Last empire ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Tried to recuperate a traditional Chinese nation after the rule of the Mongols.
Funded by Chinese Emperor Yongle, he went out in search of new tributary states and wealth for the Chinese Government.
Japan was unified under Tokugawa Ieyasu. This began with the battle of Sekigahara.
Reinstated civil service exams. Corruption and interactions with the Europeans weakened them.
Forced out the Europeans and all missionaries.
Part of the Modernization and Westernization of Russia.
First king of the Songhai Empire. Captured major cities such as Timbuktu.
Longest lasting gunpowder empire. Also the most successful. Established by Osman Bey
Very powerful sultan. Conquered Constantinople with the use of large canons and other gunpowder weapons.
Constantinople capture by Mehmet II, using large canons and gunpowder weapons. This marks a huge success of the Ottomans and gives them a new foothold closer to mainland Europe.
Started by Shah Ismail. The most significant ruling empire of Iran and one of the Gun Powder Empires.
Fought between the Ottomans and Safavids. The superior and much larger Ottoman empire pushes back the Safavid armies.
He is the man. He creates a code of law and annexes most of the Middle East with a powerful fleet. Oversaw the Golden Age of the Ottomans.
Another powerful Muslim Gunpowder Empire. Centered in India, it struggled for control over its primarily Hindu population.
Golden Age of the Mughal Empire. Interests in the arts were raised and acceptance was encouraged.
Defeat of the Ottoman Navy by Catholic Europeans. Decisive victory for the Europeans.
Was sent on expedition to find quicker trade route to India. Also, as with many European explorers at this time, searched to find the mythical Prestor John's kingdom.
An arbitrary line drawn by the Pope separating what was "rightfully" the Portuguese and was "rightfully" the Spanish in the New World.
Portuguese enter the Indian Ocean first with the intent to create trade monopolies and a trading empire. They are not as successful as the future Europeans that arrive.
Was very profitable. De Gama brought back much wealth and products, making up for the cost of the cost of the expedition and then some.
First to travel through the middle passage. Beginning of the Atlantic Slave trade.
First European to cross the Americas and view the Pacific.
Ferdinand Magellan sails around the tip of South America. He dies before the ship finishes its circumnavigation.
Death of Montezuma begins the submission of the Aztecs to their Spanish conquerors.
Pizarro defeats the already weakened Inca empire. The population was already weakened by disease.
The French stake a hold in the New World, creating a colony in Canada.
First man to circumnavigate the world... twice.
The English establish Jamestown. This is the beginning of English Colonization of the Americas.
The prime example of a supreme monarch. His rule is the longest in French history.
Fought everywhere but Europe. Fought over colonial overlaps and complications.
This forever changes the world of information as we know it. It is start of mass literacy and will aid in the spread of religions in later history.
Started by Ferdinand as a way to reestablish Catholic Orthodoxy. Though it lost much of its power and influence by the 17th century, it was not officially abolished until 1834
Martin Luther writes the 95 Theses that disregards the power of the Pope. This begins the Protestant Reformation.
Creates the Heliocentric model and offers that the Sun is the center of the solar system.
Began at the Council of Trent. Basically reaffirmed Catholic Faith and all of its practices.
Galileo fundamentally improves the telescope. This makes his astronomical discoveries, along with many others, possible.
Basically a European war involving all countries. It was highly destructive, wiping out 15-30% of the German population.
Enlightenment "officially" begins. All inventions and breakthroughs have led to this.
Includes the writing of the English Bill of Rights.
Voltaire disguised his criticisms of Europe as satire. His political and social ideas were revolutionary.