By: Aurora Villiard
The Stone Age was a prehistoric time era in which the first people used stone to make their weapons and tools. It lasted about 3.4 million years.
Studies show the most recent evidence dates back to 2.9 mya (million years ago). It ended between 4400 BC and 2000 BC.
The “Stone” Age marks the first of the three-age system[created by Christian Thomsen], which includes the “Bronze” and “Iron” Ages.
First “true” humans that could walk upright and use stone tools. They lived in Africa.
Homo erectus is an extinct species of hominid that lived from the end of the Pliocene epoch to the later Pleistocene, with the earliest first fossil evidence dating to around 1.8 million years ago and the most recent to around 300,000 years ago. They were the firsts of hunters and traveled over land bridges from Africa. They also created and controlled fire.
They used stone-tipped spears, bone needles, bone fish hooks, and sewed their clothes from animal skins. They also buried their dead and made warm boots.
Bows and arrows were eventually made. So were huts with central hearths for fires, necklaces and pendants, cave art, statues, and oil lamps.
African agriculture began around this time.
Most early Africans hunted and gathered rather than growing their own food sources.
Sumer was a civilization in Mesopotamia that was said to have formed back around 4500 and 4000 BC. The Sumerians were very well developed agriculturally, mathematically, and architecturally. They were also adept at pottery.
The Bronze Age is a time in which the ancient peoples of Europe, Asia, and the Mideast were advancing in metalwork--involving copper and tin. This time period followed after the Stone Age and preceded the Iron Age.
The Indus Valley is one of the earliest river civilizations and it was thriving during the Bronze Age(3300–1300 BCE). It’s also known as the Harappan Civilization. At one point, the Indus Valley had over five million people. They created a variety of art with many materials and were very advanced for their time.
Egypt was an ancient civilization of Southeastern Africa that thrived in 3150 BC. Ancient Egypt was once divided into two parts – Upper and Lower Egypt. In the North was Lower Egypt, where the Nile River stretched to form the Nile Delta. To the south was Upper Egypt. The first Pharaoh ruled over these lands.
The word ‘Mesopotamia’ is, in origin, a Greek name (‘mesos’=middle and ‘potamos’= river)-- so altogether, it means ‘land between the rivers). Mesopotamia included many city-states and was made in c. 3100 BC.
One of the greatest architectural structures of its time was The Great Pyramid. It was started in 2584 BC and was completed by 2600 BC. It remains one of the Seven Wonders of the World and is located in Giza. There were many pyramids built by the Ancient Egyptians, but the Great Pyramid is the most well-kept.
More commonly known as the “Sphinx”, this limestone statue of a couchant sphinx stands on the Giza Plateau in Egypt. It was built in approximately 2500 BC under the pharaoh Kafhra. The statue used to have a nose equipped with a small, pharaonic beard.
(c. 2100 – c. 1600 BC) The Xia Dynasty was one of the first civilizations to irrigate, produce cast bronze, and maintain a strong army. The Xia Dynasty ended with The Battle of Mingtiao. This was a clash between the Xia Dynasty and the Shang Dynasty, resulting with a Shang victory.
Hinduism formed in c. 2000 BCE in India. It is a polytheistic religion, meaning that there is more than one god to worship.
A large wave of Indo-Europeans migrated from the Eurasion steppes to Europe, India, and Southwest Asia. Some of these people who settled on the mainland around 2000 BCE were later known as Myceneans.
Judaism formed over 4000 years ago in Canaan, which is now Israel and Palestinian territories. Many people associate the formation with the religion’s forefather, Abraham, who lived approximately in 2000 BCE.
No one knows for sure how the Indus Valley Civilization concluded. All excavations, however, prove that the decline occurred suddenly between 1800 BC and 1700 BC.
Influential and militaristic ruler controlled Mycenean communities in towns such as Tiryns and Athens. These kings dominated Greece from about 1600 to 1200 BCE.
(c.1600-1050 BCE) The Shang Dynasty marked the middle of China’s Bronze Age and was a dynasty that made great contributions to Chinese civilization. The Shang is the second dynasty of the Three Dynasties Period.
The Iron Age is the last of the three-age system. It is a time where people started using iron for cutting tools and weapons. The earliest evidence found by archaeologists dates back to around 1300 BC to 1200 BC.
After the war, around 1200 BCE, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed. It was burned.
Dorians took over the scorched countryside and made it their own.
The Mycenaean Kings fought a 10 year war against Troy, an independent trading city located in Anatolia.
(1046–256 BC) The Battle of Muye led to the end of the Shang Dynasty, and the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty was the longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history. Over a period of time, the Zhou system became unstable, having to deal with chronic warfare between the various substrates and outsiders. The last of the Zhou states were eventually conquered by the Qin in 221 C.E.
Three groups [Latins, Greeks, Etruscans] battled for control over the land.
In the eighth century BC, before the Nok were spreading their culture, the kingdom of Kush in East Africa had become powerful enough to conquer Egypt, but did not succeed. The Aksum (300 CE-700) conquered the Kush about 1000 years after they were driven south by the Assyrians of Egypt.
