Totalitarianism Vocabulary

Main

Vladimir Lenin

1870 - 1924

Leader of the USSR who sought a world wide communist movement

Benito Mussolini; Il Duce

1883 - 1945

Organized the Fascist party by combining socialism and nationalism

Cheka

1917 - 1922

Secret police of the USSR which liquidated about 250,000 enemies

Leon Trotsky

1917 - 1918

Marxist ideologue and believed in "permanent revolution"--continuation of a world communist revolution

Marxist-Leninist Philosophy

1917

Imperialism is the highest form of capitalism

War Communism

1918 - 1920

Socialization of all means of production and central planning of the economy

Weimar Republic

1919 - 1933

The government controlling Germany following World War I

Black Shirts

1919 - 1923

Paramilitary forces of Mussolini

Comintern

1919

Was to serve as the preliminary step of the International Republic of Soviets towards the world wide victory of communism

Nazism

1920 - 1945

National Socialism; ideology of the Nazi Party which was a form of fascism combined with biological racism and anti-semitism

National Socialist German Worker's Party (NAZI)

1920 - 1945

Nazi party, small group of 7 that grew dramatically upon Hitler's rise to power. Dominated Germany until the end of World War II.

Fascism

1920 - 1940

glorification of the state

Totalitarianism

1920 - 1940

Government controls all aspects of the lives of the people

Communism

1920 - 1940

world wide dictatorship of the proletariat

"Lebensraum"

1921 - 1945

Germany should expand east, remove the Jews, and turn the Slavs into Slave Labor

Fascist Party

1921 - 1943

organized by Mussolini, it combined nationalism and socialism; focused on territorial expansion, benefits for workers, and land reform for peasants

Kronstadt Rebellion

1921

Mutiny by previously pro-Bolshevik sailors at Kronstadt naval base caused by economic disaster and social upheaval

New Economic Policy (NEP)

1921 - 1922

Lenin allowed some capitalist measures: government would not seize surplus grains, peasants could sell grain on the open market, government still in control of heavy industry, banks, and railroads

General Secretary

1922 - 1991

Highest position of power, created by Stalin--Read: DICTATOR

Central Committee

1922 - 1945

Apex of Soviet power which maxed out at 70 people in the 1930s

Politburo

1922 - 1945

Approximately a dozen members; dominated discussions of policy and personnel

Kulaks

1922 - 1945

The wealthiest peasants who strongly resisted collectivization

Hitler Youth

1922 - 1945

German youths indoctrinated by the Nazis of German racial superiority and Jews as the source of Germany's problems

Joseph Stalin

1922 - 1952

Leader of the USSR after Lenin; believed in socialism in one country

USSR

1922 - 1991

Russia renamed to Union of Socialist Republics and under a communist government

March on Rome

October 1922

led to Mussolinin taking power

Beer Hall Putsch

1923

Hitler's first "attempt" to seize power; Stood up on a table and declared a revolution

Mein Kampf

1923

Outlined the political beliefs and served as a blueprint for Hitler's future plans

"Socialism in one Country"

1924

Russia first had to be strong internally and should defer efforts for an international communist revolution; sought for establishment of a socialist economy without the aid of the west

SS

1925 - 1945

Hitler's personal gurad; Hitler's private army and secret police

Corporate State

24 December 1925 - 25 July 1943

the economic basis for Italian fascism; "Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state."

Collectivization

1928 - 1940

Bring the countryside peasantry under absolute control of the state: use farm machines to free up people for industry

Five-Year Plans

1928

Marked the end of the NEP; Goals: "We are 50 or 100 years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in 10 years. Either we do it or we shall go under."

Heinrich Himmler

1929 - 1945

Leader of the SS

SA (Brown Shirts)

1929 - 1945

Hitler's personal, private army

Vatican

1929

Recognized as an independent state by the Lateran Pact

Great Depression

1929 - 1935

Economic downturn; caused German economic chaos and political impotence allowing Hitler to seize power

Lateran Pact

1929

Italy's reconciliation with the papacy; the Vatican became an independent state

Gulag

1930 - 1960

forced labor camps

Purges

1930 - 1939

40,000 army officers expelled or liquidated

"Old Bolsheviks"

1930

Lenin's closest followers tried and executed

Joseph Goebbels

1933 - 1945

Minister of propaganda for Germany

Reichstag Fire

1933

Incident used by the Nazis to crack down on the Communists

Aryan Race

1933

Germanic Peoples; Hitler's "master race"

Gestapo

1933 - 1945

The official secret police of Germany and Germany-occupied Europe

Third Reich

1933 - 1945

Hitler's Rule

Holocaust, "Final Solution"

1933 - 1945

6 million European Jews killed (plus Slavs, Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, communists, homosexuals, mentally handicapped, and political opponents)

Fuhrer

1934 - 1945

Leader-dictator with unlimited arbitrary power; Hitler

"Great Terror"

1934 - 1938

Resulted in 8 million deaths and used to eliminate "enemies"

"Night of the Long Knives"

June 1934

When Hitler was warned the army and big businesses were suspicious of the SA, he had SS arrest and shoot about 1,000 leaders

Leni Riefenstal, Triumph of the Will

1935

a documentary of the Nuremburg rally of 1934 used as propaganda to make Hitler look larger than life and glorify the Nazi party

Nuremburg Laws

1935

Deprived Jews of all rights of citizenship

Show Trials

1937 - 1938

used to eradicate "enemies of the people"

Kristallnacht

1938

Attack by Nazis on Jewish communities