History of Hacktivism


Tianamen Square protests


Term "Hacktivism" first used


Hacker Group 'Cult of the Dead Cow' used the terms as they chatted online about hacking and political liberation. This conversation was intended to develop ideas to cooperate with Chiese hackersfollowing Tianamen Square protests. (FBI 2012, 4)

China commemorates 50th Anniversary of Tianamen Square


Catalyst Events

Church of Scientology files Copyright Infringement Suit against YouTube


(FBI 2012, 5)

Tunisia Censors WikiLeaks

Jan 2011

(FBI 2012, 9).

IT Company Threatens Anonymous

Feb 2011

IT Company claimed that it had infiltrated Anonymous and threated to identify key members during a conference presentation. (FBI 2012, 6)

Egypt Anti-Government Protests

Feb 2011

(FBI 2012, 8).

'Palladium' arrested for cyber crimes associed with anonymous

Sept 2011

(FBI 2012, 8)

US Govt sieze MegaUpload Web sites

Jan 2012

(FBI 2012, 7).


Anonymous collective started


Original collective based on internest subculture interested in building satirical web sites

Church of Scientology targetted

2008 - 2010

(FBI 2012, 5)

Launched Operation Chanology


Launched a series of DDoS attacks against the Church of Scientology after they filed a copyright infringement suit against YouTube (FBI 2012, 5).

Anonymous claims responsibility for Operation Payback

Dec 2010

Op Payback was a seies of DDoS attacks againstinstitutions that were percieved enemies of Wikileaks (FBI 2012, 11).

Anonymous Attacks Seven Tunisian Websites

Jan 2011

Anonymous attacked seven Tunisian websites including the Ministry of Industry and Tunisian Stock Exchange. Sites in Zimbabwe also hit for similar reasons (FBI 2012, 9).

5 Anonymous members arrested

27 Jan 2011

(FBI 2012, 17)

Anonymous compromises server of IT Company

Feb 2011

Anonymous released sensitive information including e-mails, customer account info, etc (FBI 2012, 6).

Anonymous DDoS Egypt Govt sites/Circumvent Egypt Net shutdown

Feb 2011

Anonymous attacked the Egyptian Ministry of Information and the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak's National Democratic Party web sites supporting Egyptian anti-government protests. Anonymous also aided protestors to circumvent the Egyptian Government internet shutdown (FBI 2012, 8).

Anonymous attempt to DDoS MCB Quantico in response to Bradley Manning Arrest

20 Mar 2011

(FBI 2012, 9)

Anonymous uses radio interview to spread propaganda

12 Jun 2011

(FBI 2012, 11).

14 Anonymous members arrested

19 July 2011

(FBI 2012, 17)

Anonymous stages multiple physical protests agains US Transportation authority

Aug 2011

(FBI 2012, 9)

Anonymous endorses 'Day of Rage' / Occupy Protests Begin

Aug 2011

Day of Rage was a Physical protest against US Capitalism and was marked by the beginning of the Occupy protests. Anonymous supported Occupy protests with propaganda and cyber intrusions releasing Exfil'd info. (FBI 2012, 9).

Anonymous IberoAmerica Starts

nov 2011

Anonymous IberoAmerica targeted the Los Zetas in Operation Cartel. They threatened to release identities of Zetas members unless hostages were freed. After the hostages were freed, the two groups declared a truce (FBI 2012, 16).

spydr101 arrested

13 Dec 2011

(FBI 2012, 17)

Anonymous Hackers donate money with stolen Strafor CCs

24 Dec 2011

(FBI 2012, 7)

'Palladium' Gains Access and Records FBI Anonymous Conference Call

Jan 2012

(FBI 2012, 8)

'Palladium' Hacks Ireland National Police Service Email

Jan 2012

(FBI 2012, 8).

Anonymous conduct DDoS against US Govt and record label web sites

Jan 2012

(FBI 2012, 7.)

Anonymous exfils LE web site customer data

Feb 2012

(FBI 2012, 8)

'Palladium' released FBI recording online

Feb 2012

(FBI 2012, 8)

Anonymous Russia Starts

feb 2012

Anonymous Russia leaked emails from the Kremlin's Federal Youth Agency as a form of protest against the government (FBI 2012, 16).

Anonymous Brasil Starts

4 Feb 2012

Anonymous Brasil targetted Brazillian and US financial websites (FBI 2012, 16).

Anonymous post sealed warrant data online

19 July 2012

(FBI 2012, 8)


Lulzsec Hacks Sony

May 2011

Lulzsec wanted to expose vulnerabilities and embarrass Sony (FBI 2012, 7).

Lulzsec actively conducting Cyber Attacks

May 2011 - 26 June 2011

Lulzsec started

May 2011

Formed in May 2011 and consisted of 6 core members: Sabu, Kayla, Topiary, Tflow, pwnsauce, and Avunit (All previously associated with Anonymous). (FBI 2012, 14).

Lulzsec buys botnet with Bitcoins

Jun 2011

(FBI 2012, 12).

Topiary Arrested

July 2011

(FBI 2012, 15).

TFlow Arrested

19 July 2011

(FBI 2012, 15)

Sabu acting as FBI Informant

15 aug 2011 - 30 Mar 2012

(FBI 2012, 17)

Sabu pleads Guily to Hacking Activity

15 Aug 2011

(FBI 2012, 17)

Two men suspected of being 'Kayla' Arrested

1 Sep 2011

(FBI 2012, 12)

recursion arrested

22 sep 2011

(FBI 2012, 17)

Kayla, Anarchaos, palladium, Topiary, and pwnsauce charged with hacking

6 Mar 2012

Each member claimed to be members of Anonymous, Lulzsec, InternetFeds, and AntiSec (FBI 2012, 17).

Pwnsauce Arrested

6 Mar 2012

(FBI 2012, 15)


Cyber Attacks occuring under AntiSec

20 June 2011 - Sept 2012

Operation AntiSec Begins


Operation Anti-Security began in June 2011 following a press release from LulzSec (FBI 2012, 6).

AntiSec exfil Law Enforcement Data

31 July 2011

AntiSec exfil'd e-mail addresses, usernames, SSNs, home addresses, telephone numbers, password dumps, internal training files, informant lists, jail inmate databases, and active warrant information from over 70 LE Web sites. AntiSec claimed this attack was prompted by "Bogus, trumped-up charges" against individuals associated with Anonymous attacks (FBI 2012, 7).

AntiSec hacks Stratfor

November 2011

Hackers exfiltrated customer names, addresses, credit card data, e-mail accounts, and password hashes (FBI 2012, 7).

Wikileaks releases Stratfor data stolen by Antisec

26 Feb 2012

(FBI 2012, 16)