Political Advancements During the Course of World History

By: Charlie Langschwager Bell 3

Europe

The Roman State

509 BCE - 476 CE

In 509 BCE the Roman Republic began, by 200 BCE, it had expanded and the governing body had changed to form an empire. In 476 CE, the Western Roman Empire fell, ending the original Roman Empire.
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Charlemagne's Coronation

800 CE

As the new "Roman emperor," this ruler attempts to revive the control of that ancient empire.

Russian Revolution

1905

A critical shift in the governing entity and ideologies of Russia, which would have many political effects in the years following.

Middle East

Beginning of the Mesopotamian Civilization

3500 BCE

One of the first civilizations starts up.

Reign of Hammurabi

1792 BCE - 1750 BCE

This Babylonian Emperor developed a law code that is a commonly-known, ancient, political document.

Sassanid Dynasty

224 CE - 651 CE

A continuation of the Persian imperial tradition.

Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople

1453

The final, decisive clash between the Christian, Byzantine Empire and the Islamic, Ottoman Empire.

Openning of the Suez Canal

1869

Not only a serious economic venture, but a political one as well. This event shows European influence in other regions.

Israel Established

1948 CE

The State of Israel was proclaimed on 14 May 1948

Asia

Beginnings of Indus Valley and Chinese Civilizations

2000 BCE

More "first civilizations" get started. Interestingly enough, these two civilizations have opposite records in terms of political unity with the Chinese having several ruling states, versus the sparse records of encompassing empires in India.

Urban Centers in the Ganges Valley

750 BCE

By this time, small civilizations were existing in the Indian river valley.

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

One of China's most well-known dynasties, it employed Confucian ideas, united much of China, and improved Chinese infrastructure.
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Chinese Military Withdraw from Korea

688 CE

A rebuke of Chinese authority in a region that will ultimately become independent of China in the modern era.

Vietnam Seizes Independence from China

939 CE

One example of political fragmentation.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603

This governing system was an authority that ruled over daimyos and united Japan.

Africa

Unification of Egypt

3100 BCE

The bringing together of many peoples is demonstrated.

Bantu Migrations Start

2000 BCE

The diffusion of these people throughout Africa also spread ideas across the continent.

Nubian kingdom of Meroe

300 BCE - 100 CE

This African state showed that women could effectively govern and was a separate civilization from the Egyptians that so often dominate the world's record of Africa.
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Swahili Civilization

1000 - 1500

A major series of urban centers in Africa evolves during this period.

Colonial Conquest of Africa

1875 - 1900

European nations scramble to claim all of Africa, along with its people, for its natural resources.

South Sudan

2011

Independence was attained on 9 July 2011.

Americas

Norte Chico Civilization begins

3000 BCE

Referred to as the "mother civilization" of the Andes region, this civilization would seem to pre-date all others in the Americas.

Olmec Civilization Start

900 BCE

Another predecessor of Meso-American civilizations takes shape.

Mayan Civilization

300 CE - 800 CE

A well-known, belligerent civilization of Meso-America.

Iroquois Confederation

1142

This is the approximate time that historians suspect this political and military alliance came to be.

United States Civil War

1861 - 1865

Major military clash over political ideas in North America.
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