Hi 166: Philippine History

Spanish Occupation

Liberalismo sa España

1869 - 1872

Propaganda Movement

1872 - 1892
  1. Kabataan
  2. Middle class
  3. Intelektwal
  4. Entrepreneur
  5. Lahat ng lahi
  6. Mason (anti-clerical)

Layunin:
1. Asimilasyon: lahat ng Pilipino magiging Spanish citizen
2. Autonomiya: self-rule

"Mas mahirap gisingin ang nagtutulug-tulugan."

Execution of Gomburza

1872

Diaspora

1872 - 1880

Disillusionment ng masa sa pagiging paring sekular

Edukasyon ni Rizal sa Madrid

1882 - 1887

Disillusionment ni Rizal sa España

1884

Tripartite History (as opposed to Kastila bipartite):
1. KALIWANAGAN (pre-Kastila)
- immense complexity
- trade, literacy, hardwork, economy
- Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas ni Morga

  1. KADILIMAN (Kastila)
  2. "Masipag na pagano, naging tamad na Kristyano."
  3. indulgencia, bandala, polo y servicios
  4. "Social Cancer"

  5. KALIWANAGAN

  6. Panunumbalik ng kalikasan sa mga Pilipino.

  7. Sariling lakas = kasaganahan!

Publication of Noli me Tangere

1887

La Solidaridad

1889 - 1895

Anti-friar bureacracy, separation of church and state

Publication of El Filibusterismo

1891

Pagbalik ni Rizal sa Pilipinas

1892

La Liga Filipina

1892

Unang attempt ni Rizal na dalhin sa Pilipinas ang bago niyang ideolohiya ng kasarinlan.

Katipunan: Himagsikan

1892 - 1896

(Arellano, Basa, Bonifacio, Aguinaldo)

Sinundan at ginawang mas simple ang tripartite history
1. Past = Liwanag
2. Present = Dilim
3. Future = Liwanag

Pinatapon si Rizal sa Dapitan

1892

Inakusahang anti-religion.

Nadiskubre ang Katipunan

1896

Pinapatay si Rizal

December 30 1896

Katipunan: Rebolusyon

1897 - 1898

Lalong nag-init nang patayin si J. Rizal.

Tejeros Convention/Pinapatay si Bonifacio

March 22, 1897 - May 10, 1897
  • Nanalo si Aguinaldo, pero Bonifacio rejected the deciion (made it null)
  • Magdalo (Kaviteñno) refused to recognize this, and treated Aguinaldo as Supremo
  • Pinpatay si Bonifacio (May 10, 1897)

Mapupunta kay Aguinaldo ang Katipunan.

Kasunduan sa Biak-na-Bato/Pag-alis ni Aguinaldo/Tuloy pa rin ang laban

September 1897 - December 15 1897

Provisions:
- Surrender of Aguinaldo and revolutionary corps.
- Amnestiya para sa kasabwat
- Pagpapatapon sa HK ng liderato ng rebolusyon
- Payment by the Spanish government of $400,000 (Mexican peso) to the revolutionaries in three installments: $200,000 (Mexican peso) upon leaving the country, $100,000 (Mexican peso) upon the surrender of at least 700 firearms, and another $200,000 (Mexican peso) upon the declaration of general amnesty.

Pinasabog daw ang U.S.S. Maine ng Spain

Feb 1898

Sa pamumuno ni Commodore George Dewey, cinontact si E. Aguinaldo
- Nagpadala ng 7 ships sa Manila Bay
- Nakahanda na ang mga ship sa Singapore bago pa sumabog ang U.S.S. Maine

Imperyalismong Amerikano-Salik:
1. Tapos na ang Civil War - bogged down industrialization
2. Industrialization (kasabay ng European countries), saturated American market,
3. Commercialization: emphasize profitable aspects, make into a commodity = PROFIT + GREED

Why Asia?
1. HUGE China market
- more privileges for foreigners
- inggit ang America, so they're pushing for an open door policy na sila lang ang makikinabang.
2. Pilipinas
- base of operations patungong China
- tambakan ng surplus
3. Potential masakop Japan
- pinipilit makipagkalakalan

Papel ng Pilipinas
1. Market ng surplus
2. Location --> Asya
3. Source ng raw materials
4. Karagdagang sundalo para sa further imperialism
5. Symbol ng American Imperialism

Katwirang Moral
1. Manifest Destiny: American settlers were destined to expand across the continent (a sense of MISSION)
2. White Man's Burden: It is the white man's duty to spread civilization and modernization, Justified imperialism as a noble enterprise

American Military Occupation

Naval Battle of Manila Bay (US vs Spain)

May 1 1898

Spanish were stuck in Intramuros, surrounded by the US sa naval, Philippines sa land.

