Colonization of Egypt

Main

French Occupation

1798 - 1801

Napoleon sends in an army and defeated the Mamluk army, occupies Egypt for the next 2 years.

Defeat of French and rise of British involvment

1801

Fearing the safety of their Indian empire, Britain sends navy to defeat France. After France fleet defeated, Britain sends army into Egypt and defeats remnants of French army. Britain keeps troops in Egypt.

Muhammad Ali

1807 - 1849

Muhammad Ali rises to power and gets an army of Mamluks. Defeats British and forces them out of the area for 75 years. Brought sweeping reforms, military success, and he is regarded as the founder.

Northern Sudan

1820 - 1824

Muhammad Ali annexed Northern Sudan through military expansion

Introduction of Cotton

1820

The introduction in 1820 of long-staple cotton, the Egyptian variety of which became notable, transformed its agriculture into a cash-crop culture before the end of the century. This led to land ownership becoming concentrated and many foreigners arriving, and shifting production towards international markets.

Syria

1830

Muhammad Ali annexed Syria through Military expansion. Ali's need to expand led to the modernization of the country to keep up with the rest of the world

Suez Canal

1869

Suez Canal opened to international trade

British seize Egypt

1882 - 1954

British troops seize control of Egypt.

World War 1

1914

Outbreak of World War I; Egypt is sucked into the global conflict due to its colonial status under Britain. Egypt was used as a British base from which they could carry out attacks against Turkey, and conflict occurred over possession of the Suez Canal.
Effects of the War: Prices sharply rose for household necessities such as food and clothing. Working-class women in particular suffered during this time, because they were limited to low paying and dangerous jobs, that did not give a sufficient amount of income to balance with inflation. The British confiscated of draft animals that Egyptians peasants relied on for survival, and food supplies were used up by the British soldiers as well.

Spring Against British

1919 - 1922

A spring occurs in Egypt against the British colonizers; this spring included a large amount of violent protests and guerilla warfare against British influence. This resulted in the end of the Egyptian protectorate status in 1922 earning Egypt independence from Great Britain. However, Egyptian government and rule was still heavily influenced by the British.

Anti- British Riots

1952 - 1953

Anti-British riots occur in Egypt. In January, at least 20 people are killed in riots in Cairo.

Egypt becomes a republic

1953

Egypt is declared a republic and Muhammad Najib becomes the president.

Nasser

1954 - 1970

Nasser becomes prime minister of Egypt. He later becomes president in 1956 and will rule until 1970.

British Troops leave Egypt

1954

British troops finally leave Egypt.

Sueze Crisis

29 October 1956 - 07 November 1956

The Suez Crisis occurs where Nasser tries to nationalize the Suez Canal causing Israel, France, and Britain to lash out against Egypt. However, the United States and the Soviet Union forced the Israeli, French, and British troops to leave Egypt.

formation of the United Arab Republic

1958

Egypt and Syria join to form the United Arab Republic in an effort to create pan-Arabism. Nasser was the president of the United Arab Republic.

Land Reform

1960

Land-Reform programs eliminate the large landowner class in Egypt, and redefines property holdings among the people.

Syria

1961

Syria withdraws from the United Arab Republic as a result of a military coup.

Six-day War

June 5 1967 - June 10 1967

Egypt, Syria, and Jordan go to war with Israel (the Six-Day War). Israel conducted a hugely successful campaign that resulted in Nasser becoming very much weakened and Israel obtaining the Sinai, the Golan Heights, and the West Bank of the Jordan River from Egypt. It was devastating for the Arab nations and it showed the lack of power of pan-Arabism.

October War

October 6 1973 - October 25 1973

Egypt launches an invasion in Israel across the Suez Canal, taking them by surprise. However, the new Egyptian president Sadat halted the attack before it advanced very far into Israel. This halt allowed the Americans to resupply the Israelis enough to launch a counterattack and push the Egyptians back into the Suez Canal. This was called the October War, for the attack was launched in October.

peace between Egypt and Israel

26 March 1979

Egypt and Israel sign a peace accord, making Egypt the first Arab country to recognize Israel as a legitimate state.

President Sadat is assassinated

6 October 1981

President Sadat is assassinated by soldiers belonging to a radical Islamist group against the peace agreement with Israel, however the peace accord continued even after the assassination.

Support of US

2001

President Mubarak supports the U.S. declaration about the effort to combat terrorism, because Egypt has also suffered attacks from Islamist terrorists. However, Egypt does not support the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003.

Protests against President Hosni Mubarak

2011

Protests against President Hosni Mubarak break out. Mubarak’s security forces use tear gas against the protesters and beat them. The army states that they will not use violence on the protesters, however. Mubarak hands over power to the army in February, which provides a peaceful change into a democratic society. Egyptians approve a new constitution.