Second Semester US History

Acts & Plans

Homestead Act

1862

Started by Lincoln during Civil War.
Gave land to people who didn't go against the North.

Morrill Land Grant Act

1862

Built Universities funded by the state

Bland-Allison Act

1878

Required US Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation. Vetoed by Hayes but Congress overrode his Veto

Pendleton Civil Service Act

1883

Created the Civil Service Commission. Got rid of spoils system. People elected for their skill instead.

Dawes Severalty Act

1887

Eliminated community-owned Native American properties and granted land to individual families

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

Stop trusts and pools to keep prices down

Mississippi Plan

1890

Required voters to pay a poll tax eight months before each election and had to take literacy test. A way to exclude black voters in the south

Sherman Silver Purchase Act (Passed & Repealed)

1890 - 1893

Increased amount of Silver in circulation. Wanted by populists because it inflated economy and reduced their farming debt

Wilson-Gorman Tariff

1894

Ruined the Cuban economy because the tariffs were so high that no one in America would buy Cuban products

Teller Amendment

1898

Response to USS Maine. Place troops in Cuba but we "let them rule by themselves"

Gold Standard Act

1900

All paper money must be backed by gold

Platt Amendment

1901

Cuba can't make treaties without US approval
US in charge of economy

Newlands Reclamation Act

1902

Open Door Policy

1905

Proposed by John Hay.
Suggested that everyone trade with everyone in China
Laughed at by all other countries in China

Pure Food & Drug Act

1906

Made sure the pharmaceutical industry didn't falsely advertise their drugs

Hepburn Act

1906

Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and extend its jurisdiction. Helped out small farmers, who couldn't afford ridiculous railroad prices and got rid of the huge discounts to large businesses

Mann Act

1910

Prohibited white slavery and the interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes"

Federal Reserve Act

1913

Established the federal reserve system, the central banking system of the US

Underwood Tarriff

1913

Lowered tariff rates allowing small businesses a better chance, also encouraged imports – levied a gradual increased tax on more wealthy US residents

Adamson Act

1916

Mandated 8 hour workdays and overtime pay for Railroad laborers

Sedition Act

1918

Extended the Espionage Act (can't interfere with military operations) to cover other offenses too, such as speaking out against the war or any other acts that would be classified as causing a "danger" to the country

Senate Rejects Versailles Treaty

1919

Was the treaty to end WWI and create the League of Nations.
US didn't want to be Committed to dealing with other countries' problems

18th Amendment

1919

Prohibition of alcoholic beverages

19th Amendment

1920

Women's suffrage

Dawes Plan Published

April 9, 1924

Kellog-Briand Pact

1928

62 nations agree to "not use war as a diplomatic tool" but it's dumb because there's no way to enforce it, it just made people feel better

Good Neighbor Policy announced

1933

US claims it will stay out of Latin American affairs, but that's not really true...

Neutrality Acts

1935 - 1937

1) No arms sales
2) Can't loan to belligerents, Americans can't go on warning British ships about Germans. Countries had to pay cash for non-military purposes.
An attempt to keep US out of WWII

Cash & Carry Policy announced

1939

British ships had to come to US shores and pay in cash for anything they want. US refuses to go into war zones with our merchant ships

Lend-Lease Act

March 11, 1941

We "lend" Britain our old ships because we didn't want their house to burn down. Clearly not neutral.

Executive Order 8892

June 1941

FDR prevents racial discrimination in the national defense industry. A response to the March on Washington DC (a civil rights march)

Executive Order 9066

February 19 1942

Authorized the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones. Eventually, EO 9066 cleared the way for the deportation of Japanese Americans to internment camps

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

Send aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent Communist takeover

Marshall Plan

June 5, 1947

Financial aid to Western European countries

National Security Act

July 26 1947

Berlin Airlift

June 1948 - May 1949

NSC-68

September 30 1950

Increased arms production for the US. Started the arms race

Geneva Accords

July 20 1954

Warsaw Pact

May 1 1955

Eisenhower Doctrine

1957

Civil Rights Act of 1957

September 9, 1957

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

August 7 1964

Voting Rights Act

May 26, 1965

Civil Rights Act of 1968

April 11, 1968

Camp David Accords

September 17, 1978

SDI Plan Launched

1983

Presidencies

Grant President

1869 - 1877

Hayes President

1877 - 1881

Garfield President

1881

Arthur President

1881 - 1885

Cleveland President

1885 - 1889

Harrison President

1889 - 1893

Cleveland President (round 2)