According to legend, Rome was found by Romulus and Remus at this time.
A blind man, named Homer, wrote the epic poems such as "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey."
Greek settlers established 50 colonies on the coasts of Sicily and Italy.
By this time, the polis, or city-state, was the fundamental political unit in Ancient Greece.
Sparta conquers Messenia; they become known as helots.
Greek lawmaker Draco writes the first legal code.
Spartans have the best/strongest army in Greece.
Sparta demanded half of the helot's yearly crop. At this time, the Messenians revolted.
An Etruscan became King of Rome.
Cyrus (Persia's King) conquered several kingdoms in Iran. Eventually, his empire spanned over two thousand miles.
Cyrus proved to be a military genius. He claimed the entire Fertile Crescent and most of Anatolia.
When Persia came to conquer Babylon, they peacefully surrendered themselves and wished no violence.
Cyrus allowed the Jews, who had been deported from their homeland by the Babylonians, to return back to Jerusalem.
His son, Cambyses, succeeded Cyrus's throne.
The last King was "Tarquin the Proud" -- driven out of power by his people.
West Africa's earliest known culture was that of the Nok people. They lived in what is now called Nigeria.
Buddhism formed over 2,500 years ago in India. It’s a dominant religion in the East that involves much meditation. The Buddha, or “Enlightened One”, isn’t known as a god, although he is someone people worship religiously. Instead, he is referred to as a teacher. Buddhists practice the teachings of the Buddha in temples.
Ten officials began to write down the laws of Rome.
The Gauls destroyed Rome, however, it rebuilt itself quickly and defeated its neighbors.
Romans were masters of Italy, with the exception of Po Valley.
Rome and Carthage went to war. (Punic Wars)
The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.
Rome destroys Carthage.
Christianity formed over 2000 years ago in Judea (present day Israel) with Jesus Christ and his many disciples. The Holy Bible is what Christians refer to in churches to worship their god.
Fall of Roman Empire. Dark ages begin.
Islam formed in 622 CE in the Arabian Peninsula. It is a monotheistic religion, meaning that there is a single god to worship.
Warfare had broken out amongst various Mayan city-states, possibly contributing to the fall of the Mayan civilization.
Charles Martel stops Muslim's advance in Western Europe.
Charlemagne crushed all Germanic resistance and extended his realm to the Elbe, influencing events almost to the Russian Steppes.
Prior to the death of Charlemagne, the Empire was divided among various members of the Carolingian dynasty.
The Treaty of Verdun ended Charlemagne's empire.
The Treaty divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms after Charlemagne died.
Point of time in which Europeans would invent the three-field system, heavy plow, and use horses as plowing tools, also. The horseshoe was invented at this time (900) to stop horse hooves from cracking in the fields.
All of these things led to a boost in agriculture and maintenance.
The Battle of Hastings occurred on 14 October 1066 during the Norman conquest of England, between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army under King Harold II.
The Crusades were a series of wars taking place in Asia Minor and the Levant between 1095 and 1291, in which Western European nations engaged using the propaganda of religious expeditionary wars.
The first crusade was called by Pope Urban II of the Roman Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem.
The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year to the forces of Zengi. It was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other European nobles.
Also known as the Kings' Crusade, the Third Crusade was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. It was largely successful, but fell short of its ultimate goal—the reconquest of Jerusalem.
Born Temujin, Genghis Khan was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise. He ruled until death.
Genghis Khan died in August, 1227. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.
An explosion of creativity called the Renaissance blossomed. It means rebirth--a rebirth of art and learning, in this case.
The Aztec empire was a tribute empire based in Tenochtitlan, which extended its power throughout Mesoamerica in the late postclassic period. It originated in 1427 as a triple alliance between the city-states Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan.
Cosimo de'Medici, won of the wealthiest of his time, won control of Florence's government. He was a dictator for thirty years.
The Inca Empire, or Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
The Guten Berg Bible is written.
Girolamo Savonarola, an Italian Friar, came to Florence and preached fiery sermons calling for a reform.
French King claimed the throne of Naples in Southern Italy, causing many Italian artists and writers to leave for a safer life in Northern Europe, bringing their styles, techniques, and creative ideas with them.
People responded to Girolamo by burning their wordly possessions in a giant bonfire.
Florentines turned against Savonarola and executed him for heresy.
The Inca Empire stretched 2,500 miles along the western coast of South America, from Ecuador in the north to Chile and Argentina in the south. It was called Tihuantinsuya, or "Land of Four Quarters." It also had 80 provinces and as many as 16 million people.
Tenochtitlan, an extraordinary urban center, had about 200,000 people at this time.
Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the castle church in Whittenberg on Oct. 31, 1517, inviting other scholars to debate him. Many people saw Luther's protests as an excuse to throw off the Church control, so they followed his preachings.
"The Courtier" was a book written by Castiglione-- who taught young people, men in particular, how to be "Renaissaince Men" or "Universal Men."
Shakespeare is born.