Norway: A History

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12,000 BC: Norway Settled

Norway is settled: 12,000 BC

12,000 BC

Norway was settled by Nomadic peoples in 12,000 BC.

8,000 BC

8,000 BC

A coastal settlement is founded in Norway in 8,000 BC by the Nomadic people.

First AD Century

First AD Century: Reform

1 AD - 792 AD

After thousands of years of living as Nomadic peoples, the Norwegians created their own alphabet and started to trade with the Roman Empire.

793: Scandanavian Rades and Beginning of Viking Age

793

Scandanavian raids and growing expansion began the Viking Age, as the first raid took place in 793. Vikings were well-equipped warriors.

Discovery of Iceland: 870

870

Norwegian explorers discovered Iceland during a journey

Greenland Settled: 980

980

Greenland is settled by Norwegeian settlers.

War breaks out: 1000

1000

War breaks out between the Fairhair Dynasty in Norway and the Danish kings.

Everlasting Peace: 1040-1130 AD

1040 - 1130

The nation of Norway was at peace after the war between the Fairhair Dynasty and the Danish Kings. Norway was at everlasting peace until 1130.

Civil War Era: 1130s

1130 - 1217

The Civil War era in Norway begins. Norway is in a state of Civil War over the unclear sucession laws, which allowed a king to rule jointly.

Hakon Hakonsson: 1217

1217

Hakon Hakonsson decalred leader of Norway. Introduced clear succession laws, unlike previous leaderships.

1200- : The Middle Ages

Population Boom: 1000-1300

1000 - 1300

The population booms from 150,000 to a total of 400,000.

1200: Norway's Golden Age

1200 - 1300

Norway's Golden Age took place during the 1200s, 13th Century. Trade increased and peace was spread throughout. Trade with the British Islands increased dramatically, imrpoving the economy of both nations.

1300: Plagues

1349 - 1400

Various plagues throughout the years devastated the country, cutting the population by half of what it grew to be. The Black Death especially did major damage to the population.

1380: Olaf Haakonsson

1380

Olaf Haakonsson inherited not only the Norwegian throne, but also the Danish throne, which created a union between the two nations. Bergen joined the union.

1397-1427: Pirates

1397 - 1427

The Victual Brothers, a group of pirates and privateers, raid three ports, the last being the raid that took place in 1427, on the port Lubeck.

1397: The Kalmar Union

1397

Margaret I created the Kalmar Union, which joined Bergen, Denmark, and Denmark.

1500-1502: The Alvsson Rebellion

1500 - 1502

Knut Alvsson starts a rebellion in Norway to make Norway purely independent from the Danish and ended on August 18th, 1502, where the rebellion was stopped.

1523-1536: War, Martin Luther Reformation, and Norway's Demotion

1523 - 1536

Over time during this period, Sweden gained independence. Norway disapproved of the Martin Luther Reformation, where the Church was a single national institution.

War broke out in the nation after Frederick died. The war was a three way conflict.

Protestism was about to be passed. However, the change was not passed. This occured in 1529.

Norway was demoted to a small Danish Province by Christian.

Denmark-Norway: 1500-

1537: The King's Power Increases

1537

The King's power increased as the reformation was passed in 1537. Church valuables and land were under the control of the king, which gave him more power.

1572-1620: The Governor General and

1572 - 1620

A Governer-General was appointed for Norway. Then, Norway searched and employed professional military officers and high ranking commanders.

1611-1613 The Kalmar War

1611 - 1613

War broke out between the Swedish Emprie and Norwegian-Danish Alliance.

The war started the summer of 1611, where the city of Kalmar was laid to seige. By the end of the war, in 1612, the war was technically over. However, in 1613, victory was finally declared over Sweden.

1618-1660: Years of War

1618 - 1660

Two wars occured during the period from 1618-1660. Wars like the Third Years' War and the Second Northern War occured during the period, in which the the Danish and the Norwegians were defeated in the Third Years' War. The Second Northern War saw the end by the signing of several peace treaties.

1661: Reform

1661

The monarchy was abolished by Norway, which led to a reform in Norway's government.

