Started by Lincoln during Civil War.
Gave land to people who didn't go against the North.
Built Universities funded by the state
Required US Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation. Vetoed by Hayes but Congress overrode his Veto
Created the Civil Service Commission. Got rid of spoils system. People elected for their skill instead.
Eliminated community-owned Native American properties and granted land to individual families
Stop trusts and pools to keep prices down
Required voters to pay a poll tax eight months before each election and had to take literacy test. A way to exclude black voters in the south
Increased amount of Silver in circulation. Wanted by populists because it inflated economy and reduced their farming debt
Ruined the Cuban economy because the tariffs were so high that no one in America would buy Cuban products
Response to USS Maine. Place troops in Cuba but we "let them rule by themselves"
All paper money must be backed by gold
Cuba can't make treaties without US approval
US in charge of economy
Proposed by John Hay.
Suggested that everyone trade with everyone in China
Laughed at by all other countries in China
Made sure the pharmaceutical industry didn't falsely advertise their drugs
Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and extend its jurisdiction. Helped out small farmers, who couldn't afford ridiculous railroad prices and got rid of the huge discounts to large businesses
Prohibited white slavery and the interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes"
Established the federal reserve system, the central banking system of the US
Lowered tariff rates allowing small businesses a better chance, also encouraged imports – levied a gradual increased tax on more wealthy US residents
Mandated 8 hour workdays and overtime pay for Railroad laborers
Extended the Espionage Act (can't interfere with military operations) to cover other offenses too, such as speaking out against the war or any other acts that would be classified as causing a "danger" to the country
Was the treaty to end WWI and create the League of Nations.
US didn't want to be Committed to dealing with other countries' problems
Prohibition of alcoholic beverages
62 nations agree to "not use war as a diplomatic tool" but it's dumb because there's no way to enforce it, it just made people feel better
US claims it will stay out of Latin American affairs, but that's not really true...
1) No arms sales
2) Can't loan to belligerents, Americans can't go on warning British ships about Germans. Countries had to pay cash for non-military purposes.
An attempt to keep US out of WWII
British ships had to come to US shores and pay in cash for anything they want. US refuses to go into war zones with our merchant ships
We "lend" Britain our old ships because we didn't want their house to burn down. Clearly not neutral.
FDR prevents racial discrimination in the national defense industry. A response to the March on Washington DC (a civil rights march)
Authorized the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones. Eventually, EO 9066 cleared the way for the deportation of Japanese Americans to internment camps
Send aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent Communist takeover
Financial aid to Western European countries
Increased arms production for the US. Started the arms race
Not officially sanctioned by the US government, but Dole & Stevens basically take over the country by themselves. We apologize and turn it into a republic
They asked for our help in settling border dispute with British because of Monroe Doctrine. We side with the British
We fight (and absolutely destroy) Spanish gaining Cuba & the Philippines. Prompted by the USS Maine blowing up
Aguinaldo wants independence since we basically took away all their rights. We brutally shut it down
Mexicans ousted their leader Diaz and it turned into a bloody civil war with anti-American sentiments. We went in because they were trying to nationalize American owned companies
We help Panama become independent from Colombia and they give us the canal. Informal imperialism.
British were smuggling weapons on a passenger ship. Wilson uses the attack as a rallying point for pro-war argument
Americans killed on a British boat
Wilson urges Germans to stop submarine warfare because they're violating American neutrality
Americans killed on another country's boat after being explicitly warned not to travel on other counties' ships.
British wanted to make Germans warn ships before firing at them which completely defeats the purpose of having a submarine... and Wilson agrees so Germany's like "screw it" and announce that any ships in their waters are getting sunk.
US stalked a German U-boat off the coast of Iceland. They got pissed and shots were fired.
Used by FDR to help change the minds of isolationists before entering the war
US & Brits knew the location of a group of submarines that preyed on Allied shipping so the Ruben James positioned themselves in between the subs and a British ammunition boat. Germany upset about our lack of neutrality. Ship hit by torpedo.
Japanese attack on the military camp in Honolulu. Sketchy whether or not FDR allowed this to happen to gain support for the war effort
Turning point in the War in the Pacific vs. the Japanese. Up to this point the US had been losing every battle, and afterwards we start crushing them.
Britain wanted to secure North Africa even though the Russians needed a second front
Allied victory in Egypt, ending Axis threat in the Middle East
Britain & US thought that Italy was the "underbelly" of the Axis but took a surprisingly long time to pass through because of German assistance
Helped lead to the demise of Mussolini's regime.
Largest amphibious assault in history. Germans weren't expecting an attack there because they had received faulty intelligence. US bombed behind german lines a few days before to destroy bridges and railroads.
US freed Manila from the Japanese and destroyed four of their aircraft carriers. Destroyed any chance of Japanese victory.
Regained control of Belgium
Brutal fight on a tiny island north of Tokyo.
Killed 100,000 but they wouldn't accept the unconditional surrender requested of them at the Potsdam conference
Germans accept unconditional surrender after we bomb them
Proved how powerful the US was. Hiroshima was a low threat city, it was chosen to show the destructive power of the bomb
Was probably to prevent any Soviet influence from entering Asia and to scare the Soviets. Bomb dropped during the Japanese surrender conference – a bit excessive...
