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NATIONALISM: Communism, Fascism, and Nazism

1840 - 1929

Communism, Fascism, and Nazism were three types of government systems that intended to make life better for the people. Fascism and Nazism planned to make life better for the people through expanding the power of the government. Then, the government could supposedly provide for the people of the nation. Communism thought that people could have better lives if there was not a class system. As a result, the government would eventually fall away and everyone would live in utopia. Though these political ideas sound hopeful, selfish leaders in these systems followed their own agendas and caused great damage to their nations and other nations all around the world.

Treaty of Versailles

06/28/1919

Treaty of Versailles was signed today. It was a treaty that was supposed to ensure a lasting peace by punishing Germany and setting up a League of Nations to solve diplomatic problems. Instead it created many geographical and economical problems that have been blamed for starting world war 2.

Benito Mussolini

1922 - 1944

Benito Mussolini was an Italian dictator and the first of the fascist rulers of twentieth century Europe. His initial successes, although much debated and overstated, were destroyed by his disastrous alliance with Hitler and entry into World War 2

Joseph Stalin

1924 - 1952

Dictator of the Soviet Union in the mid twentieth century who rose to power through a mix of political manoeuvering and bureaucratic expertise before pushing Russia through forced industrialisation and purges which killed millions. He also led Russia victoriously in WW2 and was a key figure in the origins of the Cold War

Japan invades Manchuria

September, 1931 - 1933

In the 1930s, the Japanese controlled the Manchurian railway. In September 1931, they claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the railway, and attacked the Chinese army. By February 1932, the Japanese had conquered the whole of Manchuria. Thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians were killed.

Thousand year reich

1933 - 1945

The German word 'reich' means 'empire.' In 1930's Germany the Nazi party identified their rule as a third Reich and Hitler had planned for it to last a thousand years

Adolf Hitler

1933 - 1945

Adolf Hitler was leader of Germany during the Third Reich and the primary instigator of both the Second World War in Europe and the mass execution of millions of people deemed to be "enemies" or inferior to the Aryan ideal

President Roosevelt and neutrality

08/31/1935

President Roosevelt signed the Neutrality Act. The purpose of the act was to try and keep America out of the escalating hostilities in Europe that would eventually lead to World War II

Italy invades Ethiopia

October 1935

Although the Italian military was successful in occupying Ethiopia, the Abyssinians did not capitulate or surrender to the Italian forces

Spanish civil war

1936 - 1939

Germany invade rhineland region

03/07/1936

German troops moved into the Rhineland on the 7th of March, 1936

Rome-Berlin axis alliance

11/01/1936

Germany and Italy had come to an informal agreement that in case of war, Italy would stand by Germany. The two states had resisted joining together in the past, because of a certain degree of mistrust between the two leaders, Hitler and Mussolini. Mussolini feared German territorial conquest would infringe upon them, but after 1936 this divide was bridged. After invading Ethiopia and severing its last ties to the democratic states, Italy was ready for an alliance with Germany

Francisco Franco

1939 - 1975

Francisco Franco, leader of Spain, declared Spain to be neutral and did not formally take part in World War 2

War in Europe

Neville Chamberlain

05/1937 - 05/1940

Chamberlain was British prime minister between 1937 and 1940, and is closely associated with the policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany. He was noted for an isolationist foreign policy in the build-up to World War II. He played a key role in negotiating the Munich Agreement of 1938, which sought to appease Nazi Germany by ceding control of the Sudetenland region in Czechoslovakia to Adolf Hitler's regime.

