Étienne Brûlé and his companion Grenolle paddled up the St. Mary's River and entered Lake Superior.
Jean Nicolet, guided by the Wyandot, passed through the Straits of Mackinac and followed the southern shoreline of the Upper Peninsula en route to find the Ho-Chunk and the imagined passage to the Pacific.
The Iroquois Wars virtually emptied the lower peninsula of Native Americans and cut off the Ottawa River route and the St. Lawrence River route into Michigan.
Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers ventured to western Lake Superior with an envoy of fur trading Native Americans returning from Montreal.
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Médard des Groseilliers]
Father René Menard retraced the route of Radisson and Groseilliers to find the Wyandot, wintered in L'Anse, and then disappeared traveling inland from Chequamegon Bay.
Claude-Jean Allouez and six Voyageurs retraced Menard's route to find him and the Wyandot, they reported copper deposits in the Keweenaw Peninsula area.
Père (Father) Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, the first European settlement in Michigan.
Jean Talon sent Adrien Jolliet and Jean Peré on a mission to investigate the Allouez copper reports. Peré appears to have abandoned the exploration in favor of fur trading. An Iroquois warrior guided Jolliet's return trip along eastern shoreline of the Lower Peninsula and down the St. Clair River and Detroit River. This may have been the first visit of a European to the Lower Peninsula.
Father Claude Dablon took over the mission at the Sault and Marquette moved to establish a mission at St. Ignace.
At Sault Ste. Marie, four Jesuit priests led by Father Claude-Jean Allouez representing the Roman Catholic Church, and Simon Francois Daumont St. Lusson held aloft a sword and a symbolic tuft of sod, and declared to the Native Americans that all of the Great Lakes country was henceforth a possession of King Louis XIV of France.
René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle sails Le Griffon to St. Ignace and on to an island at the inlet of Green Bay, departs with 14 men from there via canoe south on Lake Michigan and establishes Fort Miami.
La Salle abandons Fort Miami and makes an overland trip across the Lower Peninsula.
Louis de la Porte, Sieur de Louvigny and 150 French soldiers established Fort de Buade at St. Ignace.
The mission of St. Joseph was established in Niles by Claude-Jean Allouez.
Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut established Fort St. Joseph in what is now Port Huron.
Marquis de Denonville sent Augustin le Gardeur de Courtemanche to establish another Fort St. Joseph at the Jesuit mission that had been formed around 1684 at modern Niles, Michigan.
Antoine de Lamothe Cadillac, with his lieutenant Alphonse de Tonty, established a trading post on the Detroit River which they name Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, today the city of Detroit. Their wives join them and are claimed to be 'the first European women in Michigan'.
Cadillac is removed from Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit and replaced by Charles Regnault, Sieur Dubuisson. Before leaving, Cadillac invites the Fox to live around the fort.
The Fox are not welcomed by the tribes living around Detroit and Dubuisson orders them to leave, they refuse and a fight breaks out for 19 days, leading to the Fox Wars.
Fort de Buade is abandoned and Fort Michilimackinac is constructed in what is now Mackinaw City, Michigan.
A period of peace, fur trading and little expansion in the part of New France that would become Michigan.
The Fox are not welcomed by the tribes living around Detroit and Dubuisson orders them to leave, they refuse and a fight breaks out for 19 days, leading to the Fox Wars.
During the French and Indian War, Fort Frontenac was captured by British forces cutting off New France's St. Lawrence River supply and communication conduits into Michigan.
Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit was peacefully turned over to the British after Quebec was defeated.
France cedes all lands in North America in New France east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain, ending the French colonial period in Michigan.
Chief Pontiac led a major revolt of Native Americans against the British, besieging Fort Detroit at one point. Known as Pontiac's War, this conflict would last for another two years and end essentially in a stalemate. The native people's had failed to prevent the British from moving farther into their territory and the British had failed to bring the native peoples under their control.
In an attempt to break Chief Pontiac's siege on Detroit, British soldiers launched a surprise attack on Pontiac's camp. French settlers had alerted Pontiac and his troops defeated the British at Parent's Creek.
