AP World History - Period 6 (1914-Present)

The Americas : Green, Europe : Blue, Asia : Red, Africa : Purple Multiple Continents : Black

Wars

Bolshevik Revolution

1917

This started as an uprising against shortages and mounting deaths in the war in 1917 in Russia. Nicholas facing mutinies abdicated the throne and a provisional government was established which brought a struggle for power and instability in the government. This was important because it allowed Lenin to step in and head the radical Bolshevik Party that would exit the War and completely turn Russian society around.

Arab-Israeli War

1949 - 1982

This conflict was between Arab Palestinians and Jewish settles. The Arab Palestinians were violently resisting British rule and Jewish settlement, Egyptian military leaders under Gamal Abdel Nasser opposed Israel and wanted to take command of the Arab world. Nassar became prime minister and leader of pan-Arab nationalism, this put Egypt--basically just a mess

Korean War

1950 - 1953

This conflict began with North Korea's (communist) invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (mostly led by the US) allying with South Korea and People's Republic of China allying with North Korea. Important because although it ended in a stalemate the division of Korea.

Algerian War of Liberation

1954 - 1962

The war began under the command of the Front de Liberation Nationale, a group of nationalists, and used guerilla warfare to get the French out of Algeria. At first France did not realize the seriousness of the Algerian forces but when they sent thousands of forces. By 1958 they had sent 1/2-million soldiers resulting in atrocities on both sides and heavy civilian casualties. This was important because although it did also bring about Algerian Independence hundreds of thousands had died and a new ideological legacy stemmed from it--the work of Frantz Fanon. His writings gave support for African nationalism and revolutions and influenced independence struggles throughout Africa.

Revolution in Iran

1979

In 1953 the CIA helped bring anticommunist Shah Mohammed Pahlavi gain power. His repressive rule was overthrown by Islamist followers of Ayatollah Khomeini who also attacked the US for supporting the shah. The revolution had a strong anti-US presence and they took sixty-nine American hostages for 444 days, shut US military bases, and confiscated US-owned economic ventures. This was important because it shows the power of Islam as a means of fighting off foreign influences and the influence Iran's actions had on other Muslims to take terrorist action.

Iran - Iraq War

1980 - 1988

The Iraqi president Saddam Hussein launched an attack on Iran hoping for a quick victory it started out successfully but faced determined Iranian forces and the war dragged on until 1988. Important because of the amount of soldiers killed and the destruction it has brought to both countries.

Persian Gulf War

1990 - 1991

This was a conflict between Iraq and a group of countries led by the US to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded to control their oil supply. The war ended when the US crushed Iraqi resistance and liberated Kuwait. Important because it was a bit of a one-sided war and brought about continued conflict with Iraq.

Invasions / Defeats

Invasion of China by Japan

1937

This global conflict began with Japans invasion of Manchuria in 1931 which drew criticism from the League of Nations at which point Japan withdrew from the League and launched a full-scale invasion of China. This was important because of the way that they invaded, known as the "Rape of Nanjing" they waged war against civilians--bombings, rape, slaughter. This was important because of the devastating affects it had on the Chinese population and because the treatment of the Chinese by the Japanese brought them together and increased nationalist and communist ideals.

Invasion of Poland by Germany

1939

Germany's invasion of Poland during World War II was important because it showed that the policy of appeasement was not going to work out causing Britain and France to guarantee the security of Poland. Then Germany made a treaty with the Soviet Union that said they wouldn't attack each other and a secret protocol that divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence (German control of western Poland and Soviet Union in eastern Poland)

Germany Invasion of the Soviet Union

1941

Germany wanted to invade the Soviet Union because from their they could expel/exterminate the Jews, Slaves, and Bolsheviks and create more "living space" for resettled Germans, Hitler believed this would be easy because of their financial problems. They were able to capture the Russian heartland, put Leningrad under siege, and have troops outside of Moscow but Germany had underestimated the Russian troops. They had a lot more people than they realized, a better industrial capacity and the Russian winter was hard for the ill-prepared German troops. Although this did stall the troops in the spring the German forces regrouped and inflicted heavy loses to the Soviet forces. This was important because it brought the Soviet Unions much needed force for the Allies and allowed for German defeat at Stalingrad.

Soviet victory at Stalingrad

1943

Because of German forces had lost much of their momentum the Soviets were able to regroup and take back territory. The battle of Stalingrad was important because it was the 1st large-scale victory for Soviet forces and they were able to effectively push the German invaders out of Russian territory.

D-Day, Allied invasion at Normandy

1944

British and US troops land on French coast of Normandy, the fighting was deadly on all sides but the Germans were overwhelmed having both fronts collapsing around them and round-the-clock strategic bombing by the US and Britain invading/bombing German cities. Important because it brought the unconditional surrender of Germany in 1945.