1893 - 1897

McKinley President

1897 - 1901

Teddy Roosevelt President

1901 - 1909

Taft President

1909 - 1913

Wilson President

1913 - 1921

FDR President

1921 - April 12, 1945

Truman President

April 12 1945 - 1953

Eisenhower President

1953 - 1961

Kennedy President

1961 - 1963

Johnson President

1963 - 1969

Nixon President

1969 - 1974

Ford President

1974 - 1977

Carter President

1977 - 1981

Reagan President

1981 - 1989

Bush (the elder) President

1989 - 1993

Wars & Battles

Nez Perce Surrender

1877

Battle of Wounded Knee

1890

Overthrow of Hawaii

1893

Not officially sanctioned by the US government, but Dole & Stevens basically take over the country by themselves. We apologize and turn it into a republic

Venezuela Intervention

1895

They asked for our help in settling border dispute with British because of Monroe Doctrine. We side with the British

Spanish-American War

1898

We fight (and absolutely destroy) Spanish gaining Cuba & the Philippines. Prompted by the USS Maine blowing up

Aguinaldo Uprising

1899 - 1902

Aguinaldo wants independence since we basically took away all their rights. We brutally shut it down

Mexican Invasion

1914 - 1917

Mexicans ousted their leader Diaz and it turned into a bloody civil war with anti-American sentiments. We went in because they were trying to nationalize American owned companies

World War I

1914 - 1918

Panama Canal

1914

We help Panama become independent from Colombia and they give us the canal. Informal imperialism.

Germany Sinks Lusitania

May 1915

British were smuggling weapons on a passenger ship. Wilson uses the attack as a rallying point for pro-war argument

Germany Sinks Arabic

August 1915

Americans killed on a British boat
Wilson urges Germans to stop submarine warfare because they're violating American neutrality

Germany Sinks Sussex

March 1916

Americans killed on another country's boat after being explicitly warned not to travel on other counties' ships.

Germany Announces Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

1917

British wanted to make Germans warn ships before firing at them which completely defeats the purpose of having a submarine... and Wilson agrees so Germany's like "screw it" and announce that any ships in their waters are getting sunk.

Greer Incident

September 4, 1941

US stalked a German U-boat off the coast of Iceland. They got pissed and shots were fired.
Used by FDR to help change the minds of isolationists before entering the war

Ruben James Incident

October 31, 1941

US & Brits knew the location of a group of submarines that preyed on Allied shipping so the Ruben James positioned themselves in between the subs and a British ammunition boat. Germany upset about our lack of neutrality. Ship hit by torpedo.

Pearl Harbor

December 7 1941

Japanese attack on the military camp in Honolulu. Sketchy whether or not FDR allowed this to happen to gain support for the war effort

Battle of Midway

June 4, 1942

Turning point in the War in the Pacific vs. the Japanese. Up to this point the US had been losing every battle, and afterwards we start crushing them.

Allies invade North Africa

November 1942

Britain wanted to secure North Africa even though the Russians needed a second front

Battle of El Alamein Ends

November 4 1942

Allied victory in Egypt, ending Axis threat in the Middle East

Allies Invade Italy

September 3 1943

Britain & US thought that Italy was the "underbelly" of the Axis but took a surprisingly long time to pass through because of German assistance

Rome Freed

June 4 1944

Helped lead to the demise of Mussolini's regime.

Normandy/DDay

June 6, 1944

Largest amphibious assault in history. Germans weren't expecting an attack there because they had received faulty intelligence. US bombed behind german lines a few days before to destroy bridges and railroads.

Paris Freed

August 25, 1944

Battle Leyte Gulf

October 23 1944 - October 26 1944

US freed Manila from the Japanese and destroyed four of their aircraft carriers. Destroyed any chance of Japanese victory.

Battle of the Bulge

December 1944 - January 1945

Regained control of Belgium

Battle of Iwo Jima

February 1945

Brutal fight on a tiny island north of Tokyo.

Tokyo Firebombed

March 9, 1945

Killed 100,000 but they wouldn't accept the unconditional surrender requested of them at the Potsdam conference

Battle of Okinawa

April 1945 - June 1945

Mussolini Executed

April 28, 1945

Hitler Commits Suicide

April 30, 1945

Germany Surrenders (VE Day)

May 8, 1945

Germans accept unconditional surrender after we bomb them

Hiroshima Atomic Bomb

August 6 1945

Proved how powerful the US was. Hiroshima was a low threat city, it was chosen to show the destructive power of the bomb

Soviets Declare War on Japan

August 8 1945

Nagasaki Atomic Bomb

August 9, 1945

Was probably to prevent any Soviet influence from entering Asia and to scare the Soviets. Bomb dropped during the Japanese surrender conference – a bit excessive...