The day before the battle, the Nain Rouge was spotted by British troops.
King George III of the United Kingdom in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 proclaims that the newly acquired North American land except Quebec, West Florida and East Florida will be an Indian Reserve prohibiting settlement without British permission west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Parliament of Great Britain passes the Quebec Act which expands Quebec's borders south to the Ohio River.
The area that is now Michigan is included with the territory ceded by Great Britain to the United States by the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War. The British continued to maintain control of Detroit and several other fortifications and the U.S. would not take control of the territory until 1796.
Detroit and Mackinac are captured by the British in the War of 1812.
Detroit recovered from the British by future-President William Henry Harrison.
The University of Michigan is established in Detroit, the first public university in the state.
The British cede control of the Upper Peninsula and the St. Clair River islands to the U.S. after the Treaty of Ghent and border negotiations are concluded.
In the Treaty of Saginaw, the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi ceded more than six million acres (24,000 km²), in the central portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan to the United States.
With the Treaty of Chicago, the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi ceded all the lands south of the Grand River to the United States.
Congress transferred legislative powers previously exercised by the Territorial Governor and Judges to a nine-member Legislative Council, appointed by the U.S. President who selected them from eighteen persons chosen by the people. The Council was expanded to thirteen members in 1825 and made an elected body in 1827.
The Chicago Road is surveyed between Fort Dearborn in Chicago and Detroit. It will become a major avenue for settlement and trade besides its original military purpose.
The British turn over their fort on Drummond Island to the United States.
Territorial Capitol built in Detroit at a cost of $24,500.
Detroit Arsenal constructed in Dearborn, Michigan to serve the territorial militia and the regular army.
First Constitutional Convention. Stevens T. Mason inaugurated as the first Governor. A minor conflict with Ohio, known as the Toledo War, over an area including the city of Toledo, Ohio, contributed to delaying Michigan's statehood. As a resolution, Ohio received Toledo and the Toledo Strip, while Michigan gained the western two-thirds of what is now Michigan's Upper Peninsula.
Treaty of Washington representatives of the Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Native Americans cede an area of approximately 13,837,207 acres (55,997 km²) in the northwest portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This area represents approximately 37% of the current land area of the state of Michigan.
Admitted as a free state into the union (the 26th state), it was admitted a few months after the slave state of Arkansas.
The Panic of 1837 was a severe setback to the nascent state bank and to several ambitious programs of public improvements, including the Clinton-Kalamazoo Canal.
The Patriot War saw Irish nationalists invade Canada from southeast Michigan.
Douglass Houghton reported finding copper deposits on the Keweenaw Peninsula.
Treaty of La Pointe is the last Native American land cession in Michigan
A law was passed by the State Legislature to re-locate the state capital from Detroit to a site "in the township of Lansing, in the county of Ingham."
Under the leadership of Dr. Albertus van Raalte, Dutch Calvinist separatists founded Holland, Michigan in southwest Michigan.
The first official meeting of the group that called itself the "Republican Party" was held in Jackson.
Michigan State University is founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, becoming the first land grant university in the United States.
Michigan sends 90,000 men, nearly a quarter of the state's male population to fight in state regiments in the American Civil War.
Fires burn Manistee and Holland.
New State Capitol dedicated in Lansing. The structure cost $1,510,130.
Construction of the Ford River Rouge Plant is completed; the largest integrated factory complex in the world employs 100,000 people.
The Ambassador Bridge opens between Detroit and Windsor, Ontario. It is the longest bridge in the world when built. The Detroit-Windsor Tunnel would open the next year.
Flint Sit-Down Strike ended with official recognition of the United Auto Workers by General Motors.
During World War II, Detroit is called the "Arsenal of Democracy" for its wartime industry; Fort Wayne is the largest motor vehicle and parts depot in the world.
Riot broke out pitting whites against blacks during wartime.
Motown music begins recording in Detroit.
Five-mile long Mackinac Bridge opens on November 1.
