Political Change Across Time

McKenna Corey Bell 5

World Events

World War I

1914 - 1918

World War I began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which sparked war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. Soon, as other nations were drawn in by alliances, the war became a worldwide affair. The war ended with armistice and the Treaty of Versailles, which greatly disadvantaged Germany.

League of Nations

1919 - 1946

The League of Nations was instated after WWI. Its was an international body with the sole purpose of creating peace and settling international disputes.

World War II

1939 - 1945

World War II began when Adolf Hitler (chancellor of Germany) invaded Poland. It soon became a war between the Allies and the Axis Powers that ended with the first use of the atomic bomb in Japan.

Founding of United Nations

1945

The UN is the world's largest international peace organization. It replaced the League of Nations after World War II.

Cold War

1946 - 1991

The Cold War was a state of political and military tension between the Western and Eastern Bloc. Both parties possessed nuclear weaponry with the potential for massive amounts of destruction. It was characterized by constant threats of nuclear warfare, espionage, and massive amounts of tension between the United States and the USSR.

Africa

Unification of Egypt

3100 BCE

Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms about 3100 BC: Upper and Lower Egypt were then unified by Menes. They had previously been politically unified, however these attempts were short lived. Menes finally reunited them into a stable monarchy. This monarchy was divided into 42 administrative regions called nomes. Pharaohs had absolute power.

Nubian Kingdom of Meroe

300 BCE - 100 CE

After many centuries of conflict with Egypt, Nubia came to be centered upon the city of Meroe after Egypt was brought under foreign control. It was governed by an absolute monarch. Its end came when it was conquered by Axum.

North America

Cahokia

900 - 1250

Cahokia was North America's largest chiefdom of its time.

Iroquois Confederation Established

1142

The Iroquois Confederation was a peace organization between feuding Iroquois-speaking peoples. It expressed the values of limited government, social equality and personal freedom.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American Revolution allowed for the political separation of the British colonies in North America and their mother country. This conflict was born with the end of salutary neglect by Britain on its colonies. It accelerated the colonies' democratic tendencies.

Middle East

China

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 206 BCE

The Qin Dynasty reunited and redefined China after the Warring States Period. It was ruled with principles of Legalism. Its fall came with the rebellion that followed the death of its emperor.

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

After the civil war that followed the death of the emperor of the Qin Dynasty, the Han Dynasty restored political order. It was characterized by a strong central government. The first civil examination system was instated, allowing for the common man to have a place in government in rare cases.

Sui Dynasty Reunites China

589 CE - 618 CE

The Sui Dynasty united northern and southern China. Many other political reforms were also created, and its emperor ruled with Confuciansm as his philosophy. The dynasty fell quickly, but attributed to the success to later dynasties.

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

The Song Dynasty was ruled by a resilient central administration fueled by the examination system. It met much resistance by the Mongol nomads, and fell at their hands.

Mongol Rule

1279 - 1368

The Mongols ruled the Yuan Dynasty, and infiltrated the lands which they were previously foreigners to. The Mongols took the Chinese political systems, including its taxation and their postal system.

India

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BCE - 185 BCE

The Mauryan Empire was an impressive political structure that became India's first wide-scale political system. It was characterized by an efficient tax system and well-known emperors such as Ashoka.

Reign of Ashoka

268 BCE - 232 BCE

Ashoka was the emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty in India. He left his political edicts transcribed on stone throughout his kingdom. He sought a moralistic approach to governance.

Mughal Empire

1526 - 1707

The Mughal Empire established unified control over most of the Indian Peninsula. It gave this area a rare period of political unity and laid the foundation for future British colonization.

Mediterranean

Era of Greek City States

800 BCE - 336 BCE

The Greek city-states were distinctive due to the fact that they were not found as a cohesive empire, but rather in hundreds of smaller city-states. The empire's most distinctive feature was its concept of citizenship, which allowed popular participation in political life.

Reign of Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

Alexander the Great created a Greek empire from Egypt to India, defeating the great Persian Empire in the process.

Roman Empire

200 BCE - 200 CE

The Roman Empire began as a city, but overthrew its monarchy and developed a republic. It then began a 500-year empire building process, accompanied by another political change as an emperor was reinstated. The Pax Romana allowed for imperial Rome's greatest extent and authority. The western half of the empire collapsed due to over extension and rivalry among members of the ruling classes. The eastern half became the Byzantine Empire.

East Asia

Seventeen Article Constitution in Japan

604

The Seventeen Article Constitution was published in Japan by Shotoku Taishi, who founded Japan on the bureaucratic principles of China. It outlined Japan's political system, establishing a foundation for taxation systems, law codes, and government administrations for the Japanese state.

Europe

Publication of Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto

1848

The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx was the most significant expression of the principles of modern socialism.

Indian National Congress Established

1885

The INC gave expression to the idea that British ruled India was its own nation, giving birth to Indian nationalism. It gave Indians a wider range of opportunities in a colonial system.

South America

Mayan Civilization

300 CE - 800 CE

The Mayan civilization was one of Mesoamerica's largest of its time. It made great advances as an empire, expanding its influence through Mesoamerica. Its fall is its most intriguing characteristic. All of the Maya's well constructed and ruled cities mysteriously disappeared, leaving historians to wonder why such an advanced and organized culture suddenly vanished.

Southeast Asia