Japan Surrenders (VJ Day)

August 14, 1945

Soviets Explode Atomic Bomb

August 29, 1949

Korean War

1950 - 1953

North Korea invaded South Korea to reunify. US thinks it's Communist driven and enters
We bomb bridges in China so they can't intervene but they do and push back to original border

Dienbienphu Falls

May 7, 1954

Arbenz Overthrown in Guatemala

June 27, 1954

Suez Crisis

July 26, 1956

US breaks promise to help Egypt finance Aswan Dam
US British French and Israelis invade Suez to gain control over area but Eisenhower pulls troops out and Soviets build the dam
US supports corrupt Saudi Arabian government for revenge

Sputnik

October 4, 1957

Russian satellite that scared the US

Cuban Revolution

January 1, 1959

Castro put into power and he signs treaties with Soviet Union so Eisenhower tries to find a way to overthrow Castro

U-2 Incident

May 1, 1960

American spy plane shot down by Soviets while flying over their air space. Khrushchev demands an apology from US but gets none

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 17, 1961

Failed attempt at an invasion by the CIA to oust Castro from dictatorship. Makes Cuban-US relationships rough

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14 1962 - October 28 1962

American U-2's photograph missile sites in Cuba installed by Soviet Union
JFK demands withdrawal and imposes a blockade (no weapons or oil allowed in)
Khruschev takes out Cuban missiles and we remove Jupiter missiles from Turkey

Diem Assassinated

November 2, 1963

Rolling Thunder

March 2 1965

Johnson's bombing program. More bombs were dropped on Vietnam than on Germany during WWII

Tet Offensive

January 31, 1968

Vietcong forces struck South Vietnam capturing provincial capitals Saigon Airport, presidential palace, and ARVN headquarters. American embassy attacked also

Iran Hostage Crisis

November 4, 1979 - January 20, 1981

Berlin Wall Falls

October 1989

Soviet Union Collapse

1990 - 1991

Persian Gulf War/Operation Desert Storm

January 1991

Court Cases

Wabash, St. Louis, & Pacific Railroad Vs. Illinois

1886

US vs. EC Knight

1895

Plessy vs. Ferguson

1896

Holden vs. Hardy

1898

Upheld labor rights for miners and smelters

Cummings vs. Board of Education

1899

Lochner vs. New York

1905

Distinguished between "safe" and "dangerous" jobs. Determined that baking wasn't a dangerous profession

Muller vs. Oregon

1908

Limited workday for women – labor rights

Schenck vs. US

1919

Established that 1st amendment rights can be revoked/restricted during wartime when they could potentially endanger the country

Scotsboro 9 Trial

April 7, 1931

Korematsu vs. US

December 18, 1944

US holocausts the Japanese. We order Japanese citizens into internment camps regardless of citizenship

Brown vs. Board of Education

May 17, 1954

US vs. Nixon

July 25, 1974

Conferences Strikes Riots & Stuff

Railroad Strike

1877

Haymarket Riot

1886

Homestead Strike

1892

Populist Convention in Omaha

1892

Pullman Palace Car Strike

1894

Atlanta Exposition Speech

1895

An address on the topic of race relations given by Booker T. Washington. Laid the foundation for the Atlanta compromise. Washington said that African Americans should try to peacefully gain respect of whites by proving their worth (merit-based)

Coxey's Army

1895

Roosevelt Corollary

1904

If any nation in the Western Hemisphere appeared politically/financially unstable and therefore vulnerable to European control, the United States has the right and obligation to intervene

Wilson's 14 Points

1918

Before the WWI, Wilson had very idealist views of how the evolving world would look (the 14 points) but no one would listen to him if he wasn't involved in worldly matters hence the US' entry into WWI

Washington Naval Conference

November 1921 - February 1922

Limited the naval powers of large countries. Japan gets screwed over.
5 Power Treaty: Japan wants more ships but we say no because we don't want them expanding and we're slightly racist
4 Power Treaty: US, Britain, France and Japan respect each others Pacific belongings and cargo
9 Power Treaty: Open trade in China. Allowed everyone into Japan's sphere of influence

Nye Committee Hearings

September 1934 - February 1936

Investigated the financial banking interests which underplayed the US' involvement in WWI and was a significant factor in public and political support for American neutrality in the early stages of WWII.

It was revealed that we had lent a lot more money to Britain than Germany during WWI and people were upset that we entered for profit and not policy. Upset people and sparked the Neutrality Acts.

FDR gives Quarentine Speech

October 5, 1937

Atlantic Charter

August 14, 1941

Churchill and Roosevelt planed how the postwar world would look (even though we hadn't joined yet...)
Charter stated the goals of the war

Teheran Conference

December 1, 1943

We finally agree to open a second front to help out the Soviet Union

Yalta Conference

February 4, 1945

US Britain and Soviets come together to decide how Europe will look after the war is won and how they're going to split up Germany.
Stalin demands a soviet sphere of influence. Stalin agreed to let Poland have free elections (he doesn't follow through) Stalin agrees to assist US in the pacific war.

