AP European History Timeline


Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Papacy under French influence

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

france won

1. Famine, disease, population decrease
2. Enormous tax burden → peasant rebellions
3. France: economically devastated but more politically unified
4. England: weakened economically, but (due to the difficulty of keeping trade lines open) beginning of a textile industry which would rebuild economy

Black Death

1347 - 1352

1/4 - 1/3 of the population of Europe died


  1. Isolation out of fear → weakened traditional social bonds
  2. Inability of Church and nobility to do anything about the plague → weakened respect for traditional authorities like Church and nobility among lower classes
  3. Shortage of labor → helped spur the creation of a textile industry as landowners left agricultural production for sheep farming → increased production of wool

The Renaissance

1350 - 1550

revival of commerce, interest in the Classical world, and belief in the potential of human achievement
began in Italy, spread to rest of Europe

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

competing popes

Donatello's "David"

  • first life-size, free-standing nude sculpture
  • depicts David naturalistically
  • David as a young Florentine gentleman



Johann Gutenberg invented in German city Mainz
- allowed for faster, cheaper, mass-produced books

Collapse of Council of Basel


peak of Conciliar Movement

effects of Conciliar Movement

  1. Spread belief that Church must not neglect needs of the faithful in pursuit of worldly power
  2. Secular governments (kings in England, France; local magistrates in Italian, German, Swiss cities) to gain some control over churches in their lands

Revival of Monarchy


Monarchs give powers to high-ranking town officials rather than nobles

Alliance between monarchs and middle class of merchants and professionals → modern, sovereign nation state

Treaty of Lodi

1454 - 1455

Wars shatter the Italian Renaissance. Treaty of Lodi 1454-55
- Allied Milan, Naples, and Florence to check Venice and Papal States
- Broken in 1494 when Naples, Florence, and pope prepare to attack Milan
- Ludivico il Moro, Milanese, appealed to French Charles VIII
- 1494 French troops invaded Italian peninsula → Italy became battleground in a war for supremacy between European monarchs

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

open warfare between House of Lancaster and the House of York

ended with the reign of the House of Tudor which began with Henry VII who began to decrease power of nobility.

Henry VII created the Court of the Star Chamber, where the king's councillors judged cases against nobles.

Lorenzo de Medici rule

1469 - 1492

commissioned work by almost all of the great Renaissance artists

Louis XI defeats Duke of Burgundy


Louis XI used the professional army and strong government established by Charles VII to defeat the last of France's rivals - the Duke of Burgundy

beginning of House of Tudor

August 1485

Henry Tudor defeated forces of Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field

Pico della Mirandola's "Oration"


publication of "Oration on the Dignity of Man"
- argued that God endowed man with the ability to shape his own being
- man has the obligation to become all that he can be

Bartholomew Dias explores Cape of Good Hope


Bartholomew Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at southern tip of Africa → opened Portuguese trade routes in East

French invade Italy


French troops invaded Italian peninsula → Italy became battleground in a war for supremacy between European monarchs

Naples, Florence, Pope vs. Milan, French (Charles VIII)

Erasmus' "Colloquies"

  • Most important and influential northern humanist
  • “the prince of humanists”
  • valued education and Latin, power of learning and ability of man
  • believed people should learn the truth about God and nature for themselves

Vasco da Gama explores coast of India


Vasco da Gama reached coast of India → extended Portuguese trade

Amerigo Vespucci shows Columbus's route is new continent

1499 - 1501

Amerigo Vespucci showed that the land Columbus discovered was not the Far East, but a new continent

The Reformation

1500 - 1600

A 16th-century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of Protestant Churches

Pope Julius II papacy

1503 - 1513

commissioned St. Peter's Basilica

Michelangelo's "David"

  • last and most heroic phase of Renaissance art
  • constructed from a single piece of marble
  • larger than life, dramatic

Machiavelli's "The Prince"


strategies for attaining and holding political power (better to be feared than loved)

Castiglione's "The Courtier"


social behavior, courtesy and etiquette guidebook

Luther's 95 Theses


posted on door of Wittenberg castle church
- 95 propositions that were contrary to the theology and practice of the Church
- his students translated them to vernacular and distributed

