The crisis in Berlin persuaded Western European nations to forge a collective security pact with the United States. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was a peacetime military alliance that the United States entered with eleven nations in Europe. Those eleven nations included Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal. They agreed that “an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.” In response to this, the Soviet Union established the German Democratic Republic, COMECON, and the Warsaw Pact. In these parallel steps, the two superpowers had institutionalized the Cold War through a massive division of the continent.