Period 5 Timeline

Publications

Communist Manifesto published

1848

The book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.

Origin of the Species Published

1859

Written by Charles Darwin,it outlined his theory of evolution. He had a huge impact on more than just the scientific community. He influenced great writers such as Hegel and Marx. Darwin inadvertently put the scientific stamp of approval on these.

Revolutions

American Revolution

1775 - 1781

The American Revolution resulted from American colonists becoming fed up with paying taxes oppressed upon them by the British. Conflict arose because the British citizens were not paying taxes, yet the Americans were footing the bill for Great Britain's large debt due to the recent 7 Years War. It began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776, they later gained there independence.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The French Revolution was an uprising of the French citizens due to the lack of proper leadership in the French government. The people wanted a complete reform: social, political and cultural. This later led to the overthrowing of the French Monarchy and the guillotining of both King Henry XVI and Marie Antoinette. This left France is a terrible economic position, only to be assisted by Napoleon.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1803

During the Haitian Revolution, enslaved Afro Haitians sparked a revolution led by the slaves. The slave revolt, led by Toussiant L'Overture was the only successful slave revolt in history. The plantation owners were so outnumbered they did not stand a chance.

Wars

Wars of Independence in Latin America

1810 - 1825

The Wars of Independence began with the Creole control. The goal of the Creoles was to get rid of the Peninsulares but still keep their position in the society. There were a series of Creole movements for Independence.

War of Greek Independence

1821 - 1827

The War of Greek Independence began in 1821 when the Greeks rebelled within the Ottoman Empire against Turkish Rule. It resulted in the Indpendent kingdom of Greece.

Opium War

1839 - 1860

The Opium War was a war between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to allow the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. Russia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed.

Boer War

1880 - 1902

Two wars, the first when the Boers fought England in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus (1880-1881) And then lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.

Russo Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. It began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent representatives to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the Nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.

People

Toussaint L'Overture

1744 - 1803

Toussaint was a freed slave leader of the mulattos and Blacks. He won control of Saint Domingue in the only successful revolution led by slaves anywhere in the world; was captured and died in prison but in 1803 Saint Domingue proclaimed its independence under the name Haiti.

Reign of King Louis XVI

1774 - 1793

King Louis XVi was an absolute monarch of France at the start of the French Revolution, known for his unfavorable policies After yielding power to the revolutionary National Assembly, he was overthrown. He was later executed, along with his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, during the Reign of Terror.

Simon Bolivar

1783 - 1830

He was a South American Revolutionary leader. Said to be the most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Political problems prevented Bolivar from achieving his dream because South America was ungovernable.

Reign of Napoleon

1799 - 1814

Napoleon ruled France with almost unchecked power. He brought political stability to France after the French Revolution. During his reign Established the Napoleonic Code.

Canals

Suez Canal

1859 - 1869

The Suez Canal was a ship canal built across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic placement led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.

Panama Canal

1904 - 1914

The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians did not allow Americans to build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new rullers allowed the United States to build the canal.

Rebellion and Reform

Meigi Restoration

1821 - 1868

The politicalorganization that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

The most destructive civil war in China before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. The leader claimed to be the brother of Jesus.

Emancipation of Russian Serfs

1861

The most important reform following the Crimean War. This measure was extremely complicated and required serfs to pay for their land. Serfs were freed and allowed to buy land, but too poor to do so.

Boxer Rebellion

1900

Known as The Boxer Uprising, this was the popular peasant uprising in China (supported nationally), that blamed foreign people and institutions for the loss of the traditional Chinese way of life. "Boxers" were traditionally skilled fighters that attacked Westerners, beginning with Christian missionaries.

Political Affairs

Berlin West Africa Conference

1810 - 1825

A conference in which 12 delegates from European states, USA, and the Ottoman Empire devised ground rules for African Colonization and rid some rules and laws. They decided that each power had to notify others of "claims" each claim filled by "effective occupation".

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.

Indian National Congress Founded

1885

A movement/ political party founded to demand greater Indian participation in government. It was made up of the middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mahatma. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.

All India Muslim League founded

1906

Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. It was led by Muhammad Ali, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. It also demanded the partition of a Muslim Pakistan.

Unifications

Unification of Italy

1860 - 1870

Problems arose due to divisions and small city states being rivals In 1860, ally of Mazzini, recruited volunteers and won control of Sicily. Afterwards, Garibaldi turned Naples and Sicily over to Victor Emmanuel. Last, Italy becomes a united nation, which it hadn't been since the fall of the Roman Empire.

Unification of Germany

1864 - 1871

It began, led by Otto von Bismarck and included the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 that removed Austria from German politics and resulted in North German Confederation and legalization of Bismarck's previous spending; it ended in war with France.

Inventions

James Watt perfects the Steam Engine

1765

James Watt was a Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.

Spinning Mule Developed

1779

Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame to create a machine which produced a thread that was stronger, thinner and more consistent

Cottin Gin Developed

1794

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers 50 times faster than doing ti by hand. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. As a result, more cotton was grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields.

Bessemer Process Developed

1856

It was an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities, helped produce steel more quickly and cheaply.

Henry Ford and the Assembly Line

1913

Henry Ford was a factory owner famous for his Model T. He developed the assembly line, which quickened production in factories, as well as the Model T. The new assembly lines made production a lot faster and easier to make a large quantity of items.