Magellan leads first circumnavigation

1519 - 1522

1519: Ferdinand Magellan led Portuguese expedition in search of new route to the Spice Islands
- Rounded tip of South America 1520
- Arrived at Spice Islands 1521
- 1522 completed circumnavigation

Hernán Cortés conquers Aztecs

1519 - 1521

1519 Hernán Cortés landed on coast of [Mexico]
- Imprisoned leader of Aztecs Montezuma
- 1521 conquered Aztecs

Luther's excommunication


from Catholic Church. Frederick of Saxony, one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor, protected Luther and delayed his excommunication from the Catholic Church until 1520. Result of his 95 Theses and drastic views about Church teachings and practices.

Luther's address to common people


“The Freedom of the Christian Man” which appealed to their
1. Christian consciences
2. Desire for authority who possessed true Christian principles

Luther's address to nobility


"Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation” which appealed to their desire for
1. Greater unity and power
2. To be free from Italian Pope

Francisco Pizzaro conquered Incas

1531 - 1533

1531 Francisco Pizzaro landed on [Peru]
- 1533 conquered Incas for Spain

Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy


Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy officially broke with the Church in Rome
- Protestantism was growing slowly in the middle classes
- Henry VIII was trying to consolidate his power and legacy → took the existence of the Protestant movement as an opportunity to break from Rome and create national Church
➢ Needed to divorce his wife and needed money and land
- Church of England, or Anglican Church, was hardly Protestant at all

Anabaptists capture Münster


Anabaptists were radical reformers
- Extreme millenarism – felt they had special mission to purge the world of evil and prepare it or the second coming of Christ
- 1534 captured Münster, Germany and seized property of nonbelievers and burned all books except Bible
- Rebellion put down by army of Lutheran Prince Phillip of Hesse and the movement was driven down

Ignatius Loyola founds Jesuits


Reform → 1534 Ignatius Loyola founded Society of Jesus, or Jesuits
- tightly organized order who saw themselves as soldiers against Satan
- focused on education → built schools and universities
- missionaries, particularly in New World (during age of exploration)
- preached a new piety, pushed Church to stop its worldly practices and be more selfless and holy

Guinther's anatomy textbook


Johannes Guinther’s "Anatomical Institutions According to the Opinions of Galen for Students of Medicine" – an anatomy textbook based on Greek philosopher Galen

Vesalius' anatomy textbook


Andreas Vesalius’s "On the Fabric of the Human Body" – became standard text for medical students

Copernicus' "De Rev"


shift from geocentric (earth-centered) model to heliocentric (sun-centered) model

Copernicus' death


Rise of Copernicanism (New Calendar)

European Church calendar was based on Ptolemy (ancient Greek)
-->But by early 1500, calendars were out of sync with seasons
-->1515 council called for Nicolas Copernicus to fix calendar
Copernicus’s heliocentric solution alarmed the Church because it:
-->Went against Aristotelian tradition and scholasticism
-->Contradicted Foundation of physics
-->Destroyed theological view of the cosmos
-->Church would have to admit it was wrong
After Copernicus’ death in 1543, Church allowed his theory in De Rev to be published under a strict preface saying it was hypothetical
-->Slowly, over next 70 years, Copernicanism spread
-->By 1600s, network of Copernicans

Council of Trent

  • Church refused to compromise on any of the key theological issues
  • continued to insist that the Catholic Church was the final authority in all matters of faith

Bauer's "On the Nature of Fossils"


provided summaries and classified fossils

Peace of Augsburg

  • established principle of “he who rules; his religion”
  • peace between Rome and German princes

Edict of Nantes

  • Huguenots: French Protestants
  • Civil war between Huguenots and Catholics in 1562
  • 1598 Edict of Nantes restored peace, and established religious toleration in France

The Rise of Sovereignty

1600 - 1715

The Scientific Revolution

1600 - 1700

In the history of science, the scientific revolution was a period when new ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a rejection of doctrines that had prevailed starting in Ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages, and laid the foundation for modern science. Began with Galileo and culminated with Newton.

