A timeline noting important empires, people, and events from the foundation of the world between 1450 and 1750
Not Holy, Not Roman, Not Empire's Holy Roman Empire. Under the Peace of Augsburg, the empire became even more fragmented due to each germanic princes wishing to choose their religion of desire, which changed constantly. Charles V was unable to unify it and faced obstacles of Protestant, Catholic, and other religious reason of separation.
Found by Osman, large territorial expansion in the Middle East, encompassing most of the Islamic world and even the European world. Muslim Turkics. Jerusalem and Constantinople fell to Ottoman (renamed Istanbul). Engulfs the Byzantium Empire. Christians even encouraged Ottomans for their taxes were lighter.
After the Black Death, the French recovered slowly recovered. Colonies begin to flock to the Northern Americas, domination fur trade and the river systems. Grows wealthy on furs which were referred to as soft gold. Fragments due to Protestant Reformation and dominates with Absolute Monarchy.
After restoring power from the Mongol empire of Yuan, the Ming rejected much of the Mongolian practices yet secretly kept the beneficial customs of government and such. Promoted Confucianism and created Encyclopedia to record history. Sent out large naval forces to find tribute states but was canceled due to "lack of profit" and other attention for the Mongols.
Trade empire that focused on Gold, God, Glory. Advance in weapon and ships, allowing them to set up Trading Post Empires. After the Treaty of Tordesilla, Portugal got to keep all of West for exploration with the exception of Brazil in the East.
Formed the Triple Alliance and becoming a large empire. Expanded greatly and ruled with power. Believed in multiple gods with the Sun god in the middle. Often had human sacrifices to please the god. Women's role was much larger but still less than men.
Located in modern day Peru, using peaceful and conquest for expansion. Lots of human sacrifices. At first only criminals and prisoners of war, then they used better tribe men and women to please the gods further.
One of the largest Islamic empires in history. Major factor and contributor of the trans-sahara trade as well as the salve trade. Provider and providee. Major trade empire.
Large European empire that focused on gold and silver. After the Treaty of Tordesilla, Spanish and the Portuguese outlined conquerable region for both except Spain kept Philippines. Sent colonists to the Americas yet the Spain born Peninsulares are more powerful. Reason for exploration: God, Gold, Glory.
Sents colonies to the Americas for colonization. Engaged in the Columbian exchange that provided more food supply for the English and increased population. Competes with French for territory and religion. Slowly develops into Constitutional Government. (Does not end in 1750 for it continues to modern day.)
Mostly Sufi/Shia (Against Sunni Ottoman). Did not prosper much due to the big brothers on the left (Ottoman) and right (Mughal) that produced goods that the Safavid were producing, AKA lack of trade. Shia's side causing conflict causing the eventual weakening and downfall of Safavid
A persian term for Mongols, the Muslims of a Turkic were mistaken as Mongols. Setting up a government/empire in the India region, spreading the Islamic teaching and religion. Huge conflict with Hindus. Akbar sets up a toleration and blend of Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism to balance the conflict but was overturned by the next emperor.
Political group in Japan. Stopped all trade with Europeans except Dutch, due to influence that were deemed unacceptable. Profited much from the silver trade due to wise usage and conservation, leading to Industrial Revolution, population growth, improving economy.
Large expansion while incorporation many foreigners.Treaty of Nerchinsk outlined the boundaries between China and Russia. Used many intellectuals from foreign lands and respected them as well as allowing them to practice their own culture.
Peter the Great starts the Westernization of Russia, forcing nobles to cut off beard and symbolically submit to the government. Expanded greatly and included many tributary states. Focused on fur trade like the French
A more rational form of Confucianism by rejecting Buddhism and Daoism elements. It started in the Tang Dynasty and continued through Song. Provided great philosophy for the Chinese
Imperial palace from Ming to end of Qing. Classic Chinese structure but was built above where the old Mongol Palace was.
Many empires of Europe (Britain, France, Netherlands, etc.) begin developing Joint Stock Companies chartered by the state. These companies are located in various locations throughout the world. But later, they were privatized by share holders.
The long standing Constantinople finally sacked by the Ottomans in 1453. Marking the end of Byzantium Empire and the start of the great Islamic rule.
Conversion of Spain back to Catholicism. Very harsh and violent. Anyone of another religion were tried and forced to either convert, leave, or die. Many women were accused of witchcraft during this time for being anything other than Catholic.