Race riots struck the city of Detroit. After 5 days of rioting, 43 people lay dead, 1,189 injured and over 7,000 people had been arrested. The riot had lasting effects on the entire metro region and is usually cited as one of the reasons the Detroit area is among the most segregated areas in the United States.
Gerald R. Ford of Grand Rapids became the 38th President of the United States.
Michigan celebrated 150 years of statehood.
Michigan elects its first female governor, Jennifer Granholm (D).
Michigan has the worst unemployment rate of any state, peaking at over 15%, due to the auto industry crisis and the general financial crisis.
Backgrounds and History of the Vampires of Detroit.
Six Crucibles ago, Domains came together to form the Parliament, a common organization to craft agreed-upon standards for all kindred of the American colonies. They succeeded to some extent, and the new standards helped to usher in the “Halcyon Era.” Where a larger group of kindred might have failed, falling into squabbling, these founding fathers succeeded.
New standards came into accepted practice, most notably the absolute necessity of paying and owing Boons among kindred society. Those who did not were rejected, setting the groundwork for the basic rules that are accepted even to these nights for all reasonable and sane kindred. Anyone who did not participate in the system of Boons was considered untrustworthy, so to trust such an individual was negligent and naive at best, and treasonous at worst.
Domains were the path to power across the nation, and to be a serious contender for national political power, one had to be a Prince. Covenants were only slightly unnerved, since the vast majority of Princes were strongly loyal to a Covenant, so their power was not seriously threatened.
No record of Kindred in southeast Detroit exist before the end of the Iroquois Wars. Otetiani, a native-born Shadow, is claimed to have slaughtered entire villages of his tribe's enemies in life. It is unclear when he was Embraced or who Embraced him, but his brood grew over the next several decades.
Benoit Pelletier claims Fort Pontchartrain as his personal domain. An Incubus of the First Estate, Benoit extends an invitation to other Unconquered to take up residence nearby.
Benoit and his fellow Invictus are besieged by Otetiani and his coterie of native Kindred. A fierce exchange takes place, mirroring the conflict in the mortal world. By the end of the fighting, only Benoit is left out of the European Kindred and Otetiani's coterie is dissolved.
Arriving with British troops, an Unconquered Lord formally petitions Benoit for hospitality. Despite their warring nations, the two Kindred reach an agreement.
Five Crucibles ago, things changed. The era of revolution was a powerful one. The previously established standards had taken hold, but the structures were not so firm. Parliament continued to gain power, but the Princes became less and less dependent on the power of their Covenants on a national level.
Invictus Princes rejected orders from their liege lords, and Archbishop Princes cited the Testament’s empowerment of each city with ever-greater frequency. Covenants were rejected like the kings of England by the Americans. Covenants declined; this proved especially frustrating to the two Covenants with the most developed national structures: the Invictus and the Ordo Dracul. Even to these nights, those Covenants seek to reestablish Covenant dominance at the national level. They have not proposed a structure that has been widely accepted, though. If any structure that placed Covenants at the top of the system nationally were to be accepted by the majority of kindred, that could change… especially during a Crucible.
Lacking a strong presence in the area, the Sanctified send an Incubus of their own to help strengthen the ties between the First and Second Estates in Detroit.
A coterie of four Savages entered the area following the American Revolution. They remained on the outskirts of the growing city but make their presence known.
Fearing the Savage's growing power, Chamberlain receives several visitors who he welcomes to take up permanent residence. Fellow Lords of the First and Secret Estates, the Lords' influence over the city grows dramatically.
An unknown assailant storms Benoit's haven and murders him in the middle of the day. The city is in an uproar for months and the murderer is never found.
Four Crucibles ago, the power of Princes took another step forward, but the wisdom of the Halcyon Era and the relative unity of that period collapsed. Unity was shattered within the United States, and the kindred society reflected that shattered unity. A single leader took power, rising like a Caesar from the Senate to place himself over all others by late 1862. His power was short-lived, as the second Caesar assassinated the first within three years, just at the end of the Crucible.
