A Chinese Muslim admiral. He had remarkable expeditions because of their size. His travels ranged from South East Asia to eastern Africa. Everywhere he went, he distributed gifts like silver and silk to show Chinese Superiority
The Printing Press revolutionized Renaissance time resulting in more books and the increased spread of knowledge.
biological and ecological exchange that occurred following European arrival in the New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to the Americas; animals, plants, and diseases moved between Old and New Worlds.
an agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal
Safavids are defeated by the Ottomans
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. Written in response to a new campaign to sell indulgences
a religious movement that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world.
Expanded from Syria and Egypt to southwest Asia and Central Europe; built powerful enough navy to attack European fleets
The Aztec emperor was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico
One of the most successful empires of India; a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India in 1526; their rule was noted for efforts to create a partnership between Hindus and Muslims
First permanent French settlement in the Americas
Calvin’s formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism
“On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres,” written by Copernicus, published just before his death. Dedicated to the Pope so it wouldn’t offend the church. Also very scientific so priests couldn’t understand it well enough to be angry over it.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline
a naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies had surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes
Sets sail for the Canary Islands.
leader of the Jesuits who sought to revert protestants, stop the spread of Protestantism, and diffuse Catholicism throughout the world
Defeated by Brittish
Defeating all his enemies, in 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu achieved true unification of Japan with his victory at this Battle
Beginning of English colonization of the Americas
1564-1642, Italian physicist and astronome
A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals: the Hapsburg’s, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. Wars ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
Japanese study of all things Dutch. It eventually aided in helping Japan open up. It was especially concerned with medicine and science;
“L’etat c’est moi”. ( I am the State). Puts tons of money into his Versailles Palace.
A broad intellectual movement in 18th‐century Europe that advocated the use of reason in the re‐evaluation of accepted ideas.
the book describes his theory that an absolute government was the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property
Leader of the Qing Dynasty,
he reduced government expenses and lowered taxes.
He gained the support of intellectuals by offering government positions and enjoyed the company of Jesuits at court
the grandson of Kangxi. The empire reached height under him; largest empire
Empress who continued Peter’s goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russian territory.