June 22, 1941

When Germany invaded the Soviets, they brought with them killing squads, who killed Communist leaders, Jews, and Gypsies. These groups were called Einsatzgruppen who executed these non-Aryans without mercy. This caused great tension between Germany and Russia. (23)

Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

In the beginning of the war, America severed all political ties with other nations, and isolated themselves. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed the United States naval base, Pearl Harbor, which caused America to enter World War II. This attack caused the loss of the USS Oklahoma, the USS Arizona, and the USS Utah. By the end of the day, more than 2,000 men lost their lives. (9)
(32)

The United States Declares War

December 8, 1941 - September 2, 1945

The day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States declared war on the perpetrator, Japan. This officially brought the United States out of Isolationism. Soon after, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. (23)

The Doolittle Raid

April 18, 1942

The Doolittle Raid was an American aerial attack on Japan, led by James H. Doolittle. It was the first time bombers were launched from an aircraft carrier successfully. This battle ended in a victory for the Allied Powers. (8)
(1)

The Battle of Coral Sea

May 7, 1942 - May 8, 1942

This battle was the result of the Japanese amphibious assault on Port Moresby. The Battle of Coral Sea was an attempt to capture the American Port Moresby, in New Guinea. It resulted in heavy damage on both sides of the battle, American and Japanese. The battle would have been worse, if the Americans hadn't been tipped off by their superior communications interceptors. (5)
(41)

The Battle of the Midway

June 4, 1942 - June 7, 1942

The Battle of the Midway was a battle between the Japanese and the Americans, over an American mid-Pacific base. The battle resulted in the loss of four Japanese, and three American aircraft carriers. The battle was a great victory for the Allied Powers. (3)
(33)

The D-Day Invasion

June 6, 1944

The D-Day Invasion 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of the French coast to fight Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. It was an amphibious assault, which meant the ships went from water to land and back again. It led to more than 9,000 Allied deaths. (23)
(1)

The Battle of the Bulge

December 16, 1944 - January 1, 1945

The Battle of the Bulge was the German's final attack in the west against the Allies, which ended up splitting the Allied forces, or causing a "bulge" in the line. They were attempting to recapture Belgium, but it failed. This eventually resulted in German defeat for good. (5)
(5)

Hitler Commits Suicide

April 30, 1945

On this day, the German Führer, Adolf Hitler, committed suicide. He took a cyanide tablet before he was caught. This caused pandemonium in Nazi Germany. (23)

Germany Surrenders to All

May 7, 1945 - May 9, 1945

Because of both Hitler's death, and the Battle of the Bulge, Germany surrendered. On May 7, 1945, the Nazis surrendered to the United States. Two days later, on May 9, 1945, they surrendered to the Soviet Union. (23)

The United States Bombs Japan

August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945

On these two days, the Americans tried to force the Japanese to surrender, by dropping atomic bombs on their civilians. First, Hiroshima was bombed, which killed more than 150,000 people. The Japanese didn't surrender despite heavy losses. On August 9, 1945, Nagasaki was bombed, causing over 75,000 deaths. This caused the Japanese to surrender to the United States. (13)
(12)

The Japanese Surrender

September 2, 1945

On this day, Japan surrendered to the United States after they dropped two bombs on the Japanese. One was in Hiroshima, and the other in Nagasaki. They both caused over 225,000 deaths combined. (12)

The Holocaust Timeline

Kristallnacht

November 9, 1938 - November 10, 1938

Kristallnacht translates to "The Night of Broken Glass" in German. It refers to the raiding of Jewish-owned stores, synagogues, and homes, by the Nazis. This pogrom was especially destructive in Berlin and Vienna. (25)

The German Jews are Expelled

November 15, 1938

On this date, Hitler ordered all Jews to be expelled from their schools, and segregated into Jewish schools. These academies were overcrowded, and overall not nice. This is one of the first discriminatory laws against German Jews. (27)

German Jews are Forced to Pay

November 17, 1938

Because of Kristallnacht, the German Jews are forced to pay one billion Reichsmarks in total for reparations. This is one of the first special taxes against Jews in Germany. It was not the last. (27)

The Taboo of the Jews

December 2, 1938 - December 3, 1938

In Germany, Hitler passed laws that discriminated against Jews. These decrees were the forbiddance of Jews to obtain licenses and car registration, and the banning of Jews from the streets on certain days. These were only a few of the discriminatory laws passed against the Jews during the Holocaust. (27)
"From that moment on, everything happened very quickly. The race toward death had begun. First edict: Jews were prohibited from leaving their residences for three days, under penalty of death" (46).