North Korea invaded South Korea to reunify. US thinks it's Communist driven and enters
We bomb bridges in China so they can't intervene but they do and push back to original border
US breaks promise to help Egypt finance Aswan Dam
US British French and Israelis invade Suez to gain control over area but Eisenhower pulls troops out and Soviets build the dam
US supports corrupt Saudi Arabian government for revenge
Russian satellite that scared the US
Castro put into power and he signs treaties with Soviet Union so Eisenhower tries to find a way to overthrow Castro
American spy plane shot down by Soviets while flying over their air space. Khrushchev demands an apology from US but gets none
Failed attempt at an invasion by the CIA to oust Castro from dictatorship. Makes Cuban-US relationships rough
American U-2's photograph missile sites in Cuba installed by Soviet Union
JFK demands withdrawal and imposes a blockade (no weapons or oil allowed in)
Khruschev takes out Cuban missiles and we remove Jupiter missiles from Turkey
Johnson's bombing program. More bombs were dropped on Vietnam than on Germany during WWII
Vietcong forces struck South Vietnam capturing provincial capitals Saigon Airport, presidential palace, and ARVN headquarters. American embassy attacked also
Upheld labor rights for miners and smelters
Distinguished between "safe" and "dangerous" jobs. Determined that baking wasn't a dangerous profession
Limited workday for women – labor rights
Established that 1st amendment rights can be revoked/restricted during wartime when they could potentially endanger the country
US holocausts the Japanese. We order Japanese citizens into internment camps regardless of citizenship
An address on the topic of race relations given by Booker T. Washington. Laid the foundation for the Atlanta compromise. Washington said that African Americans should try to peacefully gain respect of whites by proving their worth (merit-based)
If any nation in the Western Hemisphere appeared politically/financially unstable and therefore vulnerable to European control, the United States has the right and obligation to intervene
Before the WWI, Wilson had very idealist views of how the evolving world would look (the 14 points) but no one would listen to him if he wasn't involved in worldly matters hence the US' entry into WWI
Limited the naval powers of large countries. Japan gets screwed over.
5 Power Treaty: Japan wants more ships but we say no because we don't want them expanding and we're slightly racist
4 Power Treaty: US, Britain, France and Japan respect each others Pacific belongings and cargo
9 Power Treaty: Open trade in China. Allowed everyone into Japan's sphere of influence
Investigated the financial banking interests which underplayed the US' involvement in WWI and was a significant factor in public and political support for American neutrality in the early stages of WWII.
It was revealed that we had lent a lot more money to Britain than Germany during WWI and people were upset that we entered for profit and not policy. Upset people and sparked the Neutrality Acts.
Churchill and Roosevelt planed how the postwar world would look (even though we hadn't joined yet...)
Charter stated the goals of the war
We finally agree to open a second front to help out the Soviet Union
US Britain and Soviets come together to decide how Europe will look after the war is won and how they're going to split up Germany.
Stalin demands a soviet sphere of influence. Stalin agreed to let Poland have free elections (he doesn't follow through) Stalin agrees to assist US in the pacific war.
Allied conference at the end of WWII that officially split up Germany into the factions decided at Yalta and reestablished the Soviet's satellite countries.
Truman was informed of the success of the atomic bomb at this conference. Outlined the unconditional terms of surrender for Japan (who refused to accept them)
John Seward bought it from Russia
Strong said more Protestantism and looking to god would solve all the social problems. Also that Anglo-Saxons were superior
Helped lead the "Social Gospel" movement
In response to German Military threat
US should build up navy to act defensively, not for expansion
A collection of essays comparing white and black writing and demonstrating the intellectual equality of the two
Exposed the outrages of the meatpacking industry and showed the general public how horrible working conditions in factories were.
Made the federal government reform factory regulation
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
African American civil rights organization made in response to the race riot of 1908
Established to address the problems facing Native Americans including education, civil rights and government
Uses propaganda to mobilize the public opinion on war.
Promoted Anti-German things
Jailed due to Sedition Act because he spoke out against Wilson & the war
People worried about rising Bolshevism & Socialism in the US
Founded by Margaret Sanger
Gave women the right to have birth control
Proposed new wealth redistribution to curb poverty and homelessness
Called for monetary reforms, the nationalization of major industries and railroads, and protection of the rights of labor. Had an anti-semetic radio show
Proposed the Townsend Plan, which was an old age pension program. Evolved into the Social Security system
Group of Jew who escaped Germany on a ship tried coming into the US but we turn them away...
Run by David Nelson (the owner of Sears). Oversaw the production for wartime goods, controlled rations, produced infantry.
First concentration camp found during WWII even though it was only months before the war ended. Question of how to handle this issue. We could delay war efforts to find all the camps and shut them down, or hurry up and win then shut them down or bomb them to stop them from importing people.
Strongly suggested that the US adopt a containment policy towards the Soviet Union (and Communism)
Alliance between Western European nations
Same thing as NATO but in Southeast Asia