Early European History Part 2

Early Reforms, Agricultural Revolution, Crusades, Early Explorers (Marco Polo)


King Alfred of England

871 - 899

Beginning in the 800s, Scandinavians(Vikings) took contol of middle part of the English Island-called Danes by locals

Was king of Wessex, his battle at Edmonton stopped Scandinavian expansion

By his death, clear distinction from b/w English and Danes

England was divided into shires w/ a "riff"(Sheriff) in change

Alfred promoted learning-for practical reasons, soon people identified themsleves as English-could be considered first king of England

Cluniac Reforms

910 - 1010

-monastic reforms
-structural changes in monastaries-Benedictine "order" similiar lives hierarchy
-monastaries set up so that they would only listen to the pope
-cluniac house-abbot-pope
-first time pope was truly at top of hierarchy

Ottonian Dynasty

919 - 1024

-More powerful than western part of empire (b/c of Viking attack)-did have Magyars

-Up in the air who will truly take control-eventually Henry of Saxony(919-936)

-His dynasty called Ottonian-all descendants named Otto

Otto I

936 - 973

-"The Great"-One of the rulers of Ottonian Dynasty
-defeated Magyars at Lechfeld (955), converted them
-invade Italy twice (951, 962)-Italy squabbling at time
-did this at the request of pope
-crowned emperor of the Romans in 962
-this title lasts untill WWII

Hugh Capet

987 - 996

-First of Odo's family to carry name Capetian

-For 300 years his biological male descendents rule West Francia

-Emergence of Kingdom of France-not ruling all of Frankish territory

Capetian Dynasty

987 - 1328

-Emergence of France

-Carolingian empire was crumbling-Charles the Fat last

-880s Odo takes control of Viking defenses (Charles give him power and then died w/ no clear heir)

-Odo's family would alternate ruling with Carolingians untill around 987


1000 - 1300

-economic systemfor exploiting land (fiefs) and labor (peasants and serfs)
-serfs: not free, tied to land,not free to leave the land but protected by customs, no family breakups
-free peasants: allowed to leave, free to live in area,had to pay rent, kept some profit
-trend from serfdom to free peasants-more profitable for lord if peasants can be moved around to create new villages, might even give freedom if they moved



-Western Christians taking back area of Spain that had been conquered by Muslims
-emergences of Portugal/Castile/Aragon
-ideals similar to crusades
-long term success

Gregorian Reforms

1000 - 1100

-same structural ideals- look to pure spiritual hierarchy in Rome
-SEPERATE hierarchy b/w secular and spirtual authority
-secular rulers should not be able order religious

Goals: empereror ironically started reforms (haha)
1) Cerical Celibacy
2) Simony (End)-practice of buying church offices
3)Papal appointment of bishops
-people wanted to join/many new orders
-church can't be completly seperate

The Agricultural Revolution

1000 - 1300

-more people farming more land more effectively
-producton of food is essential for population growth (still

mostly rural)
-top down sense of interest-lords give followers land so they can farm and profit
-lords give vassals land not salary for loyalty=FIEFDOM
-lords are looking for peasants to farm land (both top down and ground up)

Techniques and Technology
1) Three field rotation: before were only farming 1/2 land,
now could farm 2/3! increased productivity, cooperation
2)Harness technology improves
3)Heavy plow: plow naturally goes into ground, doesn't
have to be forced in
4) changed from oxen to horses-faster work
-other machines: windmills and watermills
-people now have enough to eat-better farmers, lived longer

King Cnut of England

1014 - 1035

-After Alfred, England was reconquered by Danes
-son of Swein Forkbeard (985-1014)
-ruler of England and Norway



-break b/w popes in Rome/Constantinople
-they excommunicate eachother

Emperor Henry IV

1056 - 1106

-fought Pope Gregory IV in investiture controversy
-1077 humbles himself at Canossa

