Africa and Asia

Africa

Major deserts: Sahara and Kalahari
Tsetse fly: prevented Africans from using cattle, donkeys, and horses to farm. Also prevented invaders (Europeans) from colonizing fly-infested territories
Animism: a religion in which spirits play an important role in regularity daily life
Importence of griots: storytellers: kept history alive
Religion that African leaders adopted in 11th century: Muslim
Most important things to people in Ghana: gold and salt
How did Islam spread south of the Sahara: trade

Nok Culture

500 BC - 200 AD

Where: Southern Africa
Known for what resource: iron

Bantu Migrations

100 AD - 200 AD

What region of Africa is covered by the migrations: Southern Africa
Farming technique necessary for migration: slash and burn
Technology brought when they migrated: iron smelting

Kingdom of Aksum

100 AD - 1500 AD

Where: South of Kush
Modern day Eritria and Ethiopia
Made a living off: trading
Only Ancient African kingdom to develop a: written language

Great Zimbabewe

1000 AD - 1450 AD

Where: Southeastern Africa
What happened to it: became the economic, political, and religious center of its empire

Hausa City States

1000 AD - 1400 AD

Where: savanna area east of Mali and Songhai (now Nigeria)
Political organization: city-states- ruler at ever state with walls around it
What item was traded in Zannau: slaves

Yoruba Kingdoms

1100 AD - 1600 AD

Where: forests of southern edge of the savanna
Yoruba Kings: served as the most important religious and political leaders in their kingdoms
2 largest kings: Ife and Oyo

Mali Empire

1235 AD - 1400 AD

Where: South of Ghana
Mansa Musa- what good did he do?: expanded the empire to roughly twice the size of the empire of Ghana

Mutapa Empire

1430 AD - 1760 AD

Where: Zimbabwe
Who took it over: Portuguese

Benin

1440 AD - 1897 AD

What is an Oba: "ruler"
significance of Portugese trade in Benin's port at Gwatto: began several centuries of European interference in Africa- enslaved Africans and seize territories for colonies

Songhai

1468 AD - 1592 AD

Where: east of Mali
Notable leaders: Sunni Ali- built vast empire by conquest
Askia Muhammad- excellent administrator- empire thrived

China

Han China

202 bc - 220 ad

Characteristics of Han China: Structured society, centralized government, and advanced technology/education for the time

Civil Service System: Civilians could obtain a civil service job by taking examinations

Fall of the Han: The rich were getting richer at the expense of the poor, causing economic problems, 11 ad flood left millions dead/homeless, led to revolt

30 Local Dynasties

200 ad - 589 ad

Sui Dynasty

581 ad - 618 ad

Greatest accomplishment: 1,000 mile waterway

Tang Dynasty

618 ad - 907 ad

How did they develop a remarkably intelligent ruling class? They revived the civil service system examination to recruit educated, intelligent people

Fall of the Tang Dynasty: Internal rebellions and foreign attacks

Song Dynasty

960 ad - 1279 ad

Where did they rule? Southern China

2 most important inventions of the Tang & Song: Tang had poetry, Song had paintings

Levels of Society: gentry > urban middle class > laborers/soldiers/servants > peasants

Mongol China

1206 ad - 1370 ad

Pax Mongolica: Period of Mongol peace

Yuan Dynasty: a) three reasons why the Yuan era is important in Chinese history: 1. United China for the first time in 300 years 2. greater foreign contacts and trade 3. Chinese culture was tolerated and the system of government changed

Marco Polo: Venetian trader - explored much of China

Ming Dynasty

1364 ad - 1644 ad

Ming attitude toward outsiders: Didn't want outsiders ruining peace and prosperity

Importance of Zheng He: Chinese Muslim explorer, led the 7 voyages

Trade: Had only 3 government run coastal ports were used (isolated)

Qing Dynasty

1644 ad - 1912 ad

Significance of the Manchus: people of Manchuria invaded China in 1644 and collapsed the Ming dynasty

Relationship with the outside world: traded only at special ports and other regions payed tribute in order to trade

What was the Opium Tea connection? The British smuggled opium into China in order to get the Chinese addicted, so they would import opium from the British

Opium Wars (1839) Who fought? Outcome? British vs. Chinese; Chinese were defeated, they signed a peace treaty

Taping Rebellion (1850-1864): Hong Xiuquan's movement of the "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace"

Dowager Empress Cixi (1862-1864) - How did she govern? Committed to traditional values, but also wanted reforms

Spheres of Influence? area in which a foreign nation controls trade and investment

Open Door Policy? Proposed that China's doors be opened to merchants of all nations

Europe

Greece

500 BC - 323 BC

Roman Empire

27 BC - 476 AD

Middle Ages

500 AD - 1450 AD

Rise of Islam and Islamic Culture

630 AD - 1100 AD

Renaissance

1400 AD - 1600 AD

Age of Exploration

1450 AD - 1600 AD

Reformation

1517 AD - 1600 AD

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

1550 AD - 1800 AD

Absolutism

1600 AD - 1750 AD

Industrialism

1700 AD - 1850 AD

French Revolution

1789 AD - 1815 AD

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 AD - 1850 AD

Nationalism

1848 AD - 1900 AD

Japan

Japanese Feudalism: landowners began creating independent armies, land was being offered for protection

Japanese Naturalistic Religion: Shinto

Religion Brought into Japan by Korean travellers: Buddhism

Heian Period

794 ad - 1185 ad

Capital? Moved from Nara to Heian

Had to compete with which family? Fujiwara family

Samurai & Bushido: Samurai were bodyguards to Lords, and they lived by a code of behavior called Bushido

Kamakura Shogun

1192 ad - 1333 ad

What is a shogun? Supreme general of the Emperor's army

Economic effect of defeating the invading Mongols: Samurais weren't being paid by the government, so they became loyal to their Lords (feudalism)

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 ad - 1868 ad

Daimyo: Warrior chieftains (feudal lords)

Structure of Society: Emperor (figurehead) > Shogun (military leader) > Daimyo > Samurai > Peasants/artisans

What European country had contact early on? Portugal

Policy Toward Outsiders: Closed Country Policy

Matthew Perry: US Commodore - invaded present day Tokyo harbor with 4 US ships

Meji Period

1868 ad - 1912 ad

Emperor Mutsuhito thought the best way to resist Westernization was to...Modernize

What European countries did they like? Germany & Britain

Where do they try to expand? Education/industrialization