Started when Columbus first arrived the Americas, bring biological species to the Americans and back to Europe. Then the process continued. Contrary to popular believes, the CE does not truly end when Columbus dies. It still continues and the end point is almost impossible to discern for minor exchange was hard to pinpoint
Treaty in which the Spanish and Portuguese agreed to divide the world into halves and allow each other to conquest within the halves. With the exceptions of Philippines and Brazil.
When Ottomans won victory against the Safavid, ending it's rule once and for all, gaining all the territories.
Began in 1517 in Germany by Martin Luther. Proposed that the Catholic Church was not fulfilling the necessary needs for the religion. The indulgence was wrong as well as the church being the middleman. Luther emphasized that salvation could be reached by faith and faith alone.
Where the Counter Reformation was called for by Pope Paul III
Following the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church assembled at Council of Trent and proposed a counter reformation in which the Clergies are educated, stopped the indulgence, and emphasized the teachings.
First permanent British colony in the North America. Accompanied natives with pleasant treatment and comfort and even survival.
Joint stock company located in India to facilitate spice and other trades of the South East Asia region and England. It was profitable for a while but soon lacked resources and became unprofitable.
Japanese translation more accurately known as Western Learning. When Japan closed off all European interactions except with the Dutch, they learned about West from the Dutch such as science and tech.
Major trade route in the Atlantic. Slaves from Africa to the Americas for plantation needs. Then the goods are transferred back to Europe for markets. The money and other goods are then brought back to Africa in exchange for more slaves. So on, so forth.
Start of the English Enlightenment where reason was emphasized. Many scientific and mathematical break through. Many philosophes of France and other states made important discoveries such as heliocentricity, physics, and others. Age of Art and Knowledge
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Meaning a migration of massive people. In this case, referring to the Trans Atlantic Slave trade.
Court official and a mariner admiral. Huge fleet of Junk that was sent to find tributary states. Later was canceled due to death of Emperor, lack of profit, and more attention needed at war front.
Prince of Portugal. Creates schools for sea voyage and cartography
German blacksmith who was also the inventor of the printing press as a mobile technology.
Ottoman that conquered Constantinople.
Portuguese explorer. The first European to sail around the southern most tip of Africa.
Italian explorer who was the "first" to find the Americas. Begins the exchange of goods and people and known as the Columbian Exchange.
Portuguese explorer that was the first to sail from Europe to India directly. Improving the Portuguese trade and economy.
First king of the Songhay empire. Ruled Muslims and Non-Muslims in Timbuktu region.
Ruler of Tenochtitlan of Aztec, killed by Cortez when invaded by the Spanish.
Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
Mathematician and astronomer of the Renaissance era. Proposed the theory of Heliocentric universe.
Spanish explorer and conquer. Crosses Panama to the Pacific and finds settlement of Santa Maria.
Spanish Conqueror who caused the fall of the Aztec Empire.
Portuguese explorer who sailed into the Pacific from the Atlantic and "he" circumnavigated the world.
Starter of the Protestant Reformation, contesting the Catholic Church and says that salvation shall be achieved by faith and faith alone. Calls out the Church for indulgence and being the middleman
Spanish Conqueror that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire
Founder of Safavid Empire.
Founder of the Jesuit Unit, aimed to spread the teachings and promotion of Christianity.
Huge expansion of the Ottoman Empire.Golden Age of art and culture.
Last Inca emperor before the Spanish conquest. Captured and executed.
Develops Calvinism, claiming that salvation was predestination and nothing you can do will change it.
Probably the best ruler of Mughal Empire. Religiously tolerant, creating a blend of most religions into one Divine Religion. Cancels the non-muslim tax to gain favor.
Founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Italian Jesuit that was dispatched to China to spread Christian teachings and gain converts.
Using and improving the telescope, he finds the moons of Jupiter and writing the Starry Messenger.
Social Contract - Absolutism FTW! One single monarch with absolute power and must done harsh things if the result is a stable nation
Social Contract - People should get together for the good of the state/nation, even if they must overthrow the government,
Ruler of France, Absolute Monarch stating that he was the State. Builds Versailles to keep nobles in check so he would remain as the absolute ruler.
Emperor of Qing Dynasty. Kangxi is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan to submit to Qing rule, blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River and expanded the empire in the northwest. He also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary.
French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state
6th Emperor of Qing, Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power until his death in 1799. Although his early years saw the continuation of an era of prosperity in China, his final years saw troubles at home and abroad converge on the Qing Empire.
Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism of French expression. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought.
Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment
Russian rulers who introduced Westernization to Russia, pushing and dragging Russia into the Early Modern Era