The Saint Louis Voyage

May 13, 1939 - June 6, 1939

On May 19, 1939, 938 Jews attempted to flee from the Third Reich, to Cuba. They set sail, with their hopes high that they would be admitted, and sent to the United States. They eventually arrived, on May 27, only to have 28 passengers accepted, and the rest sent back to Europe. On the way home, Jewish organizations negotiated with European nations, and soon got them to allow the Jews to seek refuge on their land. 254 of these Jews died in the Holocaust. (11)
(37)

The Deportation of Gypsies From Austria

June 5, 1939

On this day, the Gypsies of Austria were arrested and sent to concentration camps. They were sent to Dachau, Buchenwald, and Ravensbruck concentration camps. Two thousand males aged sixteen and above were sent to Dachau and Buchenwald, while one thousand females above the age of fifteen were sent to Ravensbruck. (27)

The First Deportation of Jews to Poland

October 12, 1939

On October 12, 1939, the first deportation of Jews from Austria and Moravia to Poland occurs. They were led to brutal concentration camps in Poland, were many Jews were slaughtered. This led to more than 50,000 Austrian and Moravian Jew deaths. (8)

The Polish Concentration

May 1, 1940 - May 7, 1940

On this day, approximately 164,000 Polish Jews are imprisoned and murdered in the Lódz ghetto in central Poland. Lódz was the second largest Jewish community to Poland, and when the Nazis invaded Poland, these Jews frantically dug ditches on the perimeter of their city to try to keep the Germans out. Their plan failed. (36)

Auschwitz is Established

May 20, 1940

On this day, the concentration camp, Auschwitz was established in Poland. It is one of the most infamous camps, because of its high death rate from the gassing. The gas was used in a unique way also; the Jews that were set for slaughter were told to go take showers, and they ran into the room with fake showerheads installed. The Nazis pulled a lever and the toxic gas, called Zyklon B, poured out of openings all over the chamber, including the showerheads. The Nazis then dragged the bodies to a crematory and burned them into unrecognizable states. (32)

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Birkenau is Established

May 26, 1940 - October 8, 1941

Construction of Birkenau, the death camp, began on May 26, 1940. It was part of the general group of death camps in Poland, known as Auschwitz-Birkenau. Almost 150,000 prisoners were held in this group at any given time. (23)
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Mass Jewish Exterminations Begin

1941 - 1945

In 1941, the infamous death camps began to mass murder millions of Jews, gypsies, and other supposedly "inferior" humans. These exterminations were led by the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. (30)
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German Jews are Forced to Wear the Star of David

September 1, 1941

Originally, the Star of David was a religious symbol, that represented the star that guided the Three Wise Men to Jesus. In Germany, however, the Star of David was an identification item that was sewn onto the sleeves of Jews. The Jews were arrested if they were seen not wearing the Star on their sleeve. (27)
"Three days later, a new decree: every Jew had to wear the yellow star" (46).
(16)

The First Jews Are Killed at Auschwitz

September 23, 1941

On this day, the first Soviet and Polish prisoners of war were killed in the infamous gas chambers in Auschwitz. This was only a test run, so not many were killed the first time. The gas the Nazis used was called Zyklon B. (27)
"In front of us flames. In the air that smell of burning flesh. It must have been about midnight. We had arrived—at Birkenau, reception center for Auschwitz" (46).

34,000 Jews Are Killed Near Kiev

September 28, 1941 - September 29, 1941

Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, staged the infamous Jewish slaughter. Mobile killing squads murdered these Jews in Babi Yar, a ravine in Kiev. More than 34,000 Jews were killed in total. (27)

Italy and Germany Declare War

December 11, 1941 - December 13, 1941

When the United States came out of isolationism by declaring war on Japan, Germany and Italy both declared war on the United States. This allowed the United States to aid Britain and Russia, who were both happy about it. The United States soon sent resources to Britain and Russia, who began to push back the Germans and Italians. (39)

Jewish Fighting Organizations are Established

July 28, 1942

In the Warsaw Ghetto, the Jews were extremely unhappy. This led to fighting organizations to be established, where the Jews would rebel in small ways. This eventually caused a riot in the Warsaw Ghetto. (27)

The First German Jews are Deported to Ghettos

October, 1942 - November, 1942

The infamous European ghettos were large, fenced in cities, that held the so-called Jewish "prisoners". In October 1942, the first German and Austrian Jews began to be deported to ghettos in eastern Europe. These ghettos were often fatal, due to starvation and sickness. (36)
(29)

The War Refugee Board is Established

January, 1944

The War Refugee Board was an organization formed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, that allowed Jews to take refuge in the United States. It led to great tension between Germany and America. It saved around 250,000 Jewish lives. (20)

Hungarian Jews are Deported

May 15, 1944

In March, 1944, the Germans invaded Hungary. By May, 1944, the Hungarians were soon being deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Around 430,000 Jews were sent to these death camps, and most of them were gassed and cremated. (27)

German Officers are Caught Trying to Assassinate Hitler

July 20, 1944

The Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler was nearly assassinated multiple times. On this day however, around 5,000 Germans were caught in the act, and executed. They attempted to place a bomb in his briefcase, which detonated, and killed four other men. (14)

The Death March Begins

January 17, 1945

On this day, 8,000 Jewish prisoners are forced to walk by their German captors. They were sent to the Bavarian Alps, were some thought they were going to be exchanged to the Red Cross for German prisoners of war. Thousands of Jews died from these marches. (21)

Auschwitz is Liberated

January 27, 1945

On this day, the Soviets liberated the Polish death camp Auschwitz. They freed thousands of prisoners, and uncovered thousands more bodies. This infamous death camp was known for their fake showerhead scenario. The Nazis would fit fake showerheads in the gas chambers, and the unknowing Jews would willingly go inside and be gassed to death with the lethal gas, Zyklon B. (38)

The War Crime Tribunal is Held

November 20, 1945

The Nuremberg Trials were held to prosecute post-war criminals from the Holocaust. They were held in Nuremberg, Germany. There were many Nazi leaders who were supposed to be tried, but committed suicide rather than being captured. (22)