1450-1750 Timeline

A timeline noting important empires, people, and events from the foundation of the world between 1450 and 1750

Gov't/Empires

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

Not Holy, Not Roman, Not Empire's Holy Roman Empire. Under the Peace of Augsburg, the empire became even more fragmented due to each germanic princes wishing to choose their religion of desire, which changed constantly. Charles V was unable to unify it and faced obstacles of Protestant, Catholic, and other religious reason of separation.

Ottoman

1300 - 1923

Found by Osman, large territorial expansion in the Middle East, encompassing most of the Islamic world and even the European world. Muslim Turkics. Jerusalem and Constantinople fell to Ottoman (renamed Istanbul). Engulfs the Byzantium Empire. Christians even encouraged Ottomans for their taxes were lighter.

France

1340 - 1763

After the Black Death, the French recovered slowly recovered. Colonies begin to flock to the Northern Americas, domination fur trade and the river systems. Grows wealthy on furs which were referred to as soft gold. Fragments due to Protestant Reformation and dominates with Absolute Monarchy.

Ming

1368 CE - 1644 CE

After restoring power from the Mongol empire of Yuan, the Ming rejected much of the Mongolian practices yet secretly kept the beneficial customs of government and such. Promoted Confucianism and created Encyclopedia to record history. Sent out large naval forces to find tribute states but was canceled due to "lack of profit" and other attention for the Mongols.

Portugual

1415 - 1999

Trade empire that focused on Gold, God, Glory. Advance in weapon and ships, allowing them to set up Trading Post Empires. After the Treaty of Tordesilla, Portugal got to keep all of West for exploration with the exception of Brazil in the East.

Aztec

1428 - 1521

Formed the Triple Alliance and becoming a large empire. Expanded greatly and ruled with power. Believed in multiple gods with the Sun god in the middle. Often had human sacrifices to please the god. Women's role was much larger but still less than men.

Inca

1438 - 1533

Located in modern day Peru, using peaceful and conquest for expansion. Lots of human sacrifices. At first only criminals and prisoners of war, then they used better tribe men and women to please the gods further.

Songhay

1464 - 1591

One of the largest Islamic empires in history. Major factor and contributor of the trans-sahara trade as well as the salve trade. Provider and providee. Major trade empire.

Spain

1492 - 1975

Large European empire that focused on gold and silver. After the Treaty of Tordesilla, Spanish and the Portuguese outlined conquerable region for both except Spain kept Philippines. Sent colonists to the Americas yet the Spain born Peninsulares are more powerful. Reason for exploration: God, Gold, Glory.

England

1492 - 1750

Sents colonies to the Americas for colonization. Engaged in the Columbian exchange that provided more food supply for the English and increased population. Competes with French for territory and religion. Slowly develops into Constitutional Government. (Does not end in 1750 for it continues to modern day.)

Safavid

1501 - 1736

Mostly Sufi/Shia (Against Sunni Ottoman). Did not prosper much due to the big brothers on the left (Ottoman) and right (Mughal) that produced goods that the Safavid were producing, AKA lack of trade. Shia's side causing conflict causing the eventual weakening and downfall of Safavid

Mughal

1526 - 1857

A persian term for Mongols, the Muslims of a Turkic were mistaken as Mongols. Setting up a government/empire in the India region, spreading the Islamic teaching and religion. Huge conflict with Hindus. Akbar sets up a toleration and blend of Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism to balance the conflict but was overturned by the next emperor.

Tokugawa Shogunnate

1600 - 1868

Political group in Japan. Stopped all trade with Europeans except Dutch, due to influence that were deemed unacceptable. Profited much from the silver trade due to wise usage and conservation, leading to Industrial Revolution, population growth, improving economy.

Qing

1644 CE - 1912 CE

Large expansion while incorporation many foreigners.Treaty of Nerchinsk outlined the boundaries between China and Russia. Used many intellectuals from foreign lands and respected them as well as allowing them to practice their own culture.