Artemio Ricarte: Bantayan ang US, may ibang pakay.
- Natalo na ang Kastila, pero dating pa rin nang dating ang Amerikano

Pagbalik ni Aguinaldo

May 19 1898

Dictatorship ni Aguinaldo

May 24 1898 - July 23 1898

Dineklara ang Independensiya

June 12 1898

Upang makilala ang Pilipinas bilang independent nation
- Para makahingi ng tulong sa karatig-bansa kung sakupin ang Pilipinas ng Amerika.

Pagdating ng US Army Reinforcements

July 1898 - August 1898

Cease fire bet. US and Spain

August 12 1898

Kinuha ng US ang Manila (Intramuros)

August 13, 1898

Mock Battle, Pilipinas VS Spain

August 13 1898

Kongreso ng Malolos

September 1898 - Jan 21 1899

Pagtangkang mag-establish ng revolutionary government.

Kasunduan sa Paris

December 10 1898
  • Formalized na pagsuko ng Spain
  • Binayaran ng Amerika ang Spain ng $20,000,000 para sa Pilipinas.

Pamahalaang Militar ng US

1899 - 1901

Simula ng Benevolent Assimilation ni McKinley

January 4 1899
  • Paglipat ng kontrol mula Spain --> US
  • US military gov't sa buong teritoryo
  • "benevolent colonizer"

Komisyong Schurman

January 20 1899 - January 3 1900

Recommendations for Phils based on 1 year study:
1. Civil Gov't
2. Bicameral assembly
3. Autonomous provincial & municipal gov't
4. Public education

Malolos Constituion

January 23, 1899

Digmaang US vs Pilipinas

February 4 1899 - September 13 1907

Nagsimula sa Kalye Sociego, napunta sa La Loma the next day.

  • Naghari ang terrorism (torture, public hangings) and systematic massacre ng US.

Guerilla Warfare

November 13 1899 - September 13 1907

Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo

March 23 1901

Pagbitay kay Macario Sakay

September 13 1907

American Colozination

Ratipikasyon ng Kasunduan sa Paris

February 6 1899

American Social Engineering

1901 - 1913

Admin: Francis Burton Harrison

1913 - 1921

Unang Misyon: Quezon

1919 - 1922

IMMEDIATE INDEPENDENCE
"Hindi hinihingi ang kalayaan--ipinaglalaban!"

Resulta:
1. Liham galing kay Wilson (outgoing na): paparating na ang kalayaan
2. Tinatag ni Quezon ang propagandang Phil. Press Movement
3. Inattack ng Democrats si Quezon--walang napala ang misyon
4. Lobbied for SOMETHING (letter lang nakuha)

Admin: Leonard Wood

1921 - 1927

Unang Parliamentary Mission

1922 - 1923

Quezon & Osmeña
US Pres: Warren Harding
MCINTYRE

  • Wood-Forbes Report: very negative
  • Leonard Wood as Phil. Gob-Hen
  • Labanan ang Coastwise Shipping Law: diff. freight costs for Am and Phil

Resulta:
- The McIntyre proposal
- Paninigurado ng pangulo ng EU na hindi mababawasan ang kapangyarihan ng pangulong Pilipino

Colorum

1923 - 1924

RIZALISTAS
Armed group in Surigao, Samar, Leyte, Agusan

Special Parliamentary Mission: Roxas

1923 - 1924

Manuel Roxas I
Naputol ang INDEPENDENCE FUND

Resulta:
- Tumutol kaagad si Pres. Coolidge

Labor Unions & Labor Strikes

1924 - 1930

influenced by COMMUNISM

Ikatlong Parliamentary Mission

1924 - 1925

Recto, Quezon, Osmeña
ALITANG Quezon VS Recto

Resulta:
- Fairfield Bill: 20 years autonomy na tinanggap lang ni Quezon

Legislative Committee: Osmeña

1925 - 1926

Sergio Osmeña
Supreme National Council (shadow gov't to prepare for independence)

  • Masyado nang malakas si L. Wood
  • Separate Gob. Hen. for Mindanao, Sulu, Palawan (Moro)

Quezon-Osmeña Mission VS Wood

1927 - 1929

HINDI NAPAG-USAPAN ANG INDEPENDENCE

  1. Kapalit ni Wood, humingi kay Coolidge

Parliamentary Mission - Tariff

1929 - 1930

NEW NATIONALISM ni Roxas na kumalas

Upang
1. Maghanap ng kapalit kay Stimson (-->Dwight Davis)
2. Labanan ang batas at taripa

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

Kumalas si Roxas

1930

na protege ni Quezon dapat, at nagsulong ng New Nationalism (comprehensive approach to independence).