Papal Election Decree


-cardinals will choose new pope-not emperor/people
Secular: Regular:
cardinal abbott
archbishops monks/triars/canons
bishops third orders
priest abottesess
third orders

Willam the Conquerer

1066 - 1087

-Duke of Normandy
-Norman invasion of England, think of themselves as diff. race
-1066: Battle of Hastings
-Fought against Harold who had just fought of Norman

-building block of strong centralized government

Pope Gregory VII

1073 - 1085

-Hildenbrand before pope
-when chosen by cardinals in 1073 he was already reforming
-investiture controversy

Investiture Controversy


-heart of power-struggle: only popes can choose bishops?
-emperor cannot be at investment ceremony
-if so, pope says its false, not a bishop
-pope convinces nobles that his side is advantageous

Henry Humbles Himself:
-Henry and Gregory both "disown eachother"
-nobles like what pope did
-Henry went to Canossa and stood outside in the snow begging forgivenss, Gregory removes excommunication, Henry then attacks him again
-so Henry won, but big pictures pope has power

Peter Abelard

1079 - 1142

-students flocked to hear him speack at lectures in Paris
-examined foundations of religious truth
-left conclusions open
-tutored Heloise, dangerous
-love affair/pregnancy/castration

St. Bernard of Clairvaux

1090 - 1153

-1115ish joined Cistercian Order
-his prestige called attention to movement
-he traveled

First Crusade

1095 - 1099

-Byzantine empire shrinking, weak, fragmented, wants help
-Gregorian reforms, enthusiasm, seperation of church/secular
-Pope Urban calls Council of Clermont
-large numbers of Christians excited, not what Urban wanted
-first group to reach Constantinople were not disciplined soliders and did not fare very well,
-then 25000 knighst arrive, squabble over power vs. religion
-bloodbath in Jerusalem 1099
-formation of crusader states
-falls 1145-2249

Cistercian Order


-believed that Cluniac monks are too concerned by society
-followed Benedictine rule, but more rigorus, wilderness/seperation
-did not accept children, wanted adults who could choose

Henri I of England

1100 - 1135

-younger son of William the Conquerer
-itinerant royal justices-travel throughout kingdom, don't have to rely on local courts, king's power felt
-excheqer-accounting mechanism-taxes
-writs: short written orders, administrative government, need people who can read and write
-dies w/ only one legitimate child (daughter) her son would become King



-refers to the use of logic learned form Aristotle to interpret the meaning of the BIble and the writings of the Church fathers and founded Chrisitian theology

Louis VI

1108 - 1137

-Capetians had very little power-changed b/c of biological luck and family loyalty
-"the fat"
-got ile de france under control-centralized officals
-allied himself with church, good at propoganda "loyal sons of church"
-Abbot Sugar wrote a biography, exaggeration

Concordat of Worms


-Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus
-ended "war of investiture"
-popes gained a great deal, bishops would be chosen by them
-emperors did not give up all power, but lost some

Papal Monarchy


-following concordat of worms
-crusades (first in 1095)
-Lateran councils (1123,1139,1179,1215)
-canon law and church courts: really high authority
-territoral claims to central Italy

Chretien de Troyes

1135 - 1183

-wrote the Knight of Cart, shows change to women and vernaculur "romance" court writings
-King Arthur stories
-love and honor moral questions
-evil knight steals Gwen, Lance goes after her but hesitates to ride in Kart b/c will lose status, find Malgon's prison and fights and spares his life, will fight one year later
-Gwen not grateful, rumors of death both sad, not true
-end up meeting eachother, she was mad b/c he hesitated before getting in the Kart
-fights Malagon again and wins
-love or honor?