1664-1699: Ulrik Goldenlove

1664 - 1699

Ulrik Goldenlove, one of the most famous Norwegian viceroys, led the country. Before he came, over 1,600 official government officials were hired for the government.

1700- : Norway's 18th Century

1700-1721: The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

War broke out once again in Northern and Eastern Europe. The Danish-Norwegian alliance joined the Russian military and others to fight the Swedish, the British, and other nations.

In 1721, the war was won by the Coalition, led by the Russians.

1800-: The 19th Century for Norway

1807: More War- The Napoleonic Wars

1807 - 1814

During the early 1800s, Norway joined the French in the Napoleonic Wars, in which the Norwegians were being blocked by the British Royal Navy and also being invaded afterwards by the Swedish. However, the Swedish were defeated several times by the Norwegians. A ceasefire was signed in 1809.

In 1814, the Norwegians fought with Napoleon's forces in the Battle of Leipzig, where the Russian and the Coalition faced off against Napoleon, who was defeated.

1814: The Norwegian Constitution

1814 - 1815

Fearing another aboslute monarch, 112 representatives in Norway gathered to establish the Norwegian Constitution, which was similar to the US constitution in a way.

1880s-1890s: The Rise of The Labor Movement

1880 - 1890

Trade and Labor unions were common throughout the 1880s and 1890s. The Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions was established before 1900. However, the Norwegian Employers Confederation was established the year after.

The topic about woman in the 1880s was a highly debated topic during the time of the labor unions.

1900-: Independence, World War I, and The Like, Including Modern Day Norway

1905: Shot Down

1905

Norwegian party members of the Michaelson's Cabinet pushed for a Norwegian consulate, only to be 'shot down' by the Norwegian king, who, on June 7th, approved of the disollution of the union.

1905: Neutrality, The Merchant Marines, and World War I

1905 - 1918

Norway adopted a neutrality policy just before the start of WWI. However, this did not help, since the Norwegian Merchant Marine was ordered to assist and support the British Navy. Throughout the war, half of the Norwegian Navy had been sunk by the German U-Boats and over 2,000 Merchant Marines and Navy Sailors were killed.

Some merchants made huge proftis with trade during the war.

1914-1918: The Spy Game

1914 - 1918

In general, Norway was a battle ground for intelligence and spies for both the Central Powers and the Allied Poweres. This lasted throughout the entire war as the Norwegian Merchant Navy assist the Allies.

The Norwegians were known as the 'Neutral Ally'.

1939-1942: World War II, The Nazis, and the Norwegian Campaign

1939 - 1942

Like the previous war, Norway adopted a neutrality document. However, over the course of three years, the Norwegians find their country taken over after the Nazis invade the country, with the Norwegians fighting back against the invading Nazi forces.

The Norwegian government fled to London after Norway had fallen to Nazi-German hands in 1942.

1943-1945: Resistance, More Merchant Navy, and the German Occupiers

1943 - 1945

In 1943, a Norwegian resistance group was organized and was commanded from London, England. Norway, with little to give, gave the Allies command of the collective Norwegian Navy fleet, known as Nortraship.

In May of 1945, it was discovered the over 300,000 German soldiers occupied the country after the war.

1980s-Now: Modern-Day Norway

1990s: Second Largest Oil Exporter

1990

It was documented that, in the 1990s, Norway dominated the Oil Exportation Market. Norway has one of the largest oil fields in the world and gained the second spot in the top oil exporters in the world.

1990s: NATO Operations

1990 - 2000

Norway was a huge contribution to NATO, participating in operations around the world, aiding in bombing targets in Yugoslavia, aiding in the War in Afghanistan, and even in the Libiyan Civil War.

1990s: Unemployment and Investments

1990

Norway heavily invested in public hospitals at the time. However, Norway experienced its worst unemployment rate in its history at the same time.

2011: The Darkest Day

2011

In 2011, a far right activist and terrorist attacked the Government Headquarters and Workers' Youth League camp in Utoya. The fatal attack murdered 77 people.