What religion did a lot of African leaders adopt in the 11th century? (p. 410-411)- Islam.
Soninke people in Ghana (p. 413-415) - 2 most important trade items for these people- Gold & Salt
South of Sahara - 11th century - How did Islam spread south of the Sahara? (p. 415)- Through major trade routes, cultural spread through the trade routes.
Major Deserts- The Saharan Desert in the North, and the Kalahari Desert in the South
Importance of the tsetse fly (2 really big things)- This prevented Africans from using cattle, donkeys, and horse & prevented invaders from invading.
Animism – a religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life.
Importance of griots- griots told history and kept the history of their specific people alive.
500 BC - 200 AD
Where- Located in what is now Nigeria.
Known for their use of what resource? One of the earliest groups that smelted Iron for tools and weapons.
100 - 1500
What region of Africa is covered by the migrations (hint: look at the map, p. 222)- The Bantu homelands and Lake Victoria.
What farming technique caused necessary migration?- Slash-and-burn.
What technology did they bring with them when they migrated?- They brought the use of ironworking to forge tools and weapons from copper, bronze, and iron
Kindom of Aksum
100 - 940
Where is this kingdom? What modern day country? It was south of Kush on a plateau near the Red sea, near what is now today the countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia.
Aksum made its living off of what?- Trade.
This was the only Ancient African kingdom to develop a ___ ___.- Written language.
Decline of Aksum- Islamic invaders forced the capitol into isolation, causing the eventual decline of the Aksum.
1000 - 1450
Where was it?- South East Africa, near what is today Zimbabwe.
What happened to it?- It was abandoned, but no one knows why.
1000 - 1400
Where are these people?- Northern Nigeria.
Political organization?- The rulers of the land had great amounts of power, but ministers and chosen officials held checks against this power.
What item was traded in Zazzau?- Slaves, horses, and guns.
1100 - 1600
Where?-Located near what is now Benin and & South West Nigeria.
Yoruba kings? The Yoruba kings are the highest religious and political figures in their society.
2 largest king- Ife & Oyo
1235 - 1400
Where was it?- South of what is today Ghana.
Mansa Musa (1312 – 1332) – what good did he do?- He donated a large amount of gold to people less fortunate them him.
1430 - 1760
Where was it?- What is now today Zimbabwe.
Who took it over?- The Portuguese.
1440 - 1897
What is an Oba? A Yourban king.
Significance of Portuguese trade in Benin’s port at Gwatto: This marked the beginning of several centuries of European interference in Africa.
1468 - 1592
Where were these people?- East of the Mali empire. Their territory reached the bend in the Niger River.
Notable leaders and why they are important.
Sunni Ali: built a large empire through military conquest
Askia Muhammed: created an efficient tax system, and appointed ministers to overview specific jobs.
202 BC - 220 AD
Ruled over 400 years, centralized GOV't, provinces.
Civil Service System- Gov't jobs that are achieved by passing a test
Fall of Han- collapsed into 3 different kingdoms because of social, political, and economical unrest
30 local Dynasties
200 AD - 589 AD
not one major, single overlord of China
581 - 618
Greatest accomplishment- completed grand canal.
618 - 907
1.Hiring- Hired scholar officials through civil service
2.Fall of Tang- risong Tax caused rebellions. Muslim armies capitalize and destroy them. Finally rebels kill the last emperor.
960 - 1279
Location- Southern China
Most important inventions- movable type and gunpowder
Levels of society- gentry(scholar officials)
Urban Middle Class(Merchants, shopkeepers
Urban Lower class( Laboreres)
1206 - 1370
Pax Mongolica (1200s – 1300s) Mongol peace from mid 1200-mid 1300. Allowed trade during the period.
Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
a. 3 reasons why the Yuan era is important in Chinese history (p 335)- Kublai Khan unites China, great trade, tolerated old Chinese culture.
b. Marco Polo- an explorer for Kublai Khan that may not have even visited China.
1364 - 1644
Ming attitude toward outsiders- made vassals pay tribute, isolation, only legal government grade.
Importance of Zheng He- led 7 voyages until isolation
Trade- only government could trade through ports
1644 - 1912
Significance of the Manchus.- people north of china who invade & start Qing dynasty.
Relationship with the outside world.- Continued isolation, and only traded at specific ports with taxes.
What was the Opium Tea connection (p. 805)- British traded the addictive drug to the Chinese.
Opium Wars (1839) – Who fought? Outcome? (p. 806)- Britain and China. Britain won and signed a treaty in 1842.
Taping Rebellion (1850-1864)- What happened? (p. 807)- Hoh Xiuquah starts great peace kingdom with no poverty and people would share stuff.
Dowager Empress Cixi (1862-1908)- How did she govern? (p. 807-809)- Liked old ways but improved with reforms to education and military.
Spheres of Influence?- were a foreign countries owned trade and investments in China
Open Door Policy?- China had to open trade to all.
Japanese Feudalism (p. 339-343)- powerful landowners start wars
Japanese naturalistic religion- had different gods and goddesses.
Religion brought into Japan by Korean travelers- Buddhism
700 - 701
land Owners rule the land and it is based on hierarchy
794 - 1185
Had to compete with which family? Fujiwaras
Samurai & Bushido
Samurai- Japan’s warrior class. They honor bravery and loyalty.
Busidho- the code of honor for the Samurai.
1192 AD - 1333 AD
What is a shogun- the supreme general of the emperor’s army.
Economic effect of defeating the invading Mongols- drained the shoguns treasury
1600 AD - 1868 AD
Daimyo- warrior chieftains
Structure of society- Japanese new feudalism
What European country had contact early on?- Portugal
Policy toward outsiders-Welcomed strangers.
Matthew Perry (p. 810) Man who sailed to Japan and amazed the Japanese with the technology that he had.
1868 AD - 1912 AD
Emperor Mutsuhito thought the best way to resist westernization was to….- Modernize their culture.
What European courtiers did they like? - Germany and Britain, for their strong economies and Germany’s strong centralized government.