Russia

1682 - 1725

Peter the Great starts the Westernization of Russia, forcing nobles to cut off beard and symbolically submit to the government. Expanded greatly and included many tributary states. Focused on fur trade like the French

Events

Neo-Confucianism

1073

A more rational form of Confucianism by rejecting Buddhism and Daoism elements. It started in the Tang Dynasty and continued through Song. Provided great philosophy for the Chinese

Forbidden City

1406 - 1420

Imperial palace from Ming to end of Qing. Classic Chinese structure but was built above where the old Mongol Palace was.

Joint Stock Company

1450 - 1750

Many empires of Europe (Britain, France, Netherlands, etc.) begin developing Joint Stock Companies chartered by the state. These companies are located in various locations throughout the world. But later, they were privatized by share holders.

Sacking of Constantinople

1453

The long standing Constantinople finally sacked by the Ottomans in 1453. Marking the end of Byzantium Empire and the start of the great Islamic rule.

Spanish Inquisition

1481 - 1834

Conversion of Spain back to Catholicism. Very harsh and violent. Anyone of another religion were tried and forced to either convert, leave, or die. Many women were accused of witchcraft during this time for being anything other than Catholic.

Columbian Excahnge

1492 - 1750

Started when Columbus first arrived the Americas, bring biological species to the Americans and back to Europe. Then the process continued. Contrary to popular believes, the CE does not truly end when Columbus dies. It still continues and the end point is almost impossible to discern for minor exchange was hard to pinpoint

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Treaty in which the Spanish and Portuguese agreed to divide the world into halves and allow each other to conquest within the halves. With the exceptions of Philippines and Brazil.

Battle of Chaldiran

1514 - 1555

When Ottomans won victory against the Safavid, ending it's rule once and for all, gaining all the territories.

Protestant Reformation

1517

Began in 1517 in Germany by Martin Luther. Proposed that the Catholic Church was not fulfilling the necessary needs for the religion. The indulgence was wrong as well as the church being the middleman. Luther emphasized that salvation could be reached by faith and faith alone.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Where the Counter Reformation was called for by Pope Paul III

Catholic Reformation

1545 - 1563

Following the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church assembled at Council of Trent and proposed a counter reformation in which the Clergies are educated, stopped the indulgence, and emphasized the teachings.

Jamestown

1607 - 1699

First permanent British colony in the North America. Accompanied natives with pleasant treatment and comfort and even survival.

East India Company

1612 - 1757

Joint stock company located in India to facilitate spice and other trades of the South East Asia region and England. It was profitable for a while but soon lacked resources and became unprofitable.

"Dutch Learning"

1641 - 1853

Japanese translation more accurately known as Western Learning. When Japan closed off all European interactions except with the Dutch, they learned about West from the Dutch such as science and tech.

Triangle Trade

1680 - 1880

Major trade route in the Atlantic. Slaves from Africa to the Americas for plantation needs. Then the goods are transferred back to Europe for markets. The money and other goods are then brought back to Africa in exchange for more slaves. So on, so forth.

Englightenment

1700

Start of the English Enlightenment where reason was emphasized. Many scientific and mathematical break through. Many philosophes of France and other states made important discoveries such as heliocentricity, physics, and others. Age of Art and Knowledge

7 Years' War

1754 - 1763

Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.

Diaspora

1876

Meaning a migration of massive people. In this case, referring to the Trans Atlantic Slave trade.

People

Zhenghe

1371 - 1433

Court official and a mariner admiral. Huge fleet of Junk that was sent to find tributary states. Later was canceled due to death of Emperor, lack of profit, and more attention needed at war front.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Prince of Portugal. Creates schools for sea voyage and cartography

Gutenberg

1398 - 1468

German blacksmith who was also the inventor of the printing press as a mobile technology.

Mehmed II

1432 - 1481

Ottoman that conquered Constantinople.

