Muhammad is born

570 A.D.

Bedouins (Arab nomads) settle in oases and market towns

600 A.D.

Muhammad begins to preach publicly in Mecca but is met with some hostility

613 A.D. - 622 A.D.

Muhammad performs the Hijjrah, moving to the town of Yahtrib (Medina) from Mecca

622 A.D.

Muhammad returns to Mecca

630 A.D.

Muhammad and 10,000 followers march to Meccan outskirts, Meccan leaders surrender, Muhammad destroys idols in Ka'aba, has call to prayer made from roof, and causes many Meccans to pledge loyalty and conversion to Islam.

Muhammad dies

632 A.D.

"Rightly Guided" Caliphs (First 4 Caliphs)

  1. Abu-Bakr
  2. Umar
  3. Uthman
  4. Ali

Abu-Bakr becomes first caliph

632 A.D. - 634 A.D.

Muslim state controls all of Arabia

634 A.D.

Uthman is murdered

636 A.D.

Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, succeeds Uthman as caliph

656 A.D. - 661 A.D.

Ali is assasinated, challenged by Muawiya, a governor of Syria

661 A.D.


Umayyad family comes to power and moves the Muslim capital to Damascus

661 A.D. - 750 A.D.

Abd al-Rahman escapes slaughter; estab. Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus, Spain

750 A.D.


Battle of Tours

732 A.D.

Abbasids take over; murder remaining members of the Umayyad family

750 A.D. - 1258

Abbasids move the capital from Damascus to a newly created city, Baghdad

762 A.D.