Capture of Berlin by Soviet Forces

1945

A brutal street-by-street battle in order to capture Berlin. Important because it gave Berlin to the Soviets.

Creation of Israel

1948

Unable to solve conflict between Arab-Palestinians and Jewish settles the Britain turned to the UN who proposed dividing the two states (Palestine and Israel), Arabs opposed the idea. In 1947 when Britain withdrew a civil war broke out and the Jews proclaimed the state of Israel which caused Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq to declare war on them. This was important because when Israel achieved victory they took more land than was originally given to them and the dispute over land has caused problems ever since.

French Defeat at Dienbienphu

1954

France had lost power in Vietnam when Japan invaded but reasserted colonial rule in 1945, Ho Chi Minh and followers were able to defeat them using guerrilla warfare and getting help from Communist China. This was important because in order to achieve peace they had to have a conference where Vietnam was divided (North and South) at the 17th parallel.

Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan

1986 - 1989

The Soviets had been fighting long and hard against the Islamic warriors in Afghanistan who were being supported by Saudi Arabia, Iran, the US, Pakistan, and China. Finally in 1986 the Kremlin decided to pull its troops out of the war because it cost too much, had little support, and wasn't likely to be won. This was important because the Taliban emerged out of the disorder and devastation of the Afghan-Soviet war and the later civil war in Afghanistan.

Collapse of the Soviet Union

1991

When industrial and agricultural production continued to go down with increasing inflation the Soviet economy suffered dramatically. This led to many of the Baltic peoples wanting to secede and ultimately declare their independence. Soviet Leaders would either threaten to repress their uprisings or promise better conditions but neither stopped the move towards independence. Led by Boris Yeltsin a group of conspirators decided to take power while Gorbachev was on vacation. Yeltsin dismantled Communist party and led market oriented economic reforms. This was important because it ended the Soviet Union.

Treaties / Conferences

Treaty of Bret-Litovsk

1918

The Bolshevik rulers were able to end Russia's involvement in WWI when they signed this with Germany. It's important because it gave the Germans possession/control of a lot of Russian territory and 1/3 of it's population and the terms were harsh and humiliating but it gave the Russian government a chance to deal with their internal problems.

Paris Peace Conference

1919

This settlement in Paris was dominated by Britain, France, and the US but included 27 nations all having conflicting goals and the leaders of the Central Powers or Soviet Union were not included. It was important because it was here that Woodrow Wilson introduced his 14 points but no one really listened to them and instead what happened was the Central Powers had to accept guilt and pay reparations for the cost of war. Austria and Hungary were also separated and reduced with the new states being added to eastern Europe. It was important because the peace settlement just made everyone bitter and would also bankrupt a lot of the nations involved.

First Meeting of the League of Nations

1920

The league of nations was created to maintain world peace and included 42 nations. It was important because it was theoretically a great idea but had no real power to solve international disputes or enforce decisions and in order to ensure collective security it needed all major powers and the US never joined.

Establishment of United Nation

1945

This was a supranational organization dedicated to keeping world peace and security and was met with cooperation with the Allies during the war. It was important because it succeeded in areas where the League of Nations had failed--they created a powerful security council responsible for maintaining international peace, they also made certain that the Security Council consists of 5 permanent members and 6 rotating elected members. (The US, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, China) And the decisions of the Council are binding on all members.

Establishment of the People's Republic of China

1949

After the defeat of Japan in 1946 the civil war between nationalists and communists resumed.The communists were winning and forced the national government to seek refuge in Taiwan, and Mo Zedong (chairman of Chinese Communist Party) established the People's Republic of China. This was important because it brought the end to a long period of imperialist intrusion of China and brought a close relationship between the worlds biggest/most powerful socialist state.

Establishment of NATO

1949

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was established by the US as a regional military alliance against Soviet aggression and was to maintain peace in postwar Europe through collective defense. This was important because the Warsaw Pact was created as a countermeasure.

Establishment of Warsaw Pact

1955

This was a military alliance formed by Soviet Bloc nations in 1955 reacting to the rearmament of West Germany and it's inclusion NATO. Important because it shows the tension and reactions of the two conflicting forces at the time (US and Soviet Union).

People

Assasination of Archduke Ferdinand

1914

Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria was killed in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip a member of the nationalist Serbian group the Black Hand. His assassination was so important because it was the spark that started the war in the sense that brought up the tensions between the Austro-Hungarian empire and neighboring kingdoms slowly getting other European powers to take sides.

