AP World Timeline-Social

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Africa

Emergence of Homo sapiens

250,000 B.C.E.

The first signs of human life.

Benin begins to restrict slave trade

1516

The powerful monarch known as the oba began to restrict trade and soon forbade the export of male slaves altogether in an effort to avoid a deep involvement in the slave trade.

End of apartheid

1994

Pressures from both inside and outside South Africa contributed to the end of apartheid. It was ended due to economic problems as well since banks refused to invest in the country. Churches refused to support it which weakened it significantly as well. With the first signs of a democracy apartheid was finally ended.

Americas

Colombus crosses the Atlantic

1492

This bridge between the New and Old Worlds led not only to the spread of people, plants, and animals but new ideas and ways of living as well. These settlements in the Americas led to new groups of people such as the Mestizos.

High point of plantation system and slave trade

1700

The Trans-atlantic slave trade resulted in an increase in plantation work as a large amount of slaves come to America from Africa. Slavery in the New World was quite different from that of the Old World in that slaves were treated as a form of dehumanized property, lacking any rights as slave status was inherited across generations.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1904

Slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which resulted in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Haitian republic.

Women's Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, New York

1848

The first convention in America devoted to women's rights. It met in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, and passed several resolutions, including a demand that women be given the right to vote. It was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.

U.S. Civil War

1861 - 1865

Civil war between the north and south as result of many clashing opinions, one being their different views on the abolition of slavery.

First school for girls

1869

The first school for girls in Mexico, representing new values in gender equality.

Cuba and Brazil abolish slavery

1886 - 1888

Countries in South America begin to acknwledge the racial inequalities and put an end to slavery in their countries.

Civil Rights Protests in the U.S.

1960

Protests led by African Americans to achieve Civil Rights equal to those of whites, including equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education, as well as the right to vote, the right of equal access to public facilities, and the right to be free of racial discrimination.

Asia

Emergence of Pastoral Societies

4000 B.C.E.

With the domestication of animals came the emergence of pastoral societies. In areas where farming was diffucult people came to depend on animal husbandry. The relationship between nomadic herders and farmers was often one of conflict as the pastoral peoples were attracted to the sophistication and crops of their agricultural neigfhbors. However, both groups benefitted with the exchange of ideas and products. Pastoral groups supported much smaller populations than agricultural societies and lived in small and widely scattered encampments usually owith related kinfolk.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

184

Peasant revolt due to economic problems. Peasants were only able to survive by selling their land and becoming tenant farmers making them endebted to rich landowners.

"Golden age" in China

618 - 907

Following the unification of China with the Sui dynasty, the Tang and Song dynasties established patterns of Chinese life that followed into the twentieth century. During and following this time, arts, literature, poetry, landscape painting, and ceramics flourished. However, with the revival of Confucianism, women began to live more restircted lives that they had previously.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 - 1901

Anti-foreigner uprising in China resulting in the deaths of many.

Europe and Mediterranean

Patriarchy in Athens

700 B.C.E.

Although Athens has been celebrated as a major source of Western democracy and rationalism, its posture towards women was far more negative and restrictive than that of the highly militaristic and much less democratic Sparta. The men of Athens moved toward unprecedented freedom and participation in political life while the city's women experienced growing limitations.

Hellenistic Era

333 B.C.E. - 323 B.C.E.

Through the conquests of Phillip II's son, Alexander, Greek culture was spread to new lands such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India. Much of this spread was a result of the many cities that Alexander and later Hellenistic rulers established. Social distinctions became quite obvious within these towns. For example, in Alexandria, Macedonians and Greeks were the obvious elite while Egyptians were the lower class. Many people had opportunites to escape their social barriers thouh as they were often able to become Greek citizens.

Beginning of Serfdom

500 - 1000

Originating from Roman-style slavery, serfdom emerged as a result of the feudalistic society. Unlike slaves, serfs were not the personal property of their masters and were allowed to live in families. Women generally weaved cloth and making clothing, while men worked in the fields.

Black Death

1348 - 1350

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in history, killing between 75 million and 200 million people. The Black Death had many impacts on European Society. People's relationships with the church were changed. The demand for people to fill jobs also saw an increase in the wages they were paid, giving the lower class citizens further chances to advance socially. This threatened the wealth and power of the upper class.

European Renaissance

1400 - 1600

Era marked by a revival of the art, architecture, thought, and culture of ancient greece and rome.

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

The French Revolution was driven by sharp conflicts within French Society. Members of the titled nobility resented and resisted the monarchy's efforts to subject them to new taxes. Members of the middle class were offended by the remaining priviledges of the aristocracy. Ordinary urban residents suffered from the rapidly rising price of bread and widespread unemployment. Peasants suffered from taxes of the state, obligations of the church, and working without pay.

Emancipation of serfs in Russia

1861

The 1861 Emancipation Manifesto proclaimed the emancipation of the serfs on private estates and of the household serfs. Serfs were granted the full rights of free citizens, gaining the rights to marry without having to gain consent, to own property and to own a business.

Middle East

Emergence of Chiefdoms

6000 B.C.E.

Some agricultural village societies came to be organized as chiefdoms. Chiefs inherited power and had both religious and secual functions. Chiefs led important rituals and ceremonies, organized the community for warfare, directed its economic life, and sought to resolve internal conflicts.

Emergence of Agricultural Village Societies

4000 B.C.E.

Groups of settled village-based farmers began to appear. Because of the surplus of food from crops, agricultural societies were larger than nomadic groups. These societies had democratic qualities but there were still subtle inequalities.

Origins of Caste System in India

500 B.C.E.

Strongly identified with Hinduism, the caste system in India organized division of labor and power. The caste system reflects the idea that society is forever divided into four ranked classes to which a person is born into and remains within for life: Brahmins (priests), Kshatriya class (warriors and rulers), Vaisya class (commoners), Sudras (servants)