Africa, Asia – China, Asia- Japan

Africa

  1. What religion did a lot of African leaders adopt in the 11th century? (p. 410-411)- Islam.
  2. Soninke people in Ghana (p. 413-415) - 2 most important trade items for these people- Gold & Salt
  3. South of Sahara - 11th century - How did Islam spread south of the Sahara? (p. 415)- Through major trade routes, cultural spread through the trade routes.

  4. Major Deserts- The Saharan Desert in the North, and the Kalahari Desert in the South

  5. Importance of the tsetse fly (2 really big things)- This prevented Africans from using cattle, donkeys, and horse & prevented invaders from invading.

  6. Animism – a religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life.

  7. Importance of griots- griots told history and kept the history of their specific people alive.

Nok Culture

500 BC - 200 AD
  1. Where- Located in what is now Nigeria.
  2. Known for their use of what resource? One of the earliest groups that smelted Iron for tools and weapons.

Bantu Migration

100 - 1500
  1. What region of Africa is covered by the migrations (hint: look at the map, p. 222)- The Bantu homelands and Lake Victoria.
  2. What farming technique caused necessary migration?- Slash-and-burn.
  3. What technology did they bring with them when they migrated?- They brought the use of ironworking to forge tools and weapons from copper, bronze, and iron

Kindom of Aksum

100 - 940
  1. Where is this kingdom? What modern day country? It was south of Kush on a plateau near the Red sea, near what is now today the countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia.
  2. Aksum made its living off of what?- Trade.
  3. This was the only Ancient African kingdom to develop a ___ ___.- Written language.
  4. Decline of Aksum- Islamic invaders forced the capitol into isolation, causing the eventual decline of the Aksum.

Hausa States

1000 - 1400
  1. Where are these people?- Northern Nigeria.
  2. Political organization?- The rulers of the land had great amounts of power, but ministers and chosen officials held checks against this power.
  3. What item was traded in Zazzau?- Slaves, horses, and guns.

Great Zimbabwe

1000 - 1450
  1. Where was it?- South East Africa, near what is today Zimbabwe.
  2. What happened to it?- It was abandoned, but no one knows why.

Yoruba Kingdoms

1100 - 1600
  1. Where?-Located near what is now Benin and & South West Nigeria.
  2. Yoruba kings? The Yoruba kings are the highest religious and political figures in their society.
  3. 2 largest king- Ife & Oyo

Mali Empire

1235 - 1400
  1. Where was it?- South of what is today Ghana.
  2. Mansa Musa (1312 – 1332) – what good did he do?- He donated a large amount of gold to people less fortunate them him.

Mutapa Empire

1430 - 1760
  1. Where was it?- What is now today Zimbabwe.
  2. Who took it over?- The Portuguese.

Benin

1440 - 1897
  1. What is an Oba? A Yourban king.
  2. Significance of Portuguese trade in Benin’s port at Gwatto: This marked the beginning of several centuries of European interference in Africa.

Songhai

1468 - 1592
  1. Where were these people?- East of the Mali empire. Their territory reached the bend in the Niger River.
  2. Notable leaders and why they are important. Sunni Ali: built a large empire through military conquest Askia Muhammed: created an efficient tax system, and appointed ministers to overview specific jobs.

Asia-China

Han Dynasty

202 BC - 220 AD
  1. Ruled over 400 years, centralized GOV't, provinces.
  2. Civil Service System- Gov't jobs that are achieved by passing a test
  3. Fall of Han- collapsed into 3 different kingdoms because of social, political, and economical unrest

30 local Dynasties

200 AD - 589 AD
  1. not one major, single overlord of China

Sui Dynasty

581 - 618
  1. Greatest accomplishment- completed grand canal.

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

1.Hiring- Hired scholar officials through civil service
2.Fall of Tang- risong Tax caused rebellions. Muslim armies capitalize and destroy them. Finally rebels kill the last emperor.

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

Location- Southern China
Most important inventions- movable type and gunpowder
Levels of society- gentry(scholar officials)
Urban Middle Class(Merchants, shopkeepers
Urban Lower class( Laboreres)
Peasants

Mongol China

1206 - 1370
  1. Pax Mongolica (1200s – 1300s) Mongol peace from mid 1200-mid 1300. Allowed trade during the period.
  2. Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) a. 3 reasons why the Yuan era is important in Chinese history (p 335)- Kublai Khan unites China, great trade, tolerated old Chinese culture. b. Marco Polo- an explorer for Kublai Khan that may not have even visited China.

Ming Dynasty

1364 - 1644
  1. Ming attitude toward outsiders- made vassals pay tribute, isolation, only legal government grade.
  2. Importance of Zheng He- led 7 voyages until isolation
  3. Trade- only government could trade through ports

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912
  1. Significance of the Manchus.- people north of china who invade & start Qing dynasty.
  2. Relationship with the outside world.- Continued isolation, and only traded at specific ports with taxes.
  3. What was the Opium Tea connection (p. 805)- British traded the addictive drug to the Chinese.
  4. Opium Wars (1839) – Who fought? Outcome? (p. 806)- Britain and China. Britain won and signed a treaty in 1842.
  5. Taping Rebellion (1850-1864)- What happened? (p. 807)- Hoh Xiuquah starts great peace kingdom with no poverty and people would share stuff.
  6. Dowager Empress Cixi (1862-1908)- How did she govern? (p. 807-809)- Liked old ways but improved with reforms to education and military.
  7. Spheres of Influence?- were a foreign countries owned trade and investments in China
  8. Open Door Policy?- China had to open trade to all.

Asia- Japan

  1. Japanese Feudalism (p. 339-343)- powerful landowners start wars
  2. Japanese naturalistic religion- had different gods and goddesses.
  3. Religion brought into Japan by Korean travelers- Buddhism

Japanese Feudilism

700 - 701

land Owners rule the land and it is based on hierarchy

Hein Period

794 - 1185
  1. Capital?- Hein.
  2. Had to compete with which family? Fujiwaras
  3. Samurai & Bushido Samurai- Japan’s warrior class. They honor bravery and loyalty. Busidho- the code of honor for the Samurai.

Kamakura Shogun

1192 AD - 1333 AD
  1. What is a shogun- the supreme general of the emperor’s army.
  2. Economic effect of defeating the invading Mongols- drained the shoguns treasury

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 AD - 1868 AD
  1. Daimyo- warrior chieftains
  2. Structure of society- Japanese new feudalism
  3. What European country had contact early on?- Portugal
  4. Policy toward outsiders-Welcomed strangers.
  5. Matthew Perry (p. 810) Man who sailed to Japan and amazed the Japanese with the technology that he had.

Mejo Period

1868 AD - 1912 AD
  1. Emperor Mutsuhito thought the best way to resist westernization was to….- Modernize their culture.

  2. What European courtiers did they like? - Germany and Britain, for their strong economies and Germany’s strong centralized government.

  3. Where do they try to expand? - In industry.