Unification of Germany and Austria

03/12/1938

German troops march into Austria to annex the German-speaking nation for the Third Reich, In early 1938, Austrian Nazis conspired for the second time in four years to seize the Austrian government by force and unite their nation with Nazi Germany

Germany granted the Sudetenlands

09/30/1938

Germany was granted the land in the Munich agreement, as long as it was ONLY that land. This was using the policy of appeasement

Munich agreement

9/30/1938

it was a deal between Germany, France, Britain and Italy that if Hitler was allowed to take over Czechoslovakia and promise not to invade any other countries, then Britain and France,who had a mutual Alliance with Czechoslovakia, would not stop Germany from doing so, But that was not enough for Hitler

Appeasement

1939

Appeasement was when the nations of Europe granted Germany what they wanted to avoid conflict. Of course this appeasement had a limit.

Germany invades Czechoslovakia

03/15/1939

Britain had appeased Hitler and had believed his promise that he wouldn't invade any other European countries. When Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia this proved that he had lied and that the only way to stop Hitler and Germany from taking over the world was by war.

Nazi-Soviet 'secret' pact

08/23/1939

a secret protocol in the German-Soviet Pact enabled Germany to attack Poland on September 1, 1939, without fear of Soviet intervention.

Nazi-Soviet non aggression pact

8/23/1939

nonaggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union that was concluded only a few days before the beginning of World War II and which divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence

Blitzkrieg in Poland

09/01/1939

Germany had invaded Poland using their technique "lightning war," taking down the entire enemy defenses in a short time. This was considered to be the first engagement of WW2

Fall of France

05/10/1940 - 06/22/1940

After Germany took Poland France and Great Britain declared war on them, so Germany invaded France, even though France put up a fight Germany had the element of surprise and a new type of Warfare called blitzkrieg, and France lasted 6 weeks, which was great for everyone since France wasn't trashed like the other countries who fought on. They surrendered and Germany was avenged from the Treaty of Versailles and the surrender was signed in the same train car Germany surrendered to the allies in during 1919.

Winston Churchill

5/10/1940 - 7/27/1945

He led Britain's fight against Nazi Germany in World War II. Churchill was a talented orator, giving many stirring speeches to boost national morale during the war. A close friend of American presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, Churchill hoped to join the Americans in building a postwar order that limited Soviet leader Josef Stalin's ability to dominate European affairs.

Battle of Britian

7/1/1940 - 10/31/1940

Nazis attacked Britain. Royal Air Force held them off. Nazis repeatedly attacked at nights, but the British smuggled an enigma machine to decipher messages and battle plans sent by the Nazis. In the end, the RAF prevented the Luftwaffe blitz from causing any serious damage and that's the farthest the Nazis ever got on the western front in WWII.

The Holocaust

Germans blame Jews

1915

Hitler believed in conspiracy theories that regarded the Jews as Communists and claimed that they had deliberately made Germany lose World War 1 by causing strikes, subversion and revolution on the home front. He also said that they had deliberately caused the Great Depression.

Nazi SS

1929 - 1945

The SS or Schutzstaffel was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. The SS grew from a small personal body guard unit to a powerful force that served as the Führer's "Praetorian Guard." Built upon the Nazi ideology, the SS, under Heinrich Himmler's command, was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity perpetrated by the Nazis during World War II.

SS chief Heinrich Himmler

1/6/1929 - 4/29/1945

Commander of the NAZI SS. As head of the SS, he had ultimate responsibility of internal security in Nazi Germany

Jews immigrate to Palestine

1931 - 1948

With the rise of Nazism and increasing anti-Semitism in Europe in the 1930's the Jewish emigration to Palestine increased to 10's of thousands every year. The rate of emigration slowed down during the WWII, but picked up at a much higher rate immediately after the war becoming close to 75,000 per year until 1948.

Hitlers Aryan policy

1933 - 1940

The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race

Concentration camps

1933 - 1945

Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany established about 20,000 camps to imprison its many millions of victims. These camps were used for a range of purposes including forced-labor camps, transit camps which served as temporary way stations, and extermination camps built primarily or exclusively for mass murder

Nuremberg laws

9/15/1935

The Nuremberg laws were antisemitic laws and policies that were implemented by the Germans. These laws prohibited Jews from basic rights.