James I rule

1603 - 1625
  • English monarch
  • First absolutist ruler: monarchs ruled with absolute authority and were viewed as appointed by God (Divine Right of Kings)
  • Peaceful coexistence with Parliament

Kepler's Laws

1609 - 1619

Johannes Kepler
i. German mathematician
ii. Copernican
iii. Hermetic and neoplatonic

1609-1619 developed 3 laws of planetary motion = Kepler’s Laws
1. Planetary orbits were elliptical with the sun as one of their foci
->Broke notion that planets moved in uniform circles
2. A planet’s velocity varied according to its distance from the Sun → equal area in equal time
-> Broke notion that planetary motion was uniform
3. (orbital period of a planet)2 : (average distance from the sun)3
-> Mathematical description of physical relationship between planets and sun

Galileo's "The Starry Messenger"


-> Self-promoter
-> Mathematical philosopher
-> Valued observational and mathematical data
-> Followed English philosopher Francis Bacon
-> Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cosimo de Medici were his patrons
Invented world’s first telescope and published 1610 The Starry Messenger announced his discoveries that contradicted Aristotelian model:
-> The existence of countless previously unseen stars → cosmos is bigger than we think
-> Rugged, crater-filled surface of the moon → not perfect celestial matter
-> Four moons of Jupiter

Barberini becomes pope


1615 Galileo escaped from being a heretic because of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini
1623 Barberini becomes pope
-> Galileo allowed to teach Copernicanism as a theory
-> Published "Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World" which attacked the Church’s defense of the Aristotelian model
-> Summoned by the Inquisition
-> Put under house arrest for the rest of his life

Charles I rule

1625 - 1649
  • English monarch
  • Insisted on wars with Spain and France → confrontation with Parliament
  • English Civil War (1642-1646) - Parliamentarians/Roundheads vs. Royalists/Cavaliers - Parliament forces won, executed Charles I

Descartes' "Discourse on Method"

  • Challenged both scholasticism and Galilean approach
  • “I think, therefore I am”
  • Cosmos made up of matter and motion, planets orbit the Sun because they are caught in swirling vortices of matter
  • Copernican, heliocentric
  • Alternative approach to mathematical Platonic-Pythagorean tradition

English Civil War

1642 - 1646
  • Parliamentarians/Roundheads vs. Royalists/Cavaliers
  • Parliament forces won, executed Charles I


1649 - 1660
  • Fundamentalist Protestant dictatorship
  • Led by Oliver Cromwell

Hobbes' "Leviation"

  • 1651 Leviathan says that self-interest motivates unman behavior
  • Natural state of man is war, cynical

Accademia dei Lincei


under the patronage of Marquess of Monticelli in Italy, an example of a smaller academy under the patronage of individual nobles during the development of new institutions.

Cromwell's death


Leader of Commonwealth (1649-1660)
- Fundamentalist Protestant dictatorship


1660 - 1688

Charles II takes the throne

Charles II rule

1660 - 1685

son of Charles I

Newton's "Principia Mathematica"


Newton and Universal Gravitation
- Englishman from Cambridge University
- 1687 Principia Mathematica
- Universal gravitation – calculated the orbits of the planets precisely
- Newton and Descartes became competing models, but by 1800 Newton won
-> Dawn of Enlightenment

Locke's "Essay Concerning Human Understanding"

1689 - 1690
  • 1689-1690 Essay Concerning Human Understanding humans are born tabula rasa, a blank slate -> Contradicted Christian tradition that humans were born corrupt and sinful
  • Argued that humans are shaped by experience
  • Agreed with Hobbes in self-interest is the motivation
  • Natural right to property, and to be productive

Adam Smith "Wealth of Nations"


i. Enlightenment economist
ii. 1776 Wealth of Nations explains natural laws of the economy of human labor, production, and trade stemming from self-interest
iii. Invisible hand that guided economy
iv. Identified law of supply and demand
v. Supported laissez-faire economic policy

Wollstonecraft's "Vindication of the Rights of Women"


i. Feminist
ii. 1792 Vindication of the Rights of Women – reason is basis of moral behavior
iii. Blind following of tradition is irrational and cause for oppression of women
iv. Sought equality and human rights for everyone