King Louis VII

1137 - 1180

-married Eleanor of Aquitane (anulled 1152)
-signs up to lead second crusade-with Eleanor
-theme of loyal son, not successful
-"not valid in the eyes of god"-marriage too closely related
-Louis lost land, remember he needed all the power he could get

The Song of Roland


-example of an epic, world of action, violence, bloodshed, male domination, love=loyalty
-set during Charlemagne's reign (780)
-fighting Muslims, someone has to talk to King, Roland is Charlemagne's right hand man, but voluteers uncle who betrays them
-Turpin/Oliver/Roland and rear guard are attacked but don't call for help even tho wildly outnumberd b/c not chivalrous
-when dying blows horn, Charlemagne sees
-angels take Roland to heaven
-question of honor

Second Crusade

1145 - 1149




-southern France dualists (few in northern Italy)
-good and bad force in universe
-appreciate "vita apostolica"
-loose analgom of people
-church percieved them as biggest threat

Frederick I (Barbarossa)

1152 - 1190

-first to be called "Holy Roman Emperor"
-spent almost entire reign denying Pope Alexander III
-fake popes(3)-canonize Charlemange
-military fighting in Italy:emperor wants taxes from Italy, pope understands loose claim emperor has, but doesn't want it to take shape
-pope encourages LOMBARD LEAGUE in 1167
-1176 Battle of Legano-League wins
-eventually they come to an agreement
-Frederick dies on 3rd crusade

Henri II of England

1154 - 1184

-inherits enormous area, England and 1/2 of France
-more powerful than King of France but his vassal?
-marries Eleanor of Aquitane after her anulment w/ Louis VII
-written record becomes more sophisticated
-judicial innovations: grand jury-connection b/w locals and judges
-common law and standardization of written writ
-kept Eleanor locked away b/c she supported her sons rebellion
-Richard takes over from father, then brother John

Genghis Khan

1162 - 1227

-ideaology that they should rule the world
-conquered northern china/most of asia/ all the way to Russia
-worried Europeans
-very fierce/largest empire world has ever seen
-Prestor John?
-changed European worldview
-huge cities and culture, diverse, 3 franciscans,new christians, attempts at conversions

St. Dominic

1170 - 1221

-Spanish priest
-traveling w/ bishop, decided to preach against heresy
-different from Francis in that he had clear goal against heresy
-only living apostolic life for this purpose
-got permission from Pope Innocent III
-large movement-hundreds of houses
-canonized 1234



-Waldes-merchant from Lyon, wealthy
-owned land/buildings-left it behind wandered b/w towns
-preached against heresy, modeled after church
-Waldes went to 3rd Lateran council (1179)
-Pope Alexander III said he should not preach
-Waldensians did not listen to pope so they were heretics
-what to do with heretics? unclear?

Philip Augustus

1180 - 1223

-supported Frederick (Barbarossa's son) in empire struggle
-he won, now had to deal with new lands
-top down and buerocratic
-made power greater by giving sacred mystic to reign
-propoganda campaign

St. Francis of Assisi

1181 - 1226

-wealthy family-crazy rich kid
-go through conversion moments-prisioner of war
-came back different, attracted to apostolic way of life
-kept giving things to poor
-movemnt grew rapidly, many houses across Europe
-got permission from Innocent III
-canonized 1228

Third Crusade

1187 - 1192

nonevent but well remembered b/c glorius leaders

Marie de France


-wrote lais and fables
-thinks of herself as French but in England
-not sure exactly who she is-another author confirms existance
-well educated
-rhyming meter
-canon law and marriage, love vs. marriage?

Pope Innocent III

1198 - 1216

-height of papal monarchy
-from Roman aristocratic family, university educated theologian and lawyer
-became pope when 37-pretty young
-4th Lateran council
-change in papal policy regarding heretics
-willing to negotiate (more flexible)
-brings Waldensians in-wants to use this enthusiasm

John of England

1199 - 1216

-thought he would never be king
-married Isabelle of Angouleme
-she was already engaged to noble Hugh
-Hugh wants Philip Augustus' help, John summoned but doesn't go, French lands confiscated
-John didn't really fight for them
-supported Otto for emperor, lost to Frederick-Battle of Bouvines
-Magna Carta