Sakdal Movement

1930 - 1935

Benigno Ramos

Tanggulan Movement

1930 - 1931

Patricio Dionisio

Misyong OSROX

1931 - 1933

Osmeña & Roxas

  • Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill

Huling Misyon

1933 - 1934

Manuel L. Quezon

  • Tydings McDuffie Act (rehassed HHC) > US military base is 75 instead of 99 years

Constitutional Convention

July 30 1934 - February 8 1935
  • para sa constitution ng commonwealth

Commonwealth Government

1935 - 1946

Suliranin:

I. Maldistribusyon ng kapangyarihang pulitikal

  1. Sentralisasyon ng kapangyarihan sa pangulo
  2. Personalistikong tendensiya
  3. Supresyon ng indibidwal na kapangyarihan
  4. Eksaltasyon ng awtoridad

II. Mabagal at 'di-pantay na pag-unlad ng ekonomiya

  1. Pagbigay-diin sa kalakalan sa EU, imbis na diversification w/in
  2. "Social Justice Program"
  3. minimum wage, calamity funds, shared tenancy ng landlord at magsasaka
  4. Kahirapan sa kanayunan
  5. hindi kumakalat ang kayamanan,
  6. nasustuck sa isang erya

III.Defense/Militar

  1. MacArthur's War Plan Orange
  2. Pananakop ng Hapon sa Tsina
  3. Internasyunal na sitwasyon ng Tsina-Soviet Union
  4. Hapon sa Davao
  5. Penal arbiter ang EU

Japanese Invasion

Pangunahing Suliranin:
- hati-hati ang gov't
- in absentia ang Komonwelt dahil in EXILE
- half-hearted exec. commission

  1. Komonwelt - puppet gov't
  2. nawawalan ng credibility sa masa (J. P. Laurel)

  3. Kolaborasyon

  4. Filipinos working with Japanese

  5. Kommunismo

  6. a new hope for peasants

Pagtatag ng Partidong Komunista ng Pilipinas

1938

Ginawa ang Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon (HUKBALAHAP)

Pagbuo ng Partido Ganap

1938

Benigno Ramos

  • anti-American
  • unpopular among Filipinos

Japanese Attacks

1941 - 1942

First bombings

December 8 1941

Weak landings

December 10 1941

Pincer Move

December 20 1941 - December 22 1941

Pagbuo ng KALIBAPI

1942 - 1944

Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas

Benigno Aquino, Benigno Ramos, Jose P. Laurel

  • Alinsunod sa utos ng Hapon
  • Nasyonalista
  • Inaakit ang Pilipino para maging Japanese Army

Huling Pagtangka ng Hapon sa Pilipinas

June 1943 - February 1945

Pagbuo ng MAKAPILI

1944

Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino

Benigno Ramos, Artemio Ricarte

  • Recruit Filipinos as Jap Army
  • Fight against Filipino guerilla force

Resumption of American Rule

Commonwealth Government: Osmeña

1945 - 1946

Suliranin:
1. Collaborators
- with Japanese

  1. Rehabilitation
  2. dapat America ang tumustos kasi sila ang dahilan ng karamihan sa war damages

  3. Reporma sa pamahalaan

  4. maraming nagbago sa pagkamatay ni Quezon

  5. collaborators are insinuating themselves in the gov't

  6. Hukbalahap (Luis Taruc)

  7. most effective guerilla unit

  8. Gustong ma-recognize officially

  9. Politika/Independensiya

  10. political vacuum: naghahanap ng personality na kapalit ni Quezon

  11. May bagong "baby" ang America: Japan -- want them to fight the RED MENACE (Communism)

Inauguration of the Philippine Republic

1946

*Bell Trade Act: Free trade, tariff; Unlawful parity rights to raw mats
*Tydings Rehabilitation Act: for war reparations; unless payagan ang Bell Trade (raw mats exploitation), hanggang $500 lang ang damage claims

I. Foreign Policy
1. Controlled communism (internal-focused)
- influenced by the domino theory
- anti-HUK, anti-PKP
2. Pagsunod sa kasunduang international
- UN
- US-Phil Mutual Defense Treaty (ginawang kampante tayo)
- SEATO
- Manila Accord
- MAPHILINDO

II. Politika
1. Class Struggle
2. Nasyonalismo VS pro-American
3. Corruption
4. Political Butterflies
5. Political Dynasties
6. Weak states
- hindi gumagana ang system of checks and balance
- because of UNEDUCATED VOTERS (unable to make smart decisions)
- POOR ADMINISTRATION that is not kept in check, developed
- a culture of IMPUNITY