Mussolini Launches Fascist Movement in Italy

1919

Mussolini armed fascist squads, called Blackshirts, and terrorized socialists and marched through Rome, it was after this that he was invited to be king by prime minister. In his fascist state all other political parties were banned and Italy was transformed into a one-party dictatorship. He crushed labor unions and prohibited strikes to support business and boost industry. This was important because he would turn Italy into a complete Fascist state and align himself with Hitler and play a big part in World War II.

Lenin's New Economic Policy

1921 - 1928

Lenin's New Economic Policy reversed war communism and restored the Soviet Union to it's previous market economy. Small-scale industries were returned to private ownership and peasants were allowed to sell their surplus at a free market. This was important because it changed their society a lot and when he died the power struggle that followed allowed for Stalin to come in.

Ataturk Proclaims Republic of Turkey

1923

Mustafa Kemal now known as Ataturk is the father of modern Turkey and drove out occupying Allied forces and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey. This is important because of the reforms he placed--emancipation of women, western dress, secular rule replaced Muslim authorities and a constitutional democracy.

Hitler Rules Germany

1933 - 1945

Hitler was born in Austria and schooled in Vienna he then moved to Munich and fought as soldier for Germany in WWI. He joined the Nazi party as it was beginning to rise and in 1932 President Hindenburg offered Hitler the chancellorship. This gave him the opportunity to consolidate power and create a one-party dictatorship. He outlawed other political parties and took over different aspects of the country. Important because during his rule Nazi ideology (women=wives and mothers, eugenics--sterilize mentally ill/disabled, antisemitism) dangerously spread and affected people.

Sandino is murdered in Nicaragua

1934

Augusto Cesar Sandino was a nationalist from Nicaragua who insisted upon the removal of U.S Marines who were sent there to restore order. Before the U.S removed it's presence Anastacio Somoza Garcia was put in place to be the commander of the National Guard, Somoza's troops would murder Sandino and soon Somoza would become president. This is important because it shows the U.S's influence and their effect on many of the developing nations of the time

Stalin's Great Purge

1935 - 1938

Some of Stalin's policies at the time were leading to people having doubts about him and his administration leading stalin to get rid of 2/3rd of the Central Committee members and more than half of the army's high-ranking officers. He also put as many as eight million people in labor camps and three million died during "cleansing" This is important because it is a good view into Stalin's government at the time and because of the devastating social affects it had.

Events

German Resumption of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

1914

This was when Germany had resumed their unrestricted submarine warfare by sinking Britain merchant ships and in 1915 they sank the Lusitania, a British passenger liner, killing 1,198 passenger including some US citizens. This was important because it this helped sway American opinion against Germany leading to the US entry in the war.

Japan makes Twenty-one Demands on China

1915

After Japan advanced their imperial interests in China they made 21 demands that were designed to reduce China to a Japanese protectorate. When Britain found out about this they stepped in protecting China from total capitulation to Japan. This was important because Japan was being mean and it shows their determination to dominate east Asia and served as the basis for future Japanese pressure on China.

Gallipoli Campaign

1915

This was in Ottoman Turkey when the British decided to strike at the weakest Central Power, the Ottomans. It was a disaster with casualties one each side reaching 250,000. It was important because it weakened the ties of loyalty between Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Britain and the Ottoman empire lost their footing after it (Caucasus to Russins, Arab revolt with aid from Britain.

May Fourth Movement in China

1919

This was a Chinese movement led by students and intellectuals with a desire to eliminate imperialist influences and promote national unity. It's important because it shows Chinese sentiment of the time towards foreign, especially Japanese, influence in their country and turned some Chinese to Marxist thought.

First Soviet Five-Year Plan

1928 - 1932

This new plan replaced Lenin's NEP; it set production quotas gave power to the state to plan the entire economy. Also introduced the collectivization of agriculture where states seized the private farms to create collective ones to improve productivity, this idea was hated by the peasants which led to them being killed or dying of starvation. It was important because it shows the ideas Stalin had compared to Lenin and it had a huge impact on everyone in the Soviet Union at the time.

US Stock Market Crash

1929

The US economic boom prompted many to speculate and invest beyond their means this came back to haunt them when stock prices dropped and many investors lost life savings. Lenders called in loans forcing investors to keep selling. This was such a big deal because the economic problem in the US would spread to the entire world because of the interdependence of the global economy.

Civil Disobedience Movement in India

1930

Headed by Mohandas Ghandi they developed a technique of passive resistance and nonviolence, opposed the caste system and wanted independence. Important because it would eventually give India the home rule they wanted.

Long March by Chinese Communists

1934

This was when about 85,000 troops and auxiliary personnel of the Red Army went on a 6,215 mile journey to leave the attacks of nationalist forces. This was important because it inspired many Chinese to join the Communist Party and was where Mao Zedong would emerge as a leader.