Potsdam Conference

July 16, 1945

Allied conference at the end of WWII that officially split up Germany into the factions decided at Yalta and reestablished the Soviet's satellite countries.
Truman was informed of the success of the atomic bomb at this conference. Outlined the unconditional terms of surrender for Japan (who refused to accept them)

Other

US Buys Alaksa

1867

John Seward bought it from Russia

Knights of Labor Founded

1869

Transcontinental Railroad Completed

1869

Barbed Wire Invented

1873

Panic of 1873

1873

National League Founded

1876

Josiah Strong Writes "Our Country"

1885

Strong said more Protestantism and looking to god would solve all the social problems. Also that Anglo-Saxons were superior
Helped lead the "Social Gospel" movement

American Federation of Labor Founded

1886

Farmers Alliances Formed

1887

Interstate Commerce Commission Created

1887

Mahan Coins Phrase "New Navy"

1890

In response to German Military threat
US should build up navy to act defensively, not for expansion

Panic of 1893

1893

Turner Writes Frontier Thesis

1893

Rural Free Delivery

1896

Taylor's Scientific Management

1898

DuBois writes "Souls of Black Folk"

1903

A collection of essays comparing white and black writing and demonstrating the intellectual equality of the two

Industrial Workers of the World Founded

1905

Sinclair Writes "The Jungle"

1906

Exposed the outrages of the meatpacking industry and showed the general public how horrible working conditions in factories were.
Made the federal government reform factory regulation

NAACP Founded

1909

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
African American civil rights organization made in response to the race riot of 1908

Society of American Indians Founded

1911

Established to address the problems facing Native Americans including education, civil rights and government

Committee of Public Information Formed

1917

Uses propaganda to mobilize the public opinion on war.
Promoted Anti-German things

Eugene Debs Jailed

1918

Jailed due to Sedition Act because he spoke out against Wilson & the war

First Red Scare

1919 - 1921

People worried about rising Bolshevism & Socialism in the US

Chicago Beach Riot

July 27, 1919 - August 3, 1919

American Birth Control League Founded

1921

Founded by Margaret Sanger
Gave women the right to have birth control

Rosewood Florida Burns

January 4, 1923

Huey Long

1934

Proposed new wealth redistribution to curb poverty and homelessness

Father Coughlin

1934

Called for monetary reforms, the nationalization of major industries and railroads, and protection of the rights of labor. Had an anti-semetic radio show

Dr. Townsend

1934

Proposed the Townsend Plan, which was an old age pension program. Evolved into the Social Security system

HUAC Created

July 21, 1937

St. Louis Voyage

May 13, 1939

Group of Jew who escaped Germany on a ship tried coming into the US but we turn them away...

CORE Founded

1942

War Production Board Created

January 16, 1942

Run by David Nelson (the owner of Sears). Oversaw the production for wartime goods, controlled rations, produced infantry.

Americans find Natzwiller-Struthof

November 1944

First concentration camp found during WWII even though it was only months before the war ended. Question of how to handle this issue. We could delay war efforts to find all the camps and shut them down, or hurry up and win then shut them down or bomb them to stop them from importing people.

Kennan's Long Telegram

February 22, 1946

Strongly suggested that the US adopt a containment policy towards the Soviet Union (and Communism)

Jackie Robinson Integrates Baseball

April 15, 1947

NATO Founded

April 4, 1949

Alliance between Western European nations

Army-McCarthy Hearings

April 1954 - June 1954

SEATO Founded

September 8, 1954

Same thing as NATO but in Southeast Asia

Senate Condemns McCarthy

December 2, 1954

Emmett Till Killed

August 28, 1955

Montgomery Bus Boycott

December 1955 - December 1956

Rosa Parks Arrested

December 1, 1955

SCLC Founded

January 10, 1957

Little Rock High School Integrated

September 4 1957

Greensboro Sit-Ins Begin

February 1, 1960

SNCC Founded

April 15, 1960

Freedom Rides Begin

May 4, 1961

James Meredith Integrates Ole Miss

October 1, 1962

Birmingham: Project Confrontation Begins

April 4, 1963

Medgar Evers Killed

June 12, 1963

MLK's March on DC

August 28, 1963

Malcom X Killed

February 21, 1965

Selma: Pettus Bridge

March 7, 1965

Black Panthers Founded

October 15, 1966

MLK Killed

April 4, 1968

Watergate Burglars Caught

June 17, 1972

Saturday Night Massacre

October 20, 1973

Gorbachev Reforms Begin

1985

Iran Contra Scandal Breaks

November 1986