US isolationalism

1937 - 1945

Isolationism of the US in WW2 kept America busy with its domestic issues instead of going into war in Europe

Kristallnacht

11/9/1938 - 11/10/1938

A massive, coordinated attack on Jews throughout the German Reich on the night of November 9, 1938, into the next day, has come to be known as Kristallnacht or The Night of Broken Glass.

The final stage

1939 - 1945

The third and final stage of WW2 history can be viewed as the end-stage, with the landing of the Allies in Italy and France and the fall of the German Reich. This stage began in 1943, when the Allies started with air raids on German cities during the day. The first German city to fall to advancing Allies was Aachen.

Albert Einstein and WW2

1939

He wrote a letter to President Roosevelt telling him that he and other scientists were trying to purify U-235 for Nazi Germany. It could be then used to create an atomic bomb. Then the US Government put the Manhattan Project in action, to research and produce an atomic bomb

US immigration and the St. Louis

5/13/1939

The German transatlantic liner St. Louis sailed from Hamburg, Germany, for Havana, Cuba. On the voyage were 937 passengers. Almost all were Jews fleeing from the Third Reich.

The final solution

1941 - 1945

What the Germans called the final solution was a process in which Jews were imprisoned, sent to concentration camps, and murdered.

Auschwitz mass extermination

1941 - 1944

Auschwitz is regarded as the most notorious Nazi extermination center. During World War II, hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed there, especially in gas chambers

America moves towards war

Japan expands into the pacific

1939

All of china, and they also got some colonies of the europian countries, Dutch Indonesia, and other colonies of France, England and America(the islands, they did not have main land which belonged to them).

US intercepts Japanese codes

1940

Cryptanalysts exploited Japanese codes. By late 1940, the U.S. Army and Navy could read Japanese diplomatic messages between Tokyo and embassies in London, Washington, Berlin and Rome

The unneutral act

9/1/1940

The U.S. trades 50 Destroyer ships for leases on Military bases and the Axis Powers declared that as an unneutral act. -The Axis powers were officially formed

US increases aid to Britian

1941 - 1945

US supplies aid and materials to the United Kingdom

German wolfpack attacks on US shipping

6/5/1941

The term wolfpack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by German U-boats of submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II

Hitler attacks the Soviet Union

6/22/1941

The destruction of the Soviet Union by military force, the permanent elimination of the perceived Communist threat to Germany, and the seizure of prime land within Soviet borders for long-term German settlement had been a core policy of the Nazi movement since the 1920s.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

12/7/1941

Planes and small submarines attacked Pearl Harbor at 7:51 a.m. on Sunday, December 7, 1941. They chose this time because most people were at church. At 08:30, a second wave of 170 Japanese aircraft, mostly torpedo bombers, attacked the fleet anchored in Pearl Harbor. The battleship Arizona was hit with an armor-piercing bomb which penetrated the forward ammunition compartment, blowing the ship apart and sinking it within seconds.
Overall, nine ships of the U.S. fleet were sunk and 21 ships were severely damaged. Three of the 21 would be irreparable. The overall death toll reached 2,350, including 68 civilians, and 1,178 injured. Of the military personnel lost at Pearl Harbor, 1,177 were from the Arizona.
Japan attacked because they thought they could take over the pacific islands, and if they attacked Pearl Harbor we would give up Hawaii.
Before the attack we stayed out of the problems with Germany and Japan but after the attack, we decided to declare war.

US declares war

12/8/1941

December 8th, 1941, the US declared war on Japan. Three days later Japan's allies, Germany and Italy, declared war on the United States. The United States was now a major part of World War II.

US increases defense spending

1944

In peace time, the US government used to spend very little, about one percent of GDP. But that changed after World War II when the United States found itself in a global contest against Communism. Ever since, defense spending has never been less than 3.6 percent of GDP. In wartime, of course, the United States spends as much as it can command. In World War II defense spending exceeded 42 percent of GDP in 1944.