Cardenas Nationalizes Oil Industry in Mexico

1938

This was when President of Mexico Lazaro Cardenas nationalizes the oil industry, largely owned by foreign investors from the US and Great Britain, thus testing the limits of the United State's reach. This was important because despite calls from the US and British for a strong response Roosevelt called for a cool and calm response. The negotiations resulted in foreign oil companies getting $24 million in compensation which was much better than the $260 million originally asked for.

German Auschluss with Austria

1938

This was when Germany forced a union with Austria and was justified by Hitler as an attempt to reintegrate all Germans into one homeland. Europe's major powers of the time did nothing to stop him which let him get more prominence and success. Important because it was using this same logic that the Nazis were able to get control of the Sudetenland and just gave Hitler more power.

Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

1945

After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor the US responded with two atomic bombings in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It was important because it led to the surrender of Japan and the horrific affects it had on the Japanese population.

Partition of India

1947

This was the division of India into 2 separate Hindu and Muslim states and was an idea condemned by men such as Gandhi and Nehru who said it would only lead to more trouble, but it happened anyway with the creation of Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India. This was important because of the way it impacted people because 10 million refugees either moved to India or Pakistan and at least 1 million died in migration, also it the conflict with India and Pakistan did not really end after this.

Apartheid in South Africa

1948 - 1989

This was the South African system of "separateness" it's important because it was implemented to maintain the black majority in a position of political, social, and economic subordination.

Division of Berlin and Germany

1949

This was when the Soviets took east Germany and the US, Britain, and France took west Germany. They also divided Berlin in 4 ways. This was important because of the blockade and the wall that was built.

Suez Crisis

1956

The Suez canal was controlled by Britain but Prime Minister Gamal A. Nassar nationalized it to build Egypt's economy. It was then attackd by British, French, and Israeli forces who retook the canal but the Soviet Union and US condemned the action and forced them to withdraw. This is importnat because Nassar was able to gain prestige and Egypt solidified its position as a leader in the fight against imperial holdovers in Asia and N. Africa, also divided the US and its allies in western Europe.

Uprising in Hungary

1956

This was when a group of nationalist-minded communists challenged the Soviet control. When the communist regime in Hungary began to embrace the process of de-Stalinization Hungarian citizens started to revolt and demanded democracy wanting to break ties to Moscow and the Warsaw Pact.This is important because it not only shows the people's discontent with Soviet control but also the way that Soviet leaders were able to crush the uprising.

Great Leap Foward in China

1958 - 1961

This was a ontinuation of China's push toward development and was a far-reaching policy that Mao Zedong envisioned as a way to overtake the industrial production of more developed countries and slowly work to collective all land and business and enterprises. He took away private ownership, farming, and industry--everything became communal. But his idea filed it had a disastrous impact on agricultural production which lead to a famine which Mao blamed on birds and told the peasants to kill the birds which led to the insect being able to eat the rest of the food which led to mass starvation and crisis. Important because it didn't work.

Castro Comes to power in Cuba

1959

Fidel Castro headed a revolutionary movement to overthrow the previous autocratic government whose regime had a traditionally subservient relationship with the US ( US sugar companies would control Cuban economy) Castro then aligned himself with the USSR in exchange for massive economic aid and arms shipments and declared support for the Soviet Union's foreign policy and his Marxist-Leninist ideals. This was important because it led to the US trying to overthrow Castro and his supporters, changed the government of Cuba since, and would lead to the Cuban Missile Crisis

Construction of Berlin Wall

1961

This was a wal of barbed wire through the city that fortified the border constructed by the Soviets after it was divided as a solution to the refugees from East Berlin to West Berlin. The former Allied nations objected to the wall but didn't want to risk a full conflict over it. Important because it did help with the problem of refugees but made Easy Germany look bad.

US Troops in Vietnam

1965 - 1973

US troops went on a bombing campaign against North Vietnam and troops were sent to augment the s. Vietnamese army. Despite having more technology and better weapons they couldn't beat the Viet Cong and in the end negotiated with the Paris Peace Accords. Important because although the war didn't end then in 1976 there was a national reunification.

Reunification of Germany

1990

The reunificaiton of Germany was swift and triggered by the decay of other communist regimes in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The aging leader Erich Honecker clung to Stalinist policies and people hated it. When thousands of east and west Berliners tore down the Berlin Wall the two Germanies formed a united nation. It was important because it brought Germany together and epitomizes the end of those times.

Transfer of British Hong Kong to People's Republic of China

1997

This was when Hong Kong, which had previously been under British control since the 1840's, reverted to Chinese control. Important because it shows that China was working to enter into the global economy without losing it's identity or authoritarian political system.