Bartolomeu Dias

1451 - 1500

Portuguese explorer. The first European to sail around the southern most tip of Africa.

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

Italian explorer who was the "first" to find the Americas. Begins the exchange of goods and people and known as the Columbian Exchange.

Vasco da Gama

1460 - 1524

Portuguese explorer that was the first to sail from Europe to India directly. Improving the Portuguese trade and economy.

Sunni Ali (Ruling Songhay)

1464 - 1492

First king of the Songhay empire. Ruled Muslims and Non-Muslims in Timbuktu region.

Montezuma

1466 - 1520

Ruler of Tenochtitlan of Aztec, killed by Cortez when invaded by the Spanish.

Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Mathematician and astronomer of the Renaissance era. Proposed the theory of Heliocentric universe.

Vasco de Balboa

1475 - 1519

Spanish explorer and conquer. Crosses Panama to the Pacific and finds settlement of Santa Maria.

Pizarro

1476 - 1541

Spanish Conqueror who caused the fall of the Aztec Empire.

Ferdinand Magellan

1480 - 1521

Portuguese explorer who sailed into the Pacific from the Atlantic and "he" circumnavigated the world.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Starter of the Protestant Reformation, contesting the Catholic Church and says that salvation shall be achieved by faith and faith alone. Calls out the Church for indulgence and being the middleman

Cortez

1485 - 1547

Spanish Conqueror that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire

Shah Ismail

1487 - 1524

Founder of Safavid Empire.

Loyola

1491 - 1556

Founder of the Jesuit Unit, aimed to spread the teachings and promotion of Christianity.

Suleiman

1494 - 1566

Huge expansion of the Ottoman Empire.Golden Age of art and culture.

Atahualpa

1497 - 1533

Last Inca emperor before the Spanish conquest. Captured and executed.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Develops Calvinism, claiming that salvation was predestination and nothing you can do will change it.

Akbar

1542 - 1605

Probably the best ruler of Mughal Empire. Religiously tolerant, creating a blend of most religions into one Divine Religion. Cancels the non-muslim tax to gain favor.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

1543 - 1616

Founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

Matteo Ricci

1552 - 1610

Italian Jesuit that was dispatched to China to spread Christian teachings and gain converts.

Galileo

1564 - 1642

Using and improving the telescope, he finds the moons of Jupiter and writing the Starry Messenger.

Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Social Contract - Absolutism FTW! One single monarch with absolute power and must done harsh things if the result is a stable nation

Locke

1632 - 1704

Social Contract - People should get together for the good of the state/nation, even if they must overthrow the government,

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Ruler of France, Absolute Monarch stating that he was the State. Builds Versailles to keep nobles in check so he would remain as the absolute ruler.

Kanxi

1654 - 1722

Emperor of Qing Dynasty. Kangxi is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan to submit to Qing rule, blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River and expanded the empire in the northwest. He also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary.

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state

Qianlong

1711 - 1799

6th Emperor of Qing, Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power until his death in 1799. Although his early years saw the continuation of an era of prosperity in China, his final years saw troubles at home and abroad converge on the Qing Empire.

Rouseau

1712 - 1778

Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism of French expression. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought.

Smith

1723 - 1790

Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment

Peter/Catherine the Great

1728 - 1762

Russian rulers who introduced Westernization to Russia, pushing and dragging Russia into the Early Modern Era

Must Know Dates

Ottoman Captures Constantinople

1453

Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope

1488

Columbus/Reconquista of Spain

1492

1st slave to Americas

1502

Martin Luther/95 Theses

1517

Cortez conquers Aztec

1521

Pizarro sacks Inca

1533

Battle of Leopanto (Ottoman Navy Defeated)

1571

Battle of Sekigahara - Unification of Japan - beginning of Tokugawa rule

1600

Foundation of Jamestown

1607

30 Years War

1618 - 1638

Failed Ottoman siege of Vienna

1683

Glorious Revolution/English Bill of Rights

1689