Bedouins (Arab nomads) settle in oases and market towns
Muhammad begins to preach publicly in Mecca but is met with some hostility
613 A.D. - 622 A.D.
Muhammad performs the Hijjrah, moving to the town of Yahtrib (Medina) from Mecca
Muhammad returns to Mecca
Muhammad and 10,000 followers march to Meccan outskirts, Meccan leaders surrender, Muhammad destroys idols in Ka'aba, has call to prayer made from roof, and causes many Meccans to pledge loyalty and conversion to Islam.
"Rightly Guided" Caliphs (First 4 Caliphs)
Abu-Bakr becomes first caliph
632 A.D. - 634 A.D.
Muslim state controls all of Arabia
Uthman is murdered
Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, succeeds Uthman as caliph
656 A.D. - 661 A.D.
Ali is assasinated, challenged by Muawiya, a governor of Syria
Umayyad family comes to power and moves the Muslim capital to Damascus
661 A.D. - 750 A.D.
Abd al-Rahman escapes slaughter; estab. Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus, Spain
Battle of Tours
Abbasids take over; murder remaining members of the Umayyad family
750 A.D. - 1258
Abbasids move the capital from Damascus to a newly created city, Baghdad