III. Ekonomiko
1. Agriculture
- semi-feudal pa rin
- not industrialized
2. Raw materials EXPORT oriented company
- no PROCESSING
- we sell low and buy high the same products made from OUR raw materials
- only PROCESSED abroad
3. Foreign capital dependence
- parity rights
4. Rent-seeking
- investors seek gov't support in setting up businesses
- seek protection from tax for about a year or more
- in return, rich businessmen become the politician's financial backer
5. Floating rate of Peso
6. Retail economy (TINGI)
7. Uneven economic dev't.
- foreigners and local elite ang kumikita sa EXTRACTIVE businesses
- political centers = economic center; but also center of poverty

IV. Panlipunan = SOCIAL STRESSES
1. Rich/Poor gap
2. Dichotomy of lowland (llawod) -- highland (llaya)
3. 'Di pantay na social demographic
4. Kolonyal education
5. Relasyong patron-kliente
6. Dichotomy ng ELITE INTEREST and MASS INTEREST

V. Kultural at Relihiyon
1. Colonial Mentality
- Ingles na panlasa
2. Mendicant leaders
- "beggars"
3. Kamangmangan at Superstisyon
- "Religion is the OPIUM of the masses."
4. Messianic Movements

Roxas Administration

May 28, 1946 - April 15, 1948

PERA POLITICS
PARITY RIGHTS
Ginawang ilegal ang Hukbalahap
Strong American influence
Granted amnesty to Jap collaborators
Pumirma: 99 years US military base
1:1 pa ang peso dollar

  • had the support of American businessmen
  • MacArthur testified for him
  • vote buying

Bell Trade Act (later replaced by Laurel-Langley Act)
General Relations Treaty
Proposed CB

  • Had problems with Hukbalahap
  • Repairs vs Reputation: Didn't want to accept help from US

Quirino Administration

April 17, 1948 - December 30, 1953

GRAFT & CORRUPTION - Malapit nang MA-IMPEACH
US-Phil Mutual Defense Treaty
CB! Central Bank of the Philippines
Nilipat ang capital sa QC
Nagpadala ng troops sa Korean War ('50-'53)
NATIONAL MINIMUM WAGE ACT
1:2 dollar peso

  • "elite"

  • Economic mobilization

  • Agricultural Credit Cooperatives

  • Granted amnesty to Huk (surrender arms) > failed (arresters prone to abusing Huk) > return to violence; MILITARY CAMPAIGN

  • Golden orinola

  • Umasa sa ayuda mula sa US

  • Tumaas ang tariff

  • Maraming skandalo

  • more unemployment

Magsaysay Admin

December 30, 1953 - March 17, 1957

Malakas na suporta galing sa masa
Five Year Economic Dev't Plan
Sumuko si Luis Taruc
SEATO (military alliance vs communism)
War Reparations from Japan
Psychological Warfare vs Huk (+CIA)
1:2 dollar peso

  • maka-masa "Magsaysay is my guy"

  • Democracy

  • Tiwala sa pamahalaan

  • Infrastructure

  • Agricultural Tenancy Act (karapatan ng magsasaka)

  • Retail Trade Nationalization Act (bawal ang foreign businesses sa retail)

  • Kasunduang Laurel-Langley: pag-ayos sa kalakalan ng Phils na nakakabit sa trade ng US (unhealthy), LOWERED TARIFF

  • Temporarily more jobs

  • Inflation

Garcia Admin

March 23, 1957 - December 30, 1961

Outlawed communism
CORRUPTION
Filipino First Policy (nakinabang ay large Am corp's)
Cultural revival program
Programa para sa self-sufficiency

  • "elite"

  • Austerity program

  • Bohlen-Serrano Agreement (US military bases from 99-25 years)

  • Tumaas ang presyo ng bilihin

  • Midnight appointments

Macapagal Admin

December 30, 1961 - December 30, 1965

Inangkin ang Sabah
Manila Accord (Malaysia, Phil, Indo)
Anti-corruption Drive
MAPHILINDO
Pinalitan ang araw ng kalayaan: July 4 --> June 12
Five-Year Socio-Economic Integrated Development Program
1:4 dollar to peso

  • Land Reform
  • Umakyat ang economy

  • Kumalat ang kahirapan

  • Sagupaan vs communists

  • Nawalan ang masa ng tiwala sa gov't

  • Alitan sa gov't

Marcos Admin

December 30, 1965 - February 25, 1986

Sob story na gusto ng masa
Mas lumaganap ang POLITICAL DYNASTIES
Shet daming infrastructure
PHILCAG
ASEAN
First Quarter Storm (leftist unrest, led to martial law) --> New People's Army (NPA)

  • Economic dev't
  • Infra: Pan-Phil Highway, NLEX, San Juanico (Samar-Leyte)
  • Programang pang-agrikultura
  • CARP (kinumpiska ang lupa ng oligarkiya)

  • Fucking martial law that's what