This advancement by murder set the tone for the following decades, as Crucibles always do, and the period from 1865 to 1912 was a brutal one. Kindred prohibitions against violence outside of carefully-constructed rituals broke down, and assassinations were seen as a means to power. This was so devastating that the Masquerade was almost broken, repeatedly, especially in rural areas where legends of vampires were more readily accepted. Many of what mortals describe as lynchings were in fact the destruction of kindred, by both kindred rivals and by mortal Hunters who became very well-organized and powerful.
The early Ku Klux Klan had a secret mission to destroy kindred, spurred on by the rampant violence of the era, and the only salvation of the kindred was that the racist sub-group of the KKK took control of the Klan. Had hatred and racism not taken control of that group, they might be the most potent force of Hunters in the world tonight.
In those dark nights, Conspiracies formed, and kindred knew that this era of violence and destruction could not stand. No kindred, no matter how powerful, was safe, and incalculable knowledge and power were lost as enemies burned one-anothers’ histories, diaries, and journals, killed beloved retainers, herd and allies, and beheaded precious Childer or Sires. The horrors of this era cannot be overstated; hundreds of immortals perished and kindred society was almost destroyed in America by threats from within and without.
Kindred, as a whole, swore that they would never again allow violence to become the norm, for fear that it would escalate again as it did in these decades- and this time, kindred society might very well perish. Kindred looked back to the Halcyon Era for guidance, and re-created the Parliament. This time, rather than Princes coming to power, Conspiracies were the prominent force in Parliament. Cities had been burned, physical resources destroyed, allies slain- only information remained, and not much of that. Those with common goals and aspirations banded together to shape the new world.
Tensions between the Unbound coterie of Savages and Haunts and the Unconquered and Sanctified of Detroit come to a head. Several minor skirmishes break out and a Masquerade breach is narrowly avoided in Pontiac Township (present-day Auburn Hills). A peace agreement is reached which gives the riverfront and city center to the Court while the Unbound receive land in Washtenaw County.
In the years following the Second Shadow War, the Kindred population of Detroit doubled as the covenants struggled to solidify their claim over the city. Among the Kindred who entered the city were:
The Tallowman (Nos/Ordo)
Abigail Turner (Khet/LS)
Rev. Harding (Daeva/CotC)
Three Crucibles ago, things changed. Approximately 1912, American kindred felt a bit more idealistic, more focused on goals they could look forward to rather than fear. Hope began to overcome the exhaustion of the long era of fire, claw, and ash. Powerful kindred leaders met in Parliament, and they set common ground once again. They reaffirmed the commitment to the power of Boons, to the importance of the Traditions, and to the sanctity of Elysium. They exchanged grave vows to never again allow kindred society to try to settle its differences by vendetta or war, but rather to attack and defend socially through rumor and through catspaws.
Those who broke the rules were met with universal opposition. The only acceptable mass destruction was to end the unlives of those who broke the peace. After the troublemakers were destroyed, kindred returned to the Danse. Driven by the painful lessons of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, kindred created an ironclad set of standards that hold even to these nights. The power of their agreement began to weave its way into the magical “lay of the land”, the same undefinable forces that created Crucibles.
This was the beginning of the mystical effect we now call Cadence. Just as the power of the Traditions has become so inculcated in kindred that magical effects come from those Traditions, so it is with Cadence throughout America. By 1917, it was a mystically-enforced law that Clans, Covenants and Conspiracies would compete with one another, but never again would assassination, murder, and violence become the preferred solution. Those young, stupid kindred who tried to carve their path to power with claw and fire were summarily killed, even by their closest allies, as a threat to the overall peace on which the safety of every kindred depended.
Daniel, Robert, Isaac, and Esther abandon their territory in Washtenaw and aren't heard from again. Attempts to investigate the area turn up empty.
Adding to the ranks of the Sanctified, a new Savage appears on the scene. He is the first Gangrel back in the city since the disappearance of the Dire Wolves coterie.
An upstart Daeva of the Movement, Chance travels back and forth from Chicago over the next couple decades as a smuggler.
