France: 1919- 1945
Italy: 1919- 1937
USSR: 1934- 1939
-Had to take the blame for starting the war
- Had to pay £6,600,000,000 to the Allies for the damage caused
- Germany lost territories: Saarland, Rhineland, Baltic States,etc.
- Army was limited to 100,00 men, had to be volunteers; no conscription, no armored vehicles, submarines or aircraft, only six navy battleships Rhineland demilaterized
-Separated Austria from Hungary
-Land lost: Bohemia and Moravia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Galicia
- Lost land to Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia
-Limit armed forces to 20,000
- Had to pay £100,000,000
Boarder between Germany and Poland. Plebiscite organized for which country they wanted to join.
The League divided the region so Industrial areas went to Germany and Rural areas went to Poland.
Accepted by both countries
- Lost land: Transylvania, Slovakia, Ruthenia, Slovenia, Croatia
- Lost land: Smyrna, Syria, the straits into the Black Sea
Polish army took control of the Lithuanian capital
The League did nothing.
Sweden and Finland wanted control of Aaland islands. Threat of fighting.
The League said the islands should go to Finland. Sweden accepted to ruling.
Revision of Treaty of Sevres
- Returned Smyrna to Turkey
Italy and Greece conflict. Italy occupied Greek islands of Corfu; 15 people killed.
The League insisted that Mussolini withdraw from Greece. Terms accepted.
" if two members of the League were in dispute they would have to ask the League to sort out the disagreement and they would have to accept the Council's decision."
The Protocol was meant to strengthen the League but instead it weakened it.
- Germany finally accepted the boarders with France and Belgium
-Germany accepted that the Rhineland would remain a demilitarized zone
- France and Germany agreed to settle any future disputes through the League of Nations
Greek troops invaded Bulgaria after a dispute at the border.
The League ordered Greece to pull out . Greece obeyed.
Greece thought that the League had one rule for large states (like Italy) and another for the smaller states (like themselves)
No War for 5 Years
Japan attacks China
The League did little to help Manchuria. Japan remained and left the League in 1933
Hitler began increasing Germany’s military by huge percents\
Warships- 1932: 30 ships
1939: 95 ships
Aircraft- 1932: 36 planes
1939: 8,250 planes
Soldiers- 1932: 100,000 people
1939: 950,000 people
Italy attacks Ethiopia
The League attempted to stop Italy with economic sanctions. These did not include a ban on the sale of oil and they failed.
After this the League of Nations was not taken seriously as a peace-keeping organization.
The League of Nations held the promised plebiscite for people to vote on whether their region should return to German rule.
90% of the population voted to return to German rule
Big morale booster for Hitler
Germany and Japan signed it in 1936
Italy signed in 1937
The aim of the pact was to limit Communist influence around the world: Aimed at the USSR
now called the Axis alliance
Between Nationalists (Fascists) and Republicans (Communists and Socialists)
The League of Nations looked on helplessly
France refused to act without British support and so Hitler’s gamble paid off.
-German speaking section of Czechoslovakia
Hitler wanted to take over the Sudetenland
However the USSR, Britain, and France promised Czechoslovakia support if it came to war.
The Munich Agreement: the League of Nations decided to give Hitler what he wanted.
They didn’t consult the Czechs nor did they consult the USSR.
The annexation of Austria into Germany
Schuschnigg held a plebiscite asking the Austrian people if they supported the union
99.75% voted for Anschluss while under the watch of Nazis
They did not trust Hitler after the Munich Agreement
In 1939, Germany troops took over the rest of the country
Between Italy and Germany
Between Russia (Ribbentrop) and Germany (Molotov)
- agreed not to attack one another
- agreed to divide Poland between them
- Germany was to invade from the West
- USSR was to invade from the East
German soldiers invaded Poland from the west and the Soviets invaded from the east.
On September 3rd Britain and France declared war on Germany
Pros- Britain and other Allied countries were not ready for war
Cons- It encouraged Hitler to continue invading Germany’s land lost by the Treaty of Versailles
Between Allied Leaders (Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin)
-Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany surrendered.
Germany would be divided into to four zones:
American, French, British, and Soviet Union
Berlin would also be divided into the same four zones
The Big Three agreed to hunt down and punish war criminals
The Big Three were to join the new UN
The Eastern-Bloc would be allowed to hold free-elections
The Big Three agreed that easter Europe should be seen as ‘a Soviet sphere of influence’
The main disagreement was about Poland:
USSR wanted Poland to move its border into German territory.
Churchill and Roosevelt agreed with this as long as Stalin didn’t interfere with the British preventing the spread of Communism in Greece.
Between Allied leaders (Churchill/Attlee, Truman, and Stalin)
Mostly between Stalin and Truman because Britain was in the middle of a new election.
Over what to do about Germany:
Stalin wanted to cripple Germany
Truman didn’t want to repeat the mistake of the Treaty of Versailles
They disagreed over reparations:
Stalin wanted compensation for the 20 million Russians lost in the war.
Truman again didn’t want to repeat the Treaty of Versailles.
They disagreed over Soviet policy in eastern Europe
At the Yalta conference, it was agreed that Stalin could set up pro-Soviet governments in eastern Europe.
Because of this Truman adopted a ‘get tough’ attitude towards Stalin.
- World Peace
- The Fourteen Points:
1) No secret treaties
2) Free access to the seas in peacetime or wartime
3) Free trade between countries
4) All countries to work towards disarmament
5) Colonies to have a say in their own future
6) German troops to leave Russia
7) Independence for Belgium
8) France to regain Alsace-Lorraine
9) Frontier between Austria and Italy to be adjusted
10)Self-determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe
11) Serbia to access to the sea
12) Self-determination for the people in the Turkish Empire
13) Poland to become an independent state with access to the sea
14) League of Nations to be set up
- Wanted Germany to not be harshly punished
- Wanted Germany to lose its Navy
- Wanted Germany to lose its colonies
-Wanted Britain and Germany to begin trading again
- Wanted to abolish the Treaty of Versailles
- Expand German territory
- Defeat Communism
- Wanted to cripple Germany
-Wanted Germany to be broken into smaller states