Imperialized Continents Timeline

Africa

Background of Africa: 1. Major Deserts: Sahara and Kalahari
2. Importance of the tsetse fly: prevented Africans from using cattle, donkeys, and horses to farm near the rain forests & prevented invading from colonizing the territories where they lived
3. Animism: a religion where it is believed that spirits are found in everywhere, such as in plants and animals, throughout daily life
4. Importance of griots: Passed down history to younger generations, which kept the history from being forgotten

Africa: 1. Religion that a lot of African leaders adopted in the 11th century: Islam
2. Two most important trade items for the Soninke people in Ghana: gold and salt
3. How did Islam spread south of the Sahara in the 11th century?: through trade. Muslim merchants settled there.

Nok Culture

500 BC - 200 AD
  1. Where: Present-day Nigeria, West Africa
  2. Known for their use of: iron

Bantu Migrations

100 AD - 1500 AD
  1. Region of Africa covered by the migrations: the southern region
  2. Farming technique that caused migration: slash and burn, where forests are cut down to be burned into ashes for soil
  3. Technology they brought with them when they migrated: iron smelting

Kingdom of Aksum

100 AD - 940 AD
  1. Where: south of Kush on a plateau on the Red Sea. Modern-day country: Eritrea and Ethiopia
  2. Made living off of: trade
  3. Only Ancient African Kingdom to develop a: written language
  4. Decline of Aksum: Muslims invaded and seized the coast, which prevented trade from the major pports, therefore losing its trading power

Hausa City States

1000 AD - 1400 AD
  1. Where: West Africa, east of Mali and Songhai, present-day Nigeria
  2. Political Organization: Rulers had immense power, but ministers and other officials checked to make sure they were not abusing the power
  3. Item traded in Zazzau: slaves

Great Zimbabwe

1000 AD - 1450 AD
  1. Where: southeastern Africa, near a trade route that linked the goldfields with the city of Sofala for trade

  2. What happened to it?: It was abandoned, probably because it was unable to support a large population

Yoruba Kingdoms

1100 AD - 1600 AD
  1. Where: southern edge of present-day Benin and southwestern edge of present-day Nigeria

  2. Yoruba kings: considered divine, most important religious and political leaders, power was kept limited by a secret society that reviewed his decisions

  3. Two largest kings: Ife and Oyo

Mali Empire

1235 AD - 1400 AD
  1. Where: Ghana and the cities of Kumbi & Walata
  2. Mansa Musa (1312-1332): Controlled the gold-salt trade, kept rebellions down, kept Mali safe from attack, expanded the empire to twice the size of Ghana, appointed good governors to rule the provinces, built mosques that attracted scholarly Muslims

Mutapa Empire

1430 AD - 1760 AD
  1. Where: all of present-day Zimbabwe except for the eastern part to the area along the Zambezi River to the Indian Ocean coast
  2. Who took it over?: Portugal

Benin (Modern-day Nigeria)

1440 AD - 1897 AD
  1. What is an Oba?: ruler who said he has the right to rule because of relation to the first king of life
  2. Significance of Portuguese trade in Benin's port at Gwatto: it was the beginning of centuries of European interference in Africa, where they enslaved Africans and took over African territories as colonies

Songhai

1468 AD - 1592 AD
  1. Who were they?: people east of the Mali Empire who were formerly under their control
  2. Notable leaders and why they are important: Sunni Ali (made Songhai an empire by conquering Timbuktu and Djenne) and Askia Muhammad (replaced Sunni Ali, who did not practice Islam faithfully, set up a god tax system, chose good officials)

Asia - China

Han China

202 BC - 220 AD
  1. Characteristics: centralized government, lower taxes, less harsh punishments, defined class structure, peace and stability
  2. Civil Service System: created by Wudi, governent jobs obtained by passing an exam
  3. Fall of the Han: Wang Mang (Confucian scholar) overthrew the Han because weak emperors continued to rule

Over 30 Local Dynasties

200 AD - 589 AD

Sui Dynasty

581 AD - 618 AD

Greatest Accomplishment: completion of the Grand Canal (connected the Huang He and Chang Jiang)

Tang Dynasty

618 AD - 907 AD
  1. Developed a remarkably intelligent ruling class: revised the civil service system, and positions weighed more heavily on talent and education rather than on noble birth
  2. Fall of the Tan Dynasty: put huge taxes on the people, and Tang couldn't keep control of the empire. Muslim armies beat the Chinese at the Battle of Talas. Eventually, rebels burned the capital and killed the last Tang empire.