With the opening of the Windsor Tunnel, a new Haunt is seen in the metro Detroit area.
Following the events of WWII, a Pretty Penny of the Order comes to lend assistance to the Dragon Academy.
Though he had initially arrived in 1680, the elder Sanctified Lord returns to the city several centuries later.
With the advent of jazz music came a voluptuous Succubus of the Sanctified. Her midnight gospels became the stories of legend and her Daeva-only parties, the shameful tales of debauchery in confessionals the next evening.
Two Crucibles ago, Parliament disbanded as a formal body, no longer holding regular meetings, structure or agendas. The underlying principles had been set into the infrastructure of the country, locked into the minds and bodies of the kindred within the nation, and Parliament was no longer needed for that purpose. Rather than let Parliament become a potentially tyrannical body, it was voted Parliament be resolved. On one hand, that earned those kindred a tremendous amount of respect, as wise, self-sacrificing leaders, willing to place the good of kindred over their own power. On the other hand, it also marked those same leaders as idealistic, perhaps even naive, for sacrificing personal power for the greater good. They are both lauded and derided for that decision even to these nights.
Without a formal structure like Parliament, the Conspiracies became less structured, but perhaps more powerful. These nights, no one knows how many Conspiracies exist. Traditionally, open leaders of conspiracies have been accorded more respect by many kindred than Covenant or Clan leaders – this is in part because of their wisdom, and in part because their numbers and assets are unknown. Attacking a Conspiracy may mean undermining a handful of kindred, or it might mean starting a social conflict against hundreds. Kindred, risk-averse as always, are very wary of the Conspiracies, and give respect rather than risk unnecessary conflict. With the previous dissolution of national covenant structures, Conspiracies remain the primary way for ambitious Kindred to amass a national power base.
A trio of Kindred coming from San Francisco arrive around the time of the race riots and begin work immediately to clean up the place. All three are members of the Ordo Dracul and count among their number two Haunts and a Shadow. Avinash is familiar with Detroit's landscape, having visited once before in 1949.
"Gus", a Shadow Sanctified arrives in the city from the West Coast. Following the tech boom, he makes a home down river and sets up shop.
Following in the footsteps of Avinash and the others, Borys begins cleaning up the city for the Movement.
Following her fellow conspirators, Cassandra comes to Detroit. The flighty Acolyte doesn't settle down anywhere, but is always seen at court.
Following his friends in the Shapers of the Question, Armand comes to Detroit.
Dr. Shaw, a Haunt of the Movement, arrives in town and takes a position as Oakland County's nighttime assistant coroner.
Ally Fick, a prominent Pretty of the Movement, moves to Detroit from Hollywood and opens up Magna Cosmetics Factory with great success.
While the economy in the U.S. boomed, and the borders were becoming restricted, the citizenry began to take on a new view of heritage. They searched for their roots in order to better define themselves. This culture was reflected within the Kindred population as well. As early Crucibles forged power for the Covenant, city, then Conspiracy, the last Crucible returned focus to something that can’t change once embraced: Clan.
In this era, information networks and connections available through Conspiracies allowed family Dynasties and Lineages to be confirmed, created, or forged. Being able to define these kinds of pedigrees afforded several advantages – ties of loyalty to clan mates, information and teachings passed from generation to generation, and a support structure independent of Covenant or Conspiracy. Though the power of the Clans did not return as strongly as it was in ancient times, the Clan once again became an integral part of the Danse in America.
These nights, a new Crucible is beginning. Every structure has a history it can point to- Princes remember the Halcyon Era fondly, while Covenants (especially the Ordo Dracul and Invictus) support a restoration of Covenant power… even if it’s behind the scenes. Clans recall times from before the colonization of America, when family and blood were more important than Covenant political affiliations. Some Conspiracy leaders think their predecessors were foolish to give away so much power, and seek to re-create Parliament with the Conspiracies in control. This Crucible will determine what happens over the next several decades, and every partisan is eager to take advantage of the opportunity.