Description: Missionary efforts trying to convert African children to Christianity.
Portuguese begin to hire African artists
Although Africans were viewed as slaves, the Portuguese came to admire the artwork created by them. They hired artists from various regions from Benin, Sierra Leone, and Kongo. These objects of arts created by them ended up in collections of nobles and kings in Europe. http://images1.fanpop.com/images/image_uploads/African-Art-africa-896805_495_990.jpg
Description: Crafts like masks were created as decoration for the royal court
In return for slaves, African states begin receiving rifles to agree with terms.
Because of the artillery, African states were able to fend off neighboring enemies and maintain power and control.
Slave Rebellions start
Beginning as early as 1508, slaves began to rebel against the treatment and labor they receive. Africans ran away or plotted rebellions against their owners to escape the harsh conditions in which they lived. http://libcom.org/files/images/history/slaves.jpg
Description: Slaves who were tired of their work began to rebel against their owners.
Portuguese begin establishing "licenses" and "asientos"
The licenses and asientos meant the state monopoly on the import of the Africans were passed to private hands.
Slave trade begins to grow increasingly popular
As plantations in the Americas, especially Brazil, began to grow and slaves were becoming necessary, slave trade grew popular. This caused other European countries to compete for control of the slave trade.
Description: Europeans sailing to Africa in attempt to capture slaves for revenue.
Portuguese establish Luanda colony in Angola
Luanda, being the basis for the first Portuguese colony in Angola, allowed the Portuguese to exert their power and show that they were going to stay. This motive was primarily commercial and military, although missionary efforts were on the side.
Fall of Songhay
Songhay was an empire which covered a large area of the western savanna. Despite its large size, Songhay was defeated by a Moroccan invasion which led to instability of the empire and eventually, its fall. http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/willow/songhai-empire0.gif
Description: Despite covering a large amount of land, Songhay eventually fell due to invasion.
African Americans dominate in populations
In the early 16th century, in cities like Lima, Peru, African Americans outnumbered the number of Europeans. At this point, slaves worked all possible occupations which Europeans didn't want to perform. http://www.peacebuttons.info/E-News/images/AfricanSlaveTradePoster.jpg
Description: As more Africans are shipped, the areas in which they are sent become African dominant in population.
Islamic concepts of slavery
Around 1600, Sudanic states were introduced to Islamic concepts of slavery. Despite what Ahmad Baba said, Sudanic states enslaved their pagan and Muslim captives.
Dutch becomes a major competitor in slave trade
In result of growing plantations in the Americas, slave trade became more popular and other European countries competed. The Dutch seized El Mina from the Portuguese and partly Angola to supply in north eastern Brazil.
Asante's access to weapons
from the Oyoko clan, the Asante obtained firearms. They used these weapons to centralize and expand their empire.
Dutch establish a colony at Cape of Good Hope
Due to the Dutch's success in gaining some control in Africa, they were able to create a colony to provide for slave trade for their country.
Description: Document of the Royal African Company granting a charter of monopolies of trade in West Africa.
Osei Tutu unifies the important kingdom of Asante
Osei Tutu created the title of "asantehene", which designated the religious and supreme civil leader. This role was the symbol of the Asante union as multiple Akan clans reported under the asantehene. The Dutch noticed this power change in political structure and decided to confront with it directly, causing the Asante empire to depend on slave trade for 2/3 of their economic state.
At some points, there was a triangular trade which existed. Slaves were transported to the Americas, crops and goods to Europe, and Europeans went to Africa to start the triangle all over again.
the Kingdom of Dahomey
The kingdom of Dahomey seized the port of Whydah in 1727 and shifted towards the coast. This area had attracted many European traders. This kingdom increasingly became dependent on firearms and slaves and maintained an autonomy.