Song Dynasty

960 AD - 1279 AD
  1. Ruled: Southern China
  2. Most important inventions of the Tan & Song: movable type and gunpowder
  3. Levels of Society: gentry (upper class)--urban middle class--laborers, soldiers, servants--peasants

Mongol China

1206 AD - 1370 AD
  1. Pax Mongolica (1200s-1300s): a period of stability and law and order. Guaranteed safe passage for caravans, travelers, and missionaries.
  2. Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), (A) Why the Yuan Era is important in Chinese history): 1-Kublai Khan united China for the first time in more than 300 years. 2-Control across Asia brought more trade to China. 3-Kublai tolerated the Chinese and barely changed the government. (B) Marco Polo): Venetian trader who went on government missions for Kublai for 17 years. Wrote of his travels while in prison.

Ming Dynasty

1364 AD - 1644 AD
  1. Ming's attitude toward outsiders: did not want outsiders to ruin the good that the Ming had brought.
  2. Importance of Zheng He: everything was BIG on his voyages. Showed Chinese superiority. 16 countries gave tribute to the Ming court.
  3. Trade: only the government could conduct foreign trade. Only 3 ports allowed- Canton, Macao, & Ningbo.

Qing Dynasty

1644 AD - 1912 AD
  1. Significance of the Manchus: took over the Ming dynasty. Expanded China's borders.
  2. Relationship with the outside world: stayed isolated.
  3. Opium Tea Connection: Europeans sold the Chinese opium because they would buy it in large quantities.
  4. Opium Wars (1839): British vs. Chinese. Britain won. Outcome was the Treaty of Nanjing, which gave Hong Kong to Britain.
  5. Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864): Hong Xiuquan's idea to have everyone share the wealth. They took over Nanjing, but collapsed due to internal conflicts.
  6. Dowager Empress Cixi (1862-1908): traditional values, but reforms for education, diplomacy, and military.
  7. Spheres of Influence: when European powers and Japan controlled Chinese trade and investment.
  8. Open Door Policy: to prevent the U.S. from losing trade with China. China must trade with all nations.

Asia - Japan

Japanese naturalistic religion: Shinto, where people worshiped their own local gods and goddesses. They believed in "kami," divine spirits that lived in beautiful parts of nature.

Religion brought into Japan by Korean travelers: Buddhism. It was officially accepted in Japan in the mid-700s and had spread throughout society by the eight or ninth century.

Heian Period

794 AD - 1185 AD
  1. Capital: Heian (Kyoto).
  2. Competed with the Fujiwara family.
  3. Samurai & Bushido: Samurai- bodyguards for warriors. Bushido- code of behavior for Samurai (courage, generosity, etc.).

Japanese Feudalism

1000 AD - 1300 AD

Farmers and small landowners gave parts of their land to warlords in exchange for protection. Samurai were warriors that guarded lords, and they had to follow the Bushido, a code stating the expectations of Samurai, such as courage and generosity.Shoguns were the center of military power. After the shoguns' treasury flopped, the samurai were mad because they didn't get payed, and they became closer to their lords, and internal fighting among Samurai began.

Kamakura Shogun

1192 AD - 1333 AD
  1. Shogun: "Supreme general of the emperor's army"; has the power of a military dictator.
  2. Economic effect of defeating the invading Mongols: drained the shoguns' treasury.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 AD - 1868 AD
  1. Daimyo: "great name"; powerful warlords
  2. Structure of society: Feudalism
  3. European county that had contact early on: Portugal
  4. Policy toward outsiders: No foreign ideas allowed
  5. Matthew Perry: U.S. Commodore who surrounded the Tokyo Harbor to intimidate the Tokugawa shogun into rading a Letter from U.S. president Millard Fillmore, which asked the shogun to allow free trade between the U.S. and Japan.

Meiji Period

1868 AD - 1912 AD
  1. Emperor Mutsuhito thought the best way to resist westernization was to...: modernize.
  2. What European courtiers did they like?: Germany (for its strong centralized government & army), Britain (for its navy), America (for its education system)
  3. Tried to expand to: Korea