Fourth Crusade

1201 - 1204

-Pope Innocent III calls for it
-didn't want emperors to go, wanted church to have authority
-planned to be sea crusade, boats weren't paid for so crusaders made deal w/ mercenaries to capture city
-Pope outraged, excommunicated crusaders but they went to the holy land anyway
-2 claims to Byzantine throne, agree to work for one, but then he is defeated
-to hell w/ this! storm Constantinople and take over

Albigensian Crusade


-Innocent III-fourth crusades was the first time church funded
-power could be turned against heretics
-angry at Toulouse, heretics
-sent ambassadore to area, assainated, was Raymond behind it
-decides on military action
-large numbers of French knights sign up
-brutal fighting and eventual control of heretics bhy 1215, not merciful, very brutal
-crowning moment of Pope Innocent III

Magna Carta


-nobles angry about lackluster war for Germany in France
-guarantees that barren's rights must be upheld, king now has check on his power, barons have a right to oppose him
-John forced to sign, no intention of keeping

Frederick II

1215 - 1250

-really from Sicily
-Innocent would support him if he renounced Sicily
-grew up in multi-ethnic, diverse enviroment, spoke many languages
-Popes absolutly hate him-anti-Christ
-excommunicated but goes on crusade and actually successfully negotiates for Jerusalem
-cedes power to some German princes
-Frederick didn't really like Germany
-died anti-climatically from dysentary

Fourth Lateran Council


-Pope Innocent III
-71 decrees-logical/rational reforms
-detailed statements of waht Christians should believe
- defintion of heresy
-confession once a year
-distinctive dress for Jews and Muslims
-calls for new crusade

Thomas Aquinas

1225 - 1274

-early clash b/w science and religion
-philosphy called Thomism
-Dominican friar, made two Scholastic works
1)Summary of the Catholic Faith Against the Gentiles
2) Summary of Theology
-reason confirms Christain faith
-natural truth and revealed truth
-most influential scholastic thinker
-at first his writings were prohibiteded in universities

Charles Anjou

1226 - 1285

-brother of French kings
-kills last of Frederick II sons publically
-conquered Sicily 1266
-French "holy bloodline" vs. "viper brood"

Louis IX

1226 - 1270

-barons revolt b/c he is young
-mother (Blanch of Castille) literally leads armies to ensure his rule, instilled in him idea that Louis was sent to uphold God's power on earth
-repressive in some ways (Jews/heretics)
-did believe in justice
-went on two crusades-leaves kingdom administrated, no tolerance for corruption
-crusades unsuccesful
-dies on his last crusade in holy land "died for faith"
-brought crown of thorns?
-canonized in 1297

Pope Gregory IX

1227 - 1247

-first papal inquistores who actively looked for heretics
-who will these agents be?-Dominican Order, town to town
-imprisoned, forced pilgrimages, some burned
-relapes heretics very bad
-kept records
-not many inquisitores

St. Clare of Assisi


-outlives Francis, wanted to follow him
-lived behind closed walls, absolute poverty, people brought food
-shamed Franciscans and papacy-success for women
-reluctant acceptance of women

Marco Polo

1254 - 1324

-father and uncle went to karakorum, returned to Venice in 1269
-left again in 1274 with Marco
-all the way to China
-back to Venice in 1295, now 40
-fighting in seabattles, actually captured-told author story in jail
-best-sellar, basic message was how great and huge everything in eastern world was
-mentions Japan for first time,
-changed worldview of some Europeans-Prestor John type

Edward I of England

1272 - 1307

-emergence of parliment (b/w 1200-1300)
-hated Simon of Monteford, but okay w/ parliment b/c he thought he could control it, and did
-conquered Wales
-first King in awhile w/ Anglo Saxon name, spoke English
-England=bottom up approach

Philip IV

1285 - 1314

-"the fair"
-did have court but top down
only called